# 90 (number)

90 (ninety) is the natural number following 89 and preceding 91.

 ← 89 90 91 →
Cardinalninety
Ordinal90th
(ninetieth)
Factorization2 × 32 × 5
Divisors1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 18, 30, 45, 90
Greek numeralϞ´
Roman numeralXC
Binary10110102
Ternary101003
Senary2306
Octal1328
Duodecimal7612
ArmenianՂ
Hebrewצ / ץ
Babylonian numeral𒐕𒌍
Egyptian hieroglyph𓎎

In the English language, the numbers 90 and 19 are often confused, as they sound very similar. When carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed: 19 /naɪnˈtiːn/ vs 90 /ˈnaɪnti/. However, in dates such as 1999, and when contrasting numbers in the teens and when counting, such as 17, 18, 19, the stress shifts to the first syllable: 19 /ˈnaɪntiːn/.

## In mathematics

Ninety is a pronic number as it is the product of 9 and 10,[1] and along with 12 and 56, one of only a few pronic numbers whose digits in decimal are also successive. 90 is divisible by the sum of its base-ten digits, which makes it the thirty-second Harshad number.[2]

The twelfth triangular number, 78, is the only number to have an aliquot sum equal to 90, aside from the square of the twenty-fourth prime, 892 (which is centered octagonal).[3][4] On the other hand, 90 is the only number to have an aliquot sum of 144 = 122. 90 is the tenth and largest number to hold an Euler totient value of 24;[5] no number has a totient that is 90, which makes it the eleventh nontotient (with 50 the fifth).[6] Only three numbers have a set of divisors that generate a sum equal to 90, they are 40, 58 and 89.[7] 90 is also the twentieth abundant[8] and highly abundant[9] number (with 20 the first primitive abundant number and 70 the second).[10]

90 is the third unitary perfect number (after 6 and 60), since it is the sum of its unitary divisors excluding itself,[11] and because it is equal to the sum of a subset of its divisors, it is also the twenty-first semiperfect number.[12]

90 can be expressed as the sum of distinct non-zero squares in six ways, more than any smaller number (see image):[13]

${\displaystyle (9^{2}+3^{2}),(8^{2}+5^{2}+1^{2}),(7^{2}+5^{2}+4^{2}),(8^{2}+4^{2}+3^{2}+1^{2}),(7^{2}+6^{2}+2^{2}+1^{2}),(6^{2}+5^{2}+4^{2}+3^{2}+2^{2}).}$

90 is equal to the fifth sum of non-triangular numbers, respectively between the fifth and sixth triangular numbers, 15 and 21 (equivalently 16 + 17 ... + 20).[14] It is also twice 45, which is the ninth triangular number.

The members of the first prime sextuplet (7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23) generate a sum equal to 90, and the difference between respective members of the first and second prime sextuplets is also 90, where the second prime sextuplet is (97, 101, 103, 107, 109, 113).[15][16] The last member of the second prime sextuplet, 113, is the 30th prime number. Since prime sextuplets are formed from prime members of lower order prime k-tuples, 90 is also a record maximal gap between various smaller pairs of prime k-tuples (which include quintuplets, quadruplets, and triplets).[a]

90 is a Stirling number of the second kind ${\displaystyle S(n,k)}$  from a ${\displaystyle n}$  of ${\displaystyle 6}$  and a ${\displaystyle k}$  of ${\displaystyle 3}$ , as it is the number of ways of dividing a set of six objects into three non empty subsets.[17] It is also a Perrin number from a sum of 39 and 51.[18][19]

The maximal number of pieces that can be obtained by cutting an annulus with twelve cuts is 90, as is the number of 12-dimensional polyominoes that are prime.[20]

An angle measuring 90 degrees is called a right angle.[21] In normal space, the interior angles of a rectangle measure 90 degrees each, while in a right triangle, the angle opposing the hypotenuse measures 90 degrees, with the other two angles adding up to 90 for a total of 180 degrees.

### Icosahedral symmetry

The rhombic enneacontahedron is a zonohedron with a total of 90 rhombic faces: 60 broad rhombi akin to those in the rhombic dodecahedron with diagonals in ${\displaystyle 1:{\sqrt {2}}}$  ratio, and another 30 slim rhombi with diagonals in ${\displaystyle 1:\varphi ^{2}}$  golden ratio. The obtuse angle of the broad rhombic faces is also the dihedral angle of a regular icosahedron, with the obtuse angle in the faces of golden rhombi equal to the dihedral angle of a regular octahedron and the tetrahedral vertex-center-vertex angle, which is also the angle between Plateau borders: ${\displaystyle 109.471}$ °. It is the dual polyhedron to the rectified truncated icosahedron, a near-miss Johnson solid. On the other hand, the final stellation of the icosahedron has 90 edges. It also has 92 vertices like the rhombic enneacontahedron, when interpreted as a simple polyhedron.

The truncated dodecahedron and truncated icosahedron both have 90 edges. A further four uniform star polyhedra (U37, U55, U58, U66) and four uniform compound polyhedra (UC32, UC34, UC36, UC55) contain 90 edges or vertices.

The self-dual Witting polytope contains ninety van Oss polytopes such that sections by the common plane of two non-orthogonal hyperplanes of symmetry passing through the center yield complex ${\displaystyle _{3}\{4\}_{3}}$  Möbius–Kantor polygons.[22] The root vectors of simple Lie group E8 are represented by the vertex arrangement of the ${\displaystyle 4_{21}}$  polytope, which shares 240 vertices with the Witting polytope in four-dimensional complex space. By Coxeter, the incidence matrix configuration of the Witting polytope can be represented as:

${\displaystyle \left[{\begin{smallmatrix}40&9&12\\4&90&4\\12&9&40\end{smallmatrix}}\right]}$  or ${\displaystyle \left[{\begin{smallmatrix}40&12&12\\2&240&2\\12&12&40\end{smallmatrix}}\right].}$

This Witting configuration when reflected under the finite space ${\displaystyle \operatorname {PG} {(3,2^{2})}}$  splits into ${\displaystyle 85=45+40}$  points and planes, alongside ${\displaystyle 27+90+240=357}$  lines.[22]

Whereas the rhombic enneacontahedron is the zonohedrification of the regular dodecahedron,[23] a honeycomb of Witting polytopes holds vertices isomorphic to the ${\displaystyle \mathrm {E} _{8}}$  lattice, whose symmetries can be traced back to the regular icosahedron via the icosian ring.[24]

## In science

Ninety is:

• the atomic number of thorium, an actinide. As an atomic weight, 90 identifies an isotope of strontium, a by-product of nuclear reactions including fallout. It contaminates milk.
• the latitude in degrees of the North and the South geographical poles.

## References

1. ^ 90 is the record gap between the first pair of prime quintuplets of the form (p, p+2, p+6, p+8, p+12) (A201073), while 90 is a record between the second and third prime quintuplets that have the form (p, p+4, p+6, p+10, p+12) (A201062). Regarding prime quadruplets, 90 is the gap record between the second and third set of quadruplets (A113404). Prime triplets of the form (p, p+4, p+6) have a third record maximal gap of 90 between the second and ninth triplets (A201596), and while there is no record gap of 90 for prime triplets of the form (p, p+2, p+6), the first and third record gaps are of 6 and 60 (A201598), which are also unitary perfect numbers like 90 (A002827).
1. ^ "Sloane's A002378 : Oblong (or promic, pronic, or heteromecic) numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
2. ^ "Sloane's A005349 : Niven (or Harshad) numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
3. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A001065 (Sum of proper divisors (or aliquot parts) of n: sum of divisors of n that are less than n.)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-06-30.
4. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A016754 (Centered octagonal numbers.)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-07-02.
5. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000010". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2024-01-16.
6. ^ "Sloane's A005277 : Nontotients". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
7. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000203 (...the sum of the divisors of n.)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-06-30.
8. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A005101 (Abundant numbers (sum of divisors of m exceeds 2m).)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
9. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A002093 (Highly abundant numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
10. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A071395 (Primitive abundant numbers (abundant numbers all of whose proper divisors are deficient numbers).)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
11. ^ "Sloane's A002827 : Unitary perfect numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
12. ^ "Sloane's A005835 : Pseudoperfect (or semiperfect) numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
13. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A033461 (Number of partitions of n into distinct squares.)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
14. ^
15. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A022008 (Initial member of prime sextuples (p, p+4, p+6, p+10, p+12, p+16).)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-06-11.
16. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A200503 (Record (maximal) gaps between prime sextuplets (p, p+4, p+6, p+10, p+12, p+16).)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2023-06-23.
17. ^ "Sloane's A008277 :Triangle of Stirling numbers of the second kind". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2021-12-24.
18. ^ "Sloane's A001608 : Perrin sequence". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-29.
19. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000217 (Triangular numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2022-11-01.
20. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000096 (a(n) equal to n*(n+3)/2.)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
21. ^ Friedman, Erich (n.d.). "What's Special About This Number?". www.stetson.edu. Archived from the original on February 23, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
22. ^ a b Coxeter, Harold Scott MacDonald (1974). Regular Complex Polytopes (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-52-1201254.
23. ^ Hart, George W. "Zonohedrification". Virtual Polyhedra (The Encyclopedia of Polyhedra). Retrieved 2023-06-23.
24. ^ Baez, John C. (2018). "From the Icosahedron to E8". London Math. Soc. Newsletter. 476. London, UK: London Mathematical Society: 18–23. arXiv:1712.06436. Bibcode:2017arXiv171206436B. MR 3792329. S2CID 119151549. Zbl 1476.51020.