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A display of uniform polyhedra at the Science Museum in London
The small snub icosicosidodecahedron is a uniform star polyhedron, with vertex figure 35.5/2

In geometry, a uniform star polyhedron is a self-intersecting uniform polyhedron. They are also sometimes called nonconvex polyhedra to imply self-intersecting. Each polyhedron can contain either star polygon faces, star polygon vertex figures or both.

The complete set of 57 nonprismatic uniform star polyhedra includes the 4 regular ones, called the Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra, 5 quasiregular ones, and 48 semiregular ones.

There are also two infinite sets of uniform star prisms and uniform star antiprisms.

Just as (nondegenerate) star polygons (which have Polygon density greater than 1) correspond to circular polygons with overlapping tiles, star polyhedra that do not pass through the center have polytope density greater than 1, and correspond to spherical polyhedra with overlapping tiles; there are 47 nonprismatic such uniform star polyhedra. The remaining 10 nonprismatic uniform star polyhedra, those that pass through the center, are the hemipolyhedra as well as Miller's monster, and do not have well-defined densities.

The nonconvex forms are constructed from Schwarz triangles.

All the uniform polyhedra are listed below by their symmetry groups and subgrouped by their vertex arrangements.

Regular polyhedra are labeled by their Schläfli symbol. Other nonregular uniform polyhedra are listed with their vertex configuration or their Uniform polyhedron index U(1-80).

Note: For nonconvex forms below an additional descriptor Nonuniform is used when the convex hull vertex arrangement has same topology as one of these, but has nonregular faces. For example an nonuniform cantellated form may have rectangles created in place of the edges rather than squares.

Contents

Dihedral symmetryEdit

Tetrahedral symmetryEdit

 
(3 3 2) triangles on sphere

There is one nonconvex form, the tetrahemihexahedron which has tetrahedral symmetry (with fundamental domain Möbius triangle (3 3 2)).

There are two Schwarz triangles that generate unique nonconvex uniform polyhedra: one right triangle (3/2 3 2), and one general triangle (3/2 3 3). The general triangle (3/2 3 3) generates the octahemioctahedron which is given further on with its full octahedral symmetry.

Vertex arrangement
(Convex hull)
Nonconvex forms
 
Tetrahedron
 
 
Rectified tetrahedron
Octahedron
 
(4.3/2.4.3)
3/2 3 | 2
 
Truncated tetrahedron
 
 
Cantellated tetrahedron
(Cuboctahedron)
 
 
Omnitruncated tetrahedron
(Truncated octahedron)
 
 
Snub tetrahedron
(Icosahedron)
 

Octahedral symmetryEdit

 
(4 3 2) triangles on sphere

There are 8 convex forms, and 10 nonconvex forms with octahedral symmetry (with fundamental domain Möbius triangle (4 3 2)).

There are four Schwarz triangles that generate nonconvex forms, two right triangles (3/2 4 2), and (4/3 3 2), and two general triangles: (4/3 4 3), (3/2 4 4).

Vertex arrangement
(Convex hull)
Nonconvex forms
 
Cube
 
 
Octahedron
 
 
Cuboctahedron
 
(6.4/3.6.4)
4/3 4 | 3
 
(6.3/2.6.3)
3/2 3 | 3
 
Truncated cube
 
(4.8/3.4/3.8/5)
2 4/3 (3/2 4/2) |
 
(8/3.3.8/3.4)
3 4 | 4/3
 
(4.3/2.4.4)
3/2 4 | 2
 
Truncated octahedron
 
 
Rhombicuboctahedron
 
(4.8.4/3.8)
2 4 (3/2 4/2) |
 
(8.3/2.8.4)
3/2 4 | 4
 
(8/3.8/3.3)
2 3 | 4/3
 
Nonuniform
truncated cuboctahedron
 
(4.6.8/3)
2 3 4/3 |
 
Nonuniform
truncated cuboctahedron
 
(8/3.6.8)
3 4 4/3 |
 
Snub cube
 

Icosahedral symmetryEdit

 
(5 3 2) triangles on sphere

There are 8 convex forms and 46 nonconvex forms with icosahedral symmetry (with fundamental domain Möbius triangle (5 3 2)). (or 47 nonconvex forms if Skilling's figure is included). Some of the nonconvex snub forms have reflective vertex symmetry.

Vertex arrangement
(Convex hull)
Nonconvex forms
 
Icosahedron
 
{5,5/2}
 
{5/2,5}
 
{3,5/2}
 
Nonuniform
truncated icosahedron
2 5 |3
 
U37
2 5/2 | 5
 
U61
5/2 3 | 5/3
 
U67
5/3 3 | 2
 
U73
2 5/3 (3/2 5/4) |
 
Nonuniform
truncated icosahedron
2 5 |3
 
U38
5/2 5 | 2
 
U44
5/3 5 | 3
 
U56
2 3 (5/4 5/2) |
 
Nonuniform
truncated icosahedron
2 5 |3
 
U32
| 5/2 3 3
 
Icosidodecahedron
2 | 3 5
 
U49
3/2 3 | 5
 
U51
5/4 5 | 5
 
U54
2 | 3 5/2
 
U70
5/3 5/2 | 5/3
 
U71
3 3 | 5/3
 
U36
2 | 5 5/2
 
U62
5/3 5/2 | 3
 
U65
5/4 5 | 3
 
truncated dodecahedron
2 3 | 5
 
U42
 
U48
 
U63
 
Nonuniform
truncated dodecahedron
 
U72
 
Dodecahedron
 
{5/2,3}
 
U30
 
U41
 
U47
 
Rhombicosidodecahedron
 
U33
 
U39
 
U58
 
Nonuniform
rhombicosidodecahedron
 
U55
 
Nonuniform
rhombicosidodecahedron
 
U31
 
U43
 
U50
 
U66
 
Nonuniform
rhombicosidodecahedron
 
U75
 
U64
 
Skilling's figure
(see below)
 
Nonuniform
truncated icosidodecahedron
 
U45
 
Nonuniform
truncated icosidodecahedron
 
U59
 
Nonuniform
truncated icosidodecahedron
 
U68
 
Nonuniform
snub dodecahedron
 
U40
 
U46
 
U57
 
U69
 
U60
 
U74

Degenerate casesEdit

Coxeter identified a number of degenerate star polyhedra by the Wythoff construction method, which contain overlapping edges or vertices. These degenerate forms include:

Skilling's figureEdit

One further nonconvex degenerate polyhedron is the Great disnub dirhombidodecahedron, also known as Skilling's figure, which is vertex-uniform, but has pairs of edges which coincide in space such that four faces meet at some edges. It is counted as a degenerate uniform polyhedron rather than a uniform polyhedron because of its double edges. It has Ih symmetry.

 

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Coxeter, H. S. M. (May 13, 1954). "Uniform Polyhedra". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 246 (916): 401–450. doi:10.1098/rsta.1954.0003.
  • Wenninger, Magnus (1974). Polyhedron Models. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09859-9. OCLC 1738087.
  • Brückner, M. Vielecke und vielflache. Theorie und geschichte.. Leipzig, Germany: Teubner, 1900. [1]
  • Sopov, S. P. (1970), "A proof of the completeness on the list of elementary homogeneous polyhedra", Ukrainskiui Geometricheskiui Sbornik (8): 139–156, MR 0326550
  • Skilling, J. (1975), "The complete set of uniform polyhedra", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 278: 111–135, doi:10.1098/rsta.1975.0022, ISSN 0080-4614, JSTOR 74475, MR 0365333
  • Har'El, Z. Uniform Solution for Uniform Polyhedra., Geometriae Dedicata 47, 57-110, 1993. Zvi Har’El, Kaleido software, Images, dual images
  • Mäder, R. E. Uniform Polyhedra. Mathematica J. 3, 48-57, 1993. [2]
  • Messer, Peter W. Closed-Form Expressions for Uniform Polyhedra and Their Duals., Discrete & Computational Geometry 27:353-375 (2002).
  • Klitzing, Richard. "3D uniform polyhedra".

External linksEdit