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The divisors of 10 illustrated with Cuisenaire rods: 1, 2, 5, and 10

In mathematics, a divisor of an integer , also called a factor of , is an integer that may be multiplied by some integer to produce . In this case, one also says that is a multiple of An integer is divisible by another integer if is a divisor of ; this implies dividing by leaves no remainder.

Contents

DefinitionEdit

Two versions of the definition of a divisor are commonplace:

  • If   and   are integers, and more generally, elements of an integral domain, it is said that   divides  ,   is a divisor of  , or   is a multiple of  , and this is written as
     
if there exists an integer  , or an element   of the integral domain, such that  .[1] Under this definition, the statement   holds for every  .
  • As before, but with the additional constraint  .[2] Under this definition, the statement   does not hold for  .

In the remainder of this article, which definition is applied is indicated where this is significant.

GeneralEdit

Divisors can be negative as well as positive, although sometimes the term is restricted to positive divisors. For example, there are six divisors of 4; they are 1, 2, 4, −1, −2, and −4, but only the positive ones (1, 2, and 4) would usually be mentioned.

1 and −1 divide (are divisors of) every integer. Every integer (and its negation) is a divisor of itself.[3] Every integer is a divisor of 0.[4] Integers divisible by 2 are called even, and integers not divisible by 2 are called odd.

1, −1, n and −n are known as the trivial divisors of n. A divisor of n that is not a trivial divisor is known as a non-trivial divisor. A non-zero integer with at least one non-trivial divisor is known as a composite number, while the units −1 and 1 and prime numbers have no non-trivial divisors.

There are divisibility rules that allow one to recognize certain divisors of a number from the number's digits.

The generalization can be said to be the concept of divisibility in any integral domain.

ExamplesEdit

 
Plot of the number of divisors of integers from 1 to 1000. Prime numbers have exactly 2 divisors, and highly composite numbers are in bold.
  • 7 is a divisor of 42 because  , so we can say  . It can also be said that 42 is divisible by 7, 42 is a multiple of 7, 7 divides 42, or 7 is a factor of 42.
  • The non-trivial divisors of 6 are 2, −2, 3, −3.
  • The positive divisors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 42.
  •  , because  .
  • The set of all positive divisors of 60,  , partially ordered by divisibility, has the Hasse diagram:

Further notions and factsEdit

There are some elementary rules:

  • If   and  , then  , i.e. divisibility is a transitive relation.
  • If   and  , then   or  .
  • If   and  , then   holds, as does  .[5] However, if   and  , then   does not always hold (e.g.   and   but 5 does not divide 6).

If  , and gcd , then  . This is called Euclid's lemma.

If   is a prime number and   then   or  .

A positive divisor of   which is different from   is called a proper divisor or an aliquot part of  . A number that does not evenly divide   but leaves a remainder is called an aliquant part of  .

An integer   whose only proper divisor is 1 is called a prime number. Equivalently, a prime number is a positive integer that has exactly two positive factors: 1 and itself.

Any positive divisor of   is a product of prime divisors of   raised to some power. This is a consequence of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic.

A number   is said to be perfect if it equals the sum of its proper divisors, deficient if the sum of its proper divisors is less than  , and abundant if this sum exceeds  .

The total number of positive divisors of   is a multiplicative function  , meaning that when two numbers   and   are relatively prime, then  . For instance,  ; the eight divisors of 42 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21 and 42. However, the number of positive divisors is not a totally multiplicative function: if the two numbers   and   share a common divisor, then it might not be true that  . The sum of the positive divisors of   is another multiplicative function   (e.g.  ). Both of these functions are examples of divisor functions.

If the prime factorization of   is given by

 

then the number of positive divisors of   is

 

and each of the divisors has the form

 

where   for each  

For every natural  ,  .

Also,[6]

 

where   is Euler–Mascheroni constant. One interpretation of this result is that a randomly chosen positive integer n has an expected number of divisors of about  .

In abstract algebraEdit

Given the definition for which   holds, the relation of divisibility turns the set   of non-negative integers into a partially ordered set: a complete distributive lattice. The largest element of this lattice is 0 and the smallest is 1. The meet operation is given by the greatest common divisor and the join operation by the least common multiple. This lattice is isomorphic to the dual of the lattice of subgroups of the infinite cyclic group  .

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ for instance, Sims 1984, p. 42 or Durbin 1992, p. 61
  2. ^ Herstein 1986, p. 26
  3. ^ This statement either requires 0|0 or needs to be restricted to nonzero integers.
  4. ^ This statement either requires 0|0 or needs to be restricted to nonzero integers.
  5. ^  . Similarly,  
  6. ^ Hardy, G. H.; Wright, E. M. (April 17, 1980). An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers. Oxford University Press. p. 264. ISBN 0-19-853171-0.

ReferencesEdit