Springer Science+Business Media

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Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.[1]

Springer Science+Business Media
Founded10 May 1842; 182 years ago (1842-05-10) (as Springer-Verlag)
FounderJulius Springer
Country of originGermany
Headquarters locationBerlin/Heidelberg, Germany
Nonfiction topicsScience, technology, medicine, business, transport and architecture
Owner(s)Springer Nature
Official websitewww.springer.com

Originally founded in 1842 in Berlin, it expanded internationally in the 1960s, and through mergers in the 1990s and a sale to venture capitalists it fused with Wolters Kluwer and eventually became part of Springer Nature in 2015. Springer has major offices in Berlin, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, and New York City.



Julius Springer founded Springer-Verlag in Berlin in 1842 and his son Ferdinand Springer grew it from a small firm of 4 employees into Germany's then second-largest academic publisher with 65 staff in 1872.[2][3] In 1964, Springer expanded its business internationally, opening an office in New York City. Offices in Tokyo, Paris, Milan, Hong Kong, and Delhi soon[when?] followed.[citation needed]

In 1999, the academic publishing company BertelsmannSpringer was formed after the media and entertainment company Bertelsmann bought a majority stake in Springer-Verlag.[2][4] In 2003, the British investment groups Cinven and Candover bought BertelsmannSpringer from Bertelsmann.[4] They merged the company in 2004 with the Dutch publisher Kluwer Academic Publishers (successor of D. Reidel, Dr. W. Junk, Plenum Publishers, most of Chapman & Hall), and Baltzer Science Publishers) which they bought from Wolters Kluwer in 2002,[5] to form Springer Science+Business Media.

In 2006, Springer acquired Humana Press.[6]

Springer acquired the open-access publisher BioMed Central in October 2008 for an undisclosed amount.[7]

In 2009, Cinven and Candover sold Springer to two private equity firms, EQT AB and Government of Singapore Investment Corporation, confirmed in February 2010 after the competition authorities in the US and in Europe approved the transfer.[8][9]

In 2011, Springer acquired Pharma Marketing and Publishing Services (MPS) from Wolters Kluwer.[10]

In 2013, the London-based private equity firm BC Partners acquired a majority stake in Springer from EQT and GIC for $4.4 billion.[11]

In January 2015, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group / Nature Publishing Group and Springer Science+Business Media announced a merger.[12] in May 2015 they concluded the transaction and formed a new joint venture company, Springer Nature with Holtzbrinck in the majority 53% share and BC Partners retaining 47% interest in the company.[13]



In 1996, Springer launched electronic book and journal content on its SpringerLink site.[14]

SpringerImages was launched in 2008. In 2009, SpringerMaterials, a platform for accessing the Landolt-Börnstein database of research and information on materials and their properties, was launched.[15]

AuthorMapper is a free online tool for visualizing scientific research that enables document discovery based on author locations and geographic maps, helping users explore patterns in scientific research, identify literature trends, discover collaborative relationships, and locate experts in several scientific/medical fields.[16]

Springer Protocols contained a collection of laboratory protocols, recipes that provide step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments, which in 2018 was made available in SpringerLink instead.[17]

Book publications include major reference works, textbooks, monographs and book series; more than 168,000 titles are available as e-books in 24 subject collections.[18]

Open access


Springer is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.[19] For some of its journals, Springer does not require its authors to transfer their copyrights, and allows them to decide whether their articles are published under an open-access license or in the traditional restricted licence model.[20] While open-access publishing typically requires the author to pay a fee for copyright retention, this fee is sometimes covered by a third party. For example, a national institution in Poland allows authors to publish in open-access journals without incurring any personal cost but using public funds.[21]



In 1938, Springer-Verlag was pressed to apply Nazi principles on the journal Zentralblatt MATH. Tullio Levi-Civita, who was Jewish, was forced out from the editorial board, and Otto Neugebauer resigned in protest along with most of the rest of the board.[22]

In 2014, it was revealed that 16 papers in conference proceedings published by Springer had been computer-generated using SCIgen. Springer subsequently retracted all papers from these proceedings. IEEE had removed more than 100 fake papers from its conference proceedings.[23]

In 2015, Springer retracted 64 papers from 10 of its journals it had published after a fraudulent peer review process was uncovered.[24]

Manipulation of bibliometrics


According to Goodhart's law and concerned academics like the signatories of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment, commercial academic publishers benefit from manipulation of bibliometrics and scientometrics like the journal impact factor, which is often used as a proxy of prestige and can influence revenues, including public subsidies in the form of subscriptions and free work from academics.[25]

Seven Springer Nature journals, which exhibited unusual levels of self-citation, had their journal impact factor of 2019 suspended from Journal Citation Reports in 2020, a sanction which hit 34 journals in total.[26]

Selected imprints


Selected publications


See also



  1. ^ "648808Z Profile & Executives – Springer Science+Business Media GmbH". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on Nov 4, 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  2. ^ a b "The Springer story (1842-2017)". Springer. Transition and restructuring (1999-2007). Archived from the original on Jun 14, 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  3. ^ "Chronology Archived 2020-04-14 at the Wayback Machine". Springer Science+Business Media.[dead link]
  4. ^ a b Poynder, Richard. "BertelsmannSpringer is Sold to Private Equity Firms". Information Today. May 27, 2003.
  5. ^ "Kluwer Academic Publishers Sold to Venture Capitalists". Infotoday.com. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
  6. ^ "Springer's Humana Press launches new Web site". Press releases. Springer-Verlag. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  7. ^ "Springer to acquire BioMed Central Group". Press releases. Springer-Verlag. 7 October 2008. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  8. ^ Howley, Victoria; Walsh, Tessa (December 11, 2009). "EQT, Singapore fund snap up Springer Media". Reuters.
  9. ^ "Springer Science: turning a page". The Financial Times. June 19, 2013. Archived from the original on June 22, 2022. Retrieved June 22, 2022.
  10. ^ DiStefano, Joseph N. (September 17, 2013). "Medical publisher to close Ambler office, move workers". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A14. Retrieved June 23, 2018 – via Newspapers.com (Publisher Extra).
  11. ^ Heiskanen, Ville (June 19, 2013). "BC Partners to Buy Springer Science for $4.4 Billion". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
  12. ^ "Holtzbrinck Publishing Group and BC Partners Announce Agreement to Merge Majority of MacMillan Science and Education with Springer Science+Business Media". macmillan.com. 15 January 2015.
  13. ^ Caroline Carpenter (May 6, 2015). "Completed merger forms 'Springer Nature'". The Bookseller. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  14. ^ "Happy Birthday, SpringerLink!". Press releases. Springer. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  15. ^ "SpringerMaterials Information". Springer Support. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  16. ^ "Springer.com, Palgrave.com, and Apress.com are changing". Springer. Archived from the original on Jun 16, 2022. Retrieved May 29, 2022.
  17. ^ "SpringerProtocols.com platform deactivation". Springer Nature. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  18. ^ "FEDLINK Services Directory: Springer Science & Business Media, Inc". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 2023-01-10.
  19. ^ "Springer Nature". Member Record. OASPA. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  20. ^ "Springer Open Choice". Springer.com. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
  21. ^ "Springer Open Choice for Polish Institutions". Springer.com. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
  22. ^ "Otto Neugebauer - Biography". Maths History. Retrieved 2022-06-18.
  23. ^ Van Noorden, Richard (24 February 2014). "Publishers withdraw more than 120 gibberish papers". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14763. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  24. ^ Kaplan, Sarah (August 18, 2015). "Major publisher retracts 64 scientific papers in fake peer review outbreak". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
  25. ^ McKiernan, Erin C.; Schimanski, Lesley A.; Muñoz Nieves, Carol; Matthias, Lisa; Niles, Meredith T.; Alperin, Juan P. (2019). "Use of the Journal Impact Factor in academic review, promotion, and tenure evaluations". eLife. 8. doi:10.7554/eLife.47338. PMC 6668985. PMID 31364991.
  26. ^ Oransky, Ivan (June 29, 2020). "Major indexing service sounds alarm on self-citations by nearly 50 journals". Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  27. ^ Brochu, Nicole (24 December 2012). "Injection shown to reverse stroke, brain injuries". Health. Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Journal Publishing Company. p. C4. Retrieved 23 June 2018 – via Newspapers.com (Publisher Extra). ...an article produced by Adis' parent company, Springer Science+Business Media.
  28. ^ Springer Praxis Books. Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved May 1, 2015.