Open main menu

2019 Chilean protests

  (Redirected from 2019 Santiago protests)

The 2019 Chilean protests are ongoing civil protests throughout Chile in response to a raise in the Santiago Metro's subway fare, the increased cost of living, privatisation and inequality prevalent in the country.[10][11][12][13][14]

2019 Chilean protests
Marcha Mas Grande De Chile 2019 Plaza Baquedano Drone.jpg
Protests in Plaza Baquedano, downtown Santiago
Date14 October 2019 – ongoing[1]
(30 days)
Location
Caused by
  • Rise in public transport fares[2][3]
  • Rising cost of living
  • Income inequality
  • Privatisation
  • Corruption scandals
Goals
  • Reversal of public transport fares
  • Reforms in education, healthcare, and pension systems
  • Better wages, minimum wage increase
  • Resignation of President Sebastián Piñera
  • Draft a new constitution
MethodsProtests, fare evasion, civil disobedience, rioting, public and private property damage
StatusOngoing
Parties to the civil conflict
Flag of the 2019 Chilean protests.svg Protesters
Lead figures
Number
Over 3.7 million protesters[6][7]
Casualties
Death(s)21 reported[8]
Injuries2,429+
Detained~5,400[9]

The protests began in Chile's capital, Santiago, as a coordinated fare evasion campaign by secondary school students which led to spontaneous takeovers of the city's main train stations and open confrontations with the Chilean Police. On 18 October, the situation escalated as organized bands of protesters rose in rebellion across the city, seizing many stations of the Santiago Metro network (part of Red) and disabling them with extensive infrastructure damage, ultimately disabling the network in its entirety. In total, 81 stations have been damaged, with 17 burned down.[15][16] On the same day, President of Chile Sebastián Piñera announced a state of emergency, authorizing the deployment of Chilean Army forces across the main regions to enforce order and prevent the destruction of public property, and invoked before the courts the Ley de Seguridad del Estado ("State Security Law") against dozens of detainees. A curfew was declared on 19 October in the Greater Santiago area.[17][18]

Protests and riots have expanded to other cities, including Concepción, San Antonio, and Valparaíso.[19] The state of emergency was extended to the Concepción Province, all Valparaíso Region (except Easter Island and Juan Fernández Archipelago) and the cities of Antofagasta, Coquimbo, Iquique, La Serena, Rancagua, Valdivia, Osorno, and Puerto Montt. The protests have been considered the "worst civil unrest" having occurred in Chile since the end of Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship due to the scale of damage to public infrastructure, the number of protesters, and the measures taken by the government.[20]

On 25 October, over a million people took to the streets throughout Chile to protest against President Piñera, demanding his resignation.[21][22] As of 26 October, 19 people have died, nearly 2,500 have been injured, and 2,840 have been arrested.[22][8] Human rights organisations have received several reports of violations conducted against protesters by security forces, including torture, sexual abuse and rape.[23][24][25] On 28 October, President Piñera changed eight ministries of his cabinet in response to the unrest, dismissing his Interior Minister Andrés Chadwick.[26][27]

Background

Transport fares

 
Fee, adjusted by inflation, of public transportation in Santiago, between 31 January 2012 and 6 October 2019, before the last increase was revoked

The price of public transport in Greater Santiago is determined by the Panel of Public Transport Experts (Spanish: Panel de Expertos del Transporte Público), which uses an automatic calculation formula to adjust fares on a monthly basis. The Ministry of Transportation and Telecommunications is advised by the panel and must be notified of any price changes.[28]

On 1 October 2019, the Panel determined the quarterly adjustment of tariffs for the public transport system of the Province of Santiago and the communes of San Bernardo and Puente Alto. They decided that a fare hike of 10 Chilean pesos for buses and 30 pesos for the Santiago Metro and Metrotrén at peak hours (a rise of about 4%), as well as a fare decrease of 30 pesos at off-peak hours, was necessary.[29] The increase was justified by the panel due to increase of the rate index, which is subject to variations in the value of fuel, the value of the US dollar, the value of the euro, the cost of labor, and the consumer price index among other variables, such that the costs to the subway have risen.[30] The fare change was scheduled to take effect from 6 October.[31]

Some specialists, such as former Minister Paola Tapia, have indicated that there are other factors that explain the rise. Among these factors would be the purchase without tender of a new fleet of electric buses for the Metropolitan Mobility Network and the suspension of the new tender for bus services, both decisions made by the administration of Minister Gloria Hutt.[32]

In addition, there is criticism that rail transit fares in Santiago are the second highest in Latin America (only surpassed by São Paulo).[33] In relative terms, the average monthly cost per person for the city's public transport is equivalent to 13.8% of the minimum wage, well above other cities such as Buenos Aires, Mexico City or Lima, where it does not exceed 10%.[34]

Poverty, inequality and cost of living

According to Jose Miguel Ahumada, a political economist and associate professor at the University of Chile, the country is "one of the most unequal countries in Latin America".[11] As described by The Washington Post, while the last three decades of neoliberal policies made Chile "one of South America’s wealthiest countries, with inflation under control and easy access to credit", they also "created stark economic disparities and strapped many Chileans into debt".[35] The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) states, that 1% of the population in Chile controls 26.5% of the country's wealth, while 50% of low-income households access 2.1%. Additionally, according to National Statistics Institute of Chile, while the minimum wage in Chile is 301,000 pesos, half of the workers in that country receive a salary equal to or less than 400,000 pesos.[36]

Protesters interviewed by Reuters said they were struggling to make ends meet because of the high costs of part-privatized education and health systems, rents and utilities, and a privatized pension system has been widely rejected by Chileans because of its low and often delayed payouts.[13]

October protests

October protests
One of the 16 public transport buses that were burned on the night of 18 October
Carabineros Special Forces watching protests on 19 October

The protests began on Monday, 7 October, as secondary-school students began an orchestrated campaign of fare dodging on the Santiago Metro. In response, the Metro authority began controlling access to several stations.[37] Under the slogan ¡Evade! ("evade"), the fare-dodging campaign continued and grew over the remainder of that week and into the next. On Monday, 14 October, several stations on Line 5 were closed in the afternoon after violent incidents were reported.[38] On 15 October, a major clash between students and police occurred at Santa Ana station and four arrests were made;[39] in the afternoon, a group of protesters kicked down a metal gate at Plaza de Armas station in downtown Santiago, and stations on Lines 1, 3 and 5 were closed to passengers as security was stepped up.[40] Confrontations continued and expanded over the following days, with turnstiles and ticket machines being destroyed at San Joaquín station on 17 October and four stations closed in the evening.[41] At that time, 133 arrests had been made and damage to Metro infrastructure was estimated at up to 500 million pesos (US$700,000).[42]

On Friday, 18 October, the situation escalated as protests unfolded in downtown Santiago. Barricades were built, to which the police responded with water cannon and tear gas. The entire Metro system was closed after attacks were reported at nearly all its 164 stations, forcing many passengers to walk home.[42] The headquarters building of electricity company Enel Generación Chile was damaged in a massive fire.[43]

A major event that galvanized the day's movement was related to Sebastián Piñera himself. At approximately 21:00 hours on 18 October, while riots and open battles swept the capital, the President was away from La Moneda Palace, busy attending the birthday of one of his grandchildren. The celebration took place at a restaurant named Romaría, an expensive pizza parlour in the northern district of Vitacura, one of Santiago's wealthiest.[44] An unidentified customer who happened to be inside took photographs and posted them anonymously on Twitter, showing a relaxed Piñera eating inside and his private escort convoy sitting outside the building.[44][45] Piñera later addressed the nation and announced a 15-day state of emergency in the capital, allowing the armed forces to patrol the city alongside the Carabineros.[42][46]

The violence continued on 19 October and the Metro remained closed to passengers. Shops were looted, buses were set alight and clashes occurred between demonstrators and the security forces.[47] A curfew was imposed between 22:00 and 07:00 hours. As rioting spread to other parts of the country, states of emergency were declared in the Valparaíso Region and Concepción Province.[46] In an address to the nation in the evening, President Piñera announced the cancellation of the fare increase and the establishment of a dialogue panel, with representatives from across society, to discuss the underlying causes behind the unrest.[48][49]

 
Protesters in Plaza Baquedano on 22 October

On 20 October, many supermarkets, shopping malls and cinemas remained closed[50] as the protests continued.[48] Curfews were imposed for that night in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, and the regions of Valparaíso, Biobío (including the regional capital, Concepción), and Coquimbo;[51] as the curfew began in Santiago, many protesters remained on the street.[52]

Local authorities also announced the closure of schools on 21 October (and some also on 22 October) in 43 of the 52 communes of the Metropolitan Region and across the province of Concepción.[53][54]

President Piñera again addressed the nation on the evening of 20 October. In his remarks, he said the country was "at war with a powerful and implacable enemy" and announced that the state of emergency, already in effect in the Metropolitan Region and the regions of Valparaíso, Biobío, Coquimbo and O’Higgins, would be extended to the regions of Antofagasta, Maule, Los Ríos, and Magallanes.[55] Some opposition politicians described his rhetoric as "irresponsible", while a Latin America editor for BBC News Online expressed concern about the impact his words would have on the protesters and on the chances for meaningful dialogue.[56] Hours shortly after the President's speech, chief of national defense Javier Iturriaga del Campo spoke against this declaration, asserting that he was "content" and "not at war with anyone".[57]

 
Protesters in Plaza Baquedano on 8 November

Some incidents of unrest were reported on 21 October in Santiago, Concepción, and other cities. The Santiago Metro remained closed, except for a portion of Line 1,[58] as did all the nation's universities and institutes of higher education.[59] The intendant of the Metropolitan Region announced that schools would remain closed on 22 October in 48 of the region's communes.[60] Michelle Bachelet, a former President of Chile now serving as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, issued a call for open, sincere and immediate dialogue and warned that "the use of inflammatory rhetoric will only serve to further aggravate the situation".[61]

On 25 October, over a million people took to the streets throughout Chile to protest against President Piñera, demanding his resignation.[21][22]

As of 26 October, 19 people have died, nearly 2,500 have been injured, and 2,840 have been arrested.[22][8] Human rights organisations have received several reports of violations conducted against protesters, including torture, sexual abuse and rape.[23][24][25][27]

On 27 October, President Piñera requested all of his cabinet ministers to resign;[62] however, he accepted 8 resignations, including the Interior Minister Andrés Chadwick.[26][27]

According to Bloomberg, the protests are the worst civil unrest having occurred in Chile since the end of Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship due to of the scale of damage to public infrastructure, the number of protesters, and the measures taken by the government.[20][63]

Incidents and casualties

 
  State of emergency and curfew
  State of emergency

During the protests several people have died, and thousands have been injured and arrested. Amnesty International has received hundreds of complaints about serious human rights violations that range from excessive use of force to torture, illegal raids and arbitrary detention.[23] Similar allegations have been received by Chile's National Institute for Human Rights, which also included reports of sexual violence.[24][25]

Deaths

  • 19 October
    • Two women died and one man was seriously injured in a fire caused by protestors inside a supermarket in the southern Santiago suburb of San Bernardo.[64]
    • A Polish teacher was accidentally shot and killed by his father-in-law, who was trying to stop looters in a nearby supermarket.[65]
  • 20 October
    • A 38-year-old man died in a supermarket fire on Matucana Avenue, located along the border of Santiago and Quinta Normal.[66]
    • Five people died in a textile factory fire in Renca; three of them were minors.[67][68][69]
    • A 21-year-old protester was shot dead by soldiers in La Serena; another was seriously injured.[70]
    • A 23-year-old protester was shot dead inside a La Polar store by soldiers in Coquimbo.[71]
  • 21 October
    • Two people, one of them 74 years old, died in a supermarket fire in La Pintana.[72]
    • A 25-year-old man was shot and killed by armed forces in Curicó, and another three people were seriously injured. (The city is not under a state of emergency.)[73]
    • In the city of Talcahuano during a period of looting, military forces ran over and killed a 23-year-old man.[74]
    • A man was fatally electrocuted while looting a Santa Isabel supermarket in a suburb of Santiago.[75]
    • A 39-year-old man died in a hospital from injuries sustained in a beating carried out by Carabineros in Maipú. (His name was initially not included on the official list of dead; tt was added on 23 October.)[76][77]
  • 22 October
    • A man was killed after being shot in the head by a tenant who feared looting.[78]
    • A driver rammed his car into protesters killing two people, including a 4 year old toddler, and wounding 17; this event increased the death toll to 17.[79][80]

Additionally, several allegations claim that the armed forces have disproportionately shot protesters.[81]

Other incidents

  • 18 October
    • During riots at the historical Estación Central station, a young woman was gravely injured in the legs by gunfire from Carabineros riot police. The woman was aided by nearby protesters and passers-by as she suffered extensive blood loss before being extracted by emergency services.[82]
  • 19 October
    • A doctor assaulted by a police officer during a protest indicated that the police officer had signs of being under the influence of drugs.[83]
  • 20 October
    • President Piñera extended the state of emergency in the north and south of the country and said "we are at war against a powerful enemy that doesn't respect anything or anyone".[84]
  • 8 November
    • A Roman Catholic church near the main site of the demonstration has been looted by the protesters. A statue of Jesus and furniture from the interior of the church were taken out on the street and burned down.[85]

Reactions

International reactions

NGOs

Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International both expressed concern over the government's response to the protests, citing "excessive use of force" by Chile's Carabineros, as well as "possible arbitrary detentions of demonstrators".[9]

Solidarity protests

In New Zealand's largest city Auckland, hundreds of protesters staged a solidarity march on 27 October 2019.[86]

References

  1. ^ Cooperativa.cl. "[Video] Secundarios protestaron contra el alza del Metro con masiva evasión" [Secondary [students] protest against the rise of Metro fares with a massive [fare] evasion]. Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  2. ^ a b CNN, Claudia Dominguez and Daniel Silva Fernandez. "Chile's president declares state of emergency after riots over metro fare hike". CNN. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  3. ^ "Chile's capital in state of emergency amid unrest". 19 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019 – via www.bbc.com.
  4. ^ "Se filtró un audio de la primera dama de Chile: "Es como una invasión extranjera, alienígena"". Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  5. ^ "¡Cambio radical! Sebastián Piñera retrocede ante protestas y anuncia paquete de medidas sociales". 23 October 2019. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019 – via https://rpp.pe.
  6. ^ Press, Europa (13 November 2019). "Las autoridades chilenas estiman que 3,7 millones de personas participaron en alguna de las protestas". www.europapress.es. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  7. ^ Cooperativa.cl. "Más de 3,7 millones de personas han asistido a manifestaciones durante la crisis, según Carabineros". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "At least 18 dead and thousands arrested in Chile protests". CBS News. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  9. ^ a b Gramer, Elizabeth Miles, Robbie. "Why Chileans Are Still Protesting Despite Reform Promises". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  10. ^ "Chile protests: Cost of living protests take deadly toll". BBC News. 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  11. ^ a b Charis McGowan (22 October 2019). "Chile protests: What prompted the unrest?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  12. ^ Helen Regan; Christopher Ulloa (22 October 2019). "Chile extends curfew again as violent unrest paralyzes one of Latin America's biggest cities". CNN. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  13. ^ a b Aislinn Laing; Dave Sherwood; Fabian Cambero (23 October 2019). "Explainer: Chile's inequality challenge: What went wrong and can it be fixed?". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  14. ^ Naomi Larsson (26 October 2019). "Chile protests: More than one million bring Santiago to a halt". Al Jazeera.
  15. ^ "BNamericas - Metro de Santiago: 80 estaciones dañadas o d..." BNamericas.com. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  16. ^ "Usuarios reportan nuevo incendio en la Estación de Metro Plaza de Maipú". www.radioagricultura.cl. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  17. ^ "General Iturriaga decreta toque de queda en Santiago para afrontar graves disturbios". BioBioChile - La Red de Prensa Más Grande de Chile. 19 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  18. ^ "Decretan inédito toque de queda en Santiago tras fracaso del gobierno en contener ola de protestas". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  19. ^ "Protestas y destrucción se registran en San Antonio y Valparaíso tras caos en el Gran Santiago". BioBioChile - La Red de Prensa Más Grande de Chile. 19 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  20. ^ a b "Bloomberg: "Santiago despierta en la devastación"". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 19 October 2019. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  21. ^ a b ElPais. "Al menos un millón de personas protestan en Santiago contra Piñera y la desigualdad social". Diario EL PAIS Uruguay (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d Naoim Larsson (26 October 2019). "Chile protests: More than one million bring Santiago to a halt". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  23. ^ a b c "Chile: Amnesty International announces research mission to document grave human rights violations". Amnesty International. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  24. ^ a b c "Chile protests: Social reform pledges fail to quell unrest". BBC. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  25. ^ a b c Rachel Bunyan (25 October 2019). "18 Killed as Hundreds of Thousands of Protestors Take to the Streets in Chile. Here's What to Know". Time.
  26. ^ a b Franklin, Jonathan (28 October 2019). "Chile: protesters light bonfires and clash with police despite cabinet reshuffle". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  27. ^ a b c Katy Watson (7 November 2019). "Chile protests: Concerns grow over human rights abuses". BBC.
  28. ^ "Panel Expertos - Preguntas Frecuentes" [Panel of Experts - Freqeunt Questions]. www.paneldeexpertostarifas.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  29. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ Cooperativa.cl. "Así opera el panel de expertos que sube las tarifas del transporte público" [This is how the panel of experts that increases public transport rates operates]. Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  31. ^ Cooperativa.cl. "Subir al Metro en horario punta costará ahora 830 pesos" [Metro rides at peak hours will now cost 830 pesos]. Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  32. ^ Cooperativa.cl. "Ex ministra de Transportes: Alza de pasajes es consecuencia directa de las decisiones del Gobierno" [Former Minister of Transportation: Fare increase is a direct consequence of the Government's decisions]. Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  33. ^ "Tarifa del Transantiago suma aumento de $200 desde su inicio en 2007" [Transantiago tariffs have increased by CLP$200 since 2007]. www.latercera.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  34. ^ "T13". www.t13.cl. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  35. ^ "'We are at war': 8 dead in Chile's violent protests over social inequality". Washington Post. 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  36. ^ Fernanda Paúl (23 October 2019). "Protestas en Chile: 4 claves para entender la furia y el estallido social en el país sudamericano". BBC (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  37. ^ "Evasión masiva de alumnos del Instituto Nacional en el Metro termina con denuncia en Fiscalía y medidas de contención". La Tercera. 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  38. ^ "Metro cierra varias estaciones de la Línea 5 por manifestaciones". 14 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  39. ^ Tironi, Constanza García. "Las evasiones masivas no paran: estación Santa Ana registra graves disturbios". Publimetro Chile. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  40. ^ "Metro cierra estaciones por nuevas evasiones masivas". 15 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  41. ^ "T13 | Tele 13". www.t13.cl. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  42. ^ a b c "Chile protests: State of emergency declared in Santiago". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Incendio descomunal afecta edificio de ENEL en centro de Santiago: evacuaron a 40 trabajadores". BioBioChile - La Red de Prensa Más Grande de Chile. 18 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  44. ^ a b "BRUTAL: Mientras todo Chile protestaba y su Gobierno se caía a pedazos pillaron a Piñera comiendo en una pizzería de Vitacura". Gamba (in Spanish). 18 October 2019. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  45. ^ "Santiago on fire and with no transport and Piñera in a family party at a pizza parlor". MercoPress. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  46. ^ a b "Three dead in Chile supermarket fire amid riots". BBC News. 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  47. ^ "Chile extends state of emergency as protest death toll hits seven". news.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  48. ^ a b Press, Associated (21 October 2019). "Chile: protests rage as president extends state of emergency". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
  49. ^ "Presidente Piñera anuncia suspensión del alza de pasajes en el transporte público y convoca a una mesa de diálogo para escuchar las demandas de la ciudadanía". prensa.presidencia.cl. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  50. ^ "¿Se puede ir al supermercado? ¿tomar un vuelo? ¿ir al cine?: qué hacer y qué no en este domingo en la capital". La Tercera. 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  51. ^ S.A.P, El Mercurio (20 October 2019). "Decretan toques de queda para las regiones Metropolitana, Biobío, Valparaíso y Coquimbo | Emol.com". Emol. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  52. ^ S.A.P, El Mercurio (21 October 2019). "Toque de queda por manifestaciones | Emol.com". Emol. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  53. ^ S.A.P, El Mercurio (20 October 2019). "Entregan listado de las 48 comunas que suspenderán las clases mañana lunes en la Región Metropolitana | Emol.com". Emol. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  54. ^ "Suspensión de clases: Revisa qué comunas de la RM no tendrán clases mañana". La Tercera. 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  55. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  56. ^ "Cost of living protests in Chile take deadly toll". BBC News. 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  57. ^ ""La verdad es que no estoy en guerra con nadie": General Iturriaga se desmarca de dichos del Presidente Piñera". La Tercera (in Spanish). 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  58. ^ "Chile restarts work amid pockets of unrest". 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  59. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  60. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  61. ^ "OHCHR | Bachelet urges "immediate dialogue" to resolve crisis in Chile".
  62. ^ "Chile president sacks whole cabinet after protests". BBC. 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  63. ^ Franklin, Jonathan (27 October 2019). "Hundreds shot and beaten as Chile takes to the streets". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 27 October 2019. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
  64. ^ S.A.P, El Mercurio (20 October 2019). "Intendencia confirma que incendio que afectó a supermercado de San Bernardo durante saqueos dejó al menos tres fallecidos | Emol.com". Emol (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  65. ^ "Profesor polaco muere por disparo de su suegro mientras intentaba detener un saqueo". El Dinamo (in Spanish). 23 October 2019. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  66. ^ S.A.P, El Mercurio (20 October 2019). "Confirman tercer fallecido tras incendio de supermercado en Matucana | Emol.com". CNN Chile (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  67. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Muertos por protestas en Chile aumentan a 8 y se extiende toque de queda | DW | 21 October 2019" [Death toll by protests in Chile rises to 8 and curfew extends]. DW.COM (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  68. ^ "Chile protests: Curfew extended as death toll rises". DW.COM. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  69. ^ ""¿Mi hijo está muerto?": El drama para identificar a los quemados en saqueos". La Tercera. 22 October 2019. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  70. ^ "Muere una persona por disparo en La Serena y otra queda grave: habrían recibido balazos de militares". BioBioChile (in Spanish). 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  71. ^ "En medio de crisis social: reportan segunda víctima fatal en la región". Diario el Día (in Spanish). 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  72. ^ "Dos muertos deja incendio en sucursal de Construmart en La Pintana". MegaNoticias (in Spanish). 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  73. ^ "Militares disparan y matan a manifestante en Curicó". www.adnradio.cl (in Spanish). 21 October 2019. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  74. ^ Cooperativa.cl. "Hombre falleció atropellado por patrulla militar en Talcahuano". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  75. ^ Cooperativa.cl. "Hombre murió electrocutado en supermercado saqueado en el barrio Franklin". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  76. ^ Ciper Chile. "Manifestante murió en la Posta Central y gobierno no lo incluyó en la lista oficial de fallecidos". Ciper Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  77. ^ "Balance: Gobierno reconoce denuncia de hombre muerto a golpes por carabineros". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  78. ^ "Hombre murió baleado por comerciante en Puente Alto". Cooperativa.cl (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  79. ^ "Niño de 4 años, entre las víctimas fatales de protestas en Chile que ya dejan 18 muertos". Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  80. ^ Infobae. "Impactante video: un hombre embistió a una multitud con un auto, causó dos muertos y elevó a 17 el saldo de víctimas en Chile". infobae.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  81. ^ "Militares disparan en Puente Alto y hieren de gravedad a una persona: Cinco uniformados son investigados por la Fiscalía". La Tercera (in Spanish). 20 October 2019. Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  82. ^ "Video muestra a joven herida durante jornada de protestas en Estación Central". Facebook (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  83. ^ "Médico golpeado por FF.EE. durante protestas: "Carabinero tenía los mismos rasgos de pacientes que han consumido cocaína"(In Spanish)". Archived from the original on 21 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  84. ^ Chile's Pinera extends state of emergency, says 'we are at war' Archived 21 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine Presidente Piñera: "Estamos en guerra contra un enemigo poderoso que no respeta a nada ni a nadie" Archived 21 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  85. ^ Chile: Protesters burn university, loot church. In: DW.com, 9. 11. 2019. Access date: 13 November 2019. Available online: https://www.dw.com/en/chile-protesters-burn-university-loot-church/a-51177461
  86. ^ "Hundreds march down Queen Street in Auckland against growing inequality in Chile". 1 News. 27 October 2019. Archived from the original on 28 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.