1995 Hong Kong legislative election

The 1995 Hong Kong Legislative Council election for members of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo) was held on 17 September 1995. It was the first, and only, fully elected legislative election in the colonial period before transferring Hong Kong's sovereignty to China two years later. The elections returned 20 members from directly elected geographical constituencies, 30 members from indirectly elected functional constituencies, and 10 members from elections committee constituency who were elected by all District Board members.

1995 Hong Kong legislative election
Flag of Hong Kong (1959–1997).svg
← 1991 17 September 1995 1996 (Provisional) →

All 60 seats to the Legislative Council
31 seats needed for a majority
Registered2,572,124 (GC) Increase34.18%
Turnout920,567 (35.80%) Decrease3.35pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Martin Lee Allen Lee at 71demo 2008.jpg Tsang Yok-sing
Leader Martin Lee Allen Lee Tsang Yok-sing
Party Democratic Liberal DAB
Alliance Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Hong Kong Island East New Territories Northeast Kowloon Central
(defeated)
Last election 16 seats, 52.35% New party New party
Seats won 19 10 6
Seat change Increase4 Decrease5 Increase5
Popular vote 385,428 15,126 142,801
Percentage 42.26% 1.64% 15.66%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Frederick Fung
Leader Frederick Fung Ambrose Lau Hu Fa-kuang
Party ADPL Progressive Alliance LDF
Alliance Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat Kowloon West Election Committee Did not stand
Last election 1 seat, 4.44% New party 3 seats, 5.16%
Seats won 4 1 1
Seat change Increase3 Increase1 Steady
Popular vote 87,072 25,964 11,572
Percentage 9.55% 2.85% 1.27%
Swing Increase5.11% N/A Decrease3.99pp

LegCoElection1995.svg
Elected candidates by each geographical constituency

– DP – DAB – ADPL – LP

– Independent

President before election

John Joseph Swaine
Nonpartisan

Elected President

Andrew Wong
Independent

In consequence of Governor Chris Patten's constitutional reforms, which were strongly opposed by the Beijing government, the nine newly created functional constituencies enfranchised around 2.7 million new voters. As the tensions between Britain and China went on, Hong Kong became rapidly politicised. Party politics was getting in shape as the Beijing-loyalist Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), the pro-business Liberal Party, the pro-democracy Democratic Party and the middle-class and professional oriented Hong Kong Progressive Alliance (HKPA) were set up and filled their candidates in the election.

The pro-democracy forces won another landslide victory after the 1991 Legislative Council elections, sweeping 16 of the 20 directly elected seats in which the Democratic Party alone took 12 directly elected seats. The Democrats returned to the legislature with a total number of 19 seats, far ahead of the Liberal Party's 10, the DAB 6 and the pro-democracy Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood's (ADPL) 4 seats. ADPL young candidate Bruce Liu also defeated DAB chairman Tsang Yok-sing in Kowloon Central, along with many other DAB main candidates being defeated by pro-democrats.

The pro-democrats controlled about half of the seats in the legislature and supported moderate Andrew Wong to become President of the Legislative Council. Since Beijing overthrew the promise of "through train" which guaranteed the legislature could travel through 1997 as the reaction to Chris Patten's reform, the legislature lasted for only 21 months and was replaced by the Beijing-controlled Provisional Legislative Council after the handover of Hong Kong, becoming the only pro-democracy legislature in history.

BackgroundEdit

The electoral bases were largely expanded under the 1994 Hong Kong electoral reform carried out by the last colonial governor Chris Patten as the last step of democratisation as following:[1]

New nine functional constituencies with much larger eligible electorates was created to broaden the franchise to 2.7 million new voters:

  1. Agriculture, Fisheries, Mining, Energy and Construction
  2. Textiles and Garment
  3. Manufacturing
  4. Import and Export
  5. Wholesale and Retail
  6. Hotels and Catering
  7. Transport and Communication
  8. Financing, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services
  9. Community, Social and Personal Services

OverviewEdit

The United Democrats of Hong Kong and the Meeting Point, the two major pro-democracy forces had merged into the Democratic Party in 1994, while the pro-business legislators had formed the Liberal Party in 1993 and the pro-Chinese government politicians established the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), today's largest political party.

Solicitor Ambrose Lau, in the direction of the New China News Agency founded the Hong Kong Progressive Alliance which consisted of mostly pro-business factor of the CCP's united front. Other grassroots leaders were also encouraged by the CCP to stand in the election against the pro-democracy camp.

Succeeding the last election in 1991, Democratic Party, together with other smaller parties, groups and independents in the pro-democracy camp, had another landslide victory again, getting 16 of the 20 geographical constituency seats. Allen Lee, the Chairman of the Liberal Party and the Appointed Member in the LegCo got elected in the geographical constituency direct election. The Chairman of the DAB, Tsang Yok-sing however got defeated by Bruce Liu of pro-democracy Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood in Kowloon Central.

The Government of the People's Republic of China overthrew the promise of the "through train" (letting the members elected in the 1995 election travel safely through 1997 and beyond) and set up the Provisional Legislative Council in 1996, after the proposal package of electoral changes for the 1995 Legislative Council elections that was deemed unconstitutional by the PRC was passed in the Legislative Council.

General OutcomeEdit

e • d Overall Summary of the 7 September 1995 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Political Affiliation Geographical
constituencies
Functional
constituencies
Election
Committee
seats
Total
seats
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Democratic Party 385,428 42.26 12 62,907 14.47 5 2 19
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 87,072 9.55 2 1 1 4
Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions 42,565 9.79 1 1
United Ants 18,551 2.03 0 0
Democratic Labour Alliance 33,596 7.73 0 0
Independent and others 66,464 7.29 2 51,844 11.93 3 0 5
Total for pro-democracy camp 557,515 61.13 16 190,912 43.93 10 3 29
Liberal Party 15,216 1.67 1 74,255 17.09 9 0 10
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 142,801 15.66 2 42,767 9.84 2 2 6
Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 25,964 2.85 0 1 1
Liberal Democratic Federation of Hong Kong 11,572 1.27 0 4,986 1.15 0 1 1
Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions 21,836 5.02 1 1
New Hong Kong Alliance 1 1
Independent and others 93,446 10.25 0 35,840 8.25 4 2 6
Total for pro-Beijing parties 288,999 31.69 3 179,684 41.34 17 6 26
Federation of Hong Kong and Kowloon Labour Unions 533 0.12 1 1
123 Democratic Alliance 1 1
Civil Force 27,841 3.05 0 0 0
Hong Kong Alliance of Chinese and Expatriates 3,979 0.44 0 0
Pioneer 2,594 0.28 0 0
Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council 262 0.06 0 0
Non-affiliated Independent and others 31,023 3.40 1 63,215 14.55 3 0 4
Total (turnout 35.80%) 911,951 100.00 20 434,606 100.00 30 10 60

Vote summaryEdit

 
Ring charts of the election results showing popular vote against seats won, coloured in party colours. Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).
Popular vote
Democratic
42.26%
DAB
15.66%
ADPL
9.55%
Civil Force
3.05%
PA
2.85%
United Ants
2.03%
Liberal
1.64%
LDF
1.27%
ACE
0.44%
Pioneer
0.28%
Independents
22.95%

Seat summaryEdit

Seats
Democratic
31.67%
Liberal
16.67%
DAB
10.00%
ADPL
6.67%
PA
1.67%
LDF
1.67%
CTU
1.67%
FTU
1.67%
FLU
1.67%
NHKA
1.67%
Independents
25.00%

Result breakdownEdit

Geographical ConstituenciesEdit

Constituency Candidates Affiliation Votes %
LC1 Hong Kong Island Central 1 Peggy Lam Pei Independent 14,437 34.67
2 Christine Loh Kung-wai Independent 27,199 65.33
LC2 Hong Kong Island East 1 Choy So-yuk Progressive Alliance 14,119 27.37
2 Martin Lee Chu-ming Democratic 37,459 72.28
LC3 Hong Kong Island South 1 Cheng Kai-nam DAB 29,910 47.64
2 Yeung Sum Democratic 32,875 52.36
LC4 Hong Kong Island West 1 Huang Chen-ya Democratic 31,156 66.32
2 Guy Lam Kwok-hung ACE 3,979 8.47
3 Lam Kin-lai Progressive Alliance 11,845 25.21
LC5 Kowloon Central 1 Jasper Tsang Yok-sing DAB 16,691 42.94
2 Liu Sing-lee ADPL 22,183 57.06
LC6 Kowloon North-east 1 Mak Hoi-wah Democratic 23,201 47.23
2 Chan Yuen-han DAB/FTU 25,922 52.77
LC7 Kowloon East 1 Elsie Tu Independent 23,855 44.60
2 Szeto Wah Democratic 29,627 55.40
LC8 Kowloon South-east 1 Tam Yiu-chung DAB/FTU 29,009 49.05
2 Li Wah-ming Democratic 30,133 50.95
LC9 Kowloon South 1 Lau Chin-shek Democratic/CTU 26,827 69.86
2 Wong Siu-yee LDF 11,572 30.14
LC10 Kowloon South-west 1 Helen Chung Yee-fong Independent 1,482 5.53
2 James To Kun-sun Democratic 17,731 66.17
3 Kingsley Sit Ho-yin Independent 2,656 9.91
4 Daniel Wong Kwok-tung ADPL 4,929 18.39
LC11 Kowloon West 1 Wong Yin-ping Independent 1,778 4.13
2 Frederick Fung Kin-kee ADPL 28,996 67.37
3 Fu Shu-wan Independent 12,264 28.50
LC12 New Territories Central 1 Albert Chan Wai-yip Democratic 25,303 74.79
2 Ng Wai-kwong Independent 4,097 12.11
3 Tam Tai-on Independent 4,433 13.10
LC13 New Territories North-west 1 Zachary Wong Wai-yin Democratic 21,527 50.07
2 Tang Siu-tong Independent 21,470 49.93
LC14 New Territories North 1 Cheung Hon-chung DAB 17,026 50.07
2 Wong Sing-chi Democratic 16,978 49.93
LC15 New Territories North-east 1 Allen Lee Peng-fei Liberal 15,216 34.82
2 Law Yuk-kai United Ants 4,723 10.81
3 Cheung Hok-ming DAB 12,256 28.04
4 Cheung Wing-fai Democratic 11,507 26.33
LC16 New Territories South-east 1 Andrew Wong Wang-fat Independent 23,666 47.83
2 William Wan Hon-cheung DAB 11,987 24.23
3 Harold Ko Ping-chung United Ants 13,828 27.95
LC17 New Territories East 1 Lau Kong-wah Civil Force 27,841 41.49
2 Emily Lau Wai-hing Independent 39,265 58.51
LC18 New Territories South 1 Hui Chiu-fai Independent 8,179 22.21
2 Sin Chung-kai Democratic 26,048 70.74
3 Lam Chi-leung Pioneer 2,594 7.05
LC19 New Territories South-west 1 Lee Wing-tat Democratic 29,801 65.35
2 Ting Yin-wah ADPL 15,798 34.65
LC20 New Territories West 1 Chan Wan-sang Independent (NTWRA) 6,152 13.21
2 Ho Chun-yan Democratic 25,255 54.23
3 Yim Tin-sang ADPL 15,166 32.56

Functional ConstituenciesEdit

Constituency Candidates Affiliation Votes %
A Primary Production,
Power and Construction
11 Tsang Kin-shing Democratic 11,592 40.93
12 Ho Sai-chu Independent 5,366 18.95
13 Poon To-chuen DAB 7,493 26.46
14 Tong Yat-chu Independent (NHKA) 3,871 13.67
B Textiles and Garments 21 Cheng Ming-kit LDF 2,638 12.45
22 Leung Yiu-chung Independent (NWSC) 10,472 49.44
23 Ng Ching-man Independent (KCO) 2,957 13.96
24 Chan Kwok-keung Independent (FTU) 5,116 24.15
C Manufacturing 31 Chan Ming-yiu Independent 4,931 11.21
32 Lee Cheuk-yan CTU/DLA 30,510 69.38
33 Leung Fu-wah FTU 8,535 19.41
D Import and Export 41 Henry Tang Ying-yen Liberal 24,997 61.67
42 Kwan Lim-ho Independent (PAS) 15,539 38.33
E Wholesale and Retail 51 Selina Chow Liang Shuk-yee Liberal 23,357 68.05
52 Wong Kwok-hing DAB 10,965 31.95
F Hotels and Catering 61 Chiang Sai-cheong Independent (KCO) 5,176 28.48
62 Li Hon-shing Independent 3,393 18.67
63 Chan Wing-chan DAB 5,614 30.89
64 Tommy Cheung Yu-yan Liberal 3,991 21.96
G Transport and Communication 71 Cheng Kai-ming Independent 2,324 5.37
72 Miriam Lau Kin-yee Liberal 14,233 32.89
73 Ip Kwok-fun CTU 12,055 27.86
74 Cheuk Siu-yee FTU 12,617 29.16
75 Cheung Pak-chi Independent 2,042 4.72
H Financing, Insurance, Real
Estate and Business Services
81 Ng Kam-chun LDF 2,348 3.63
82 Andrew Cheng Kar-foo Democratic 25,658 39.68
83 Chan Yuk-cheung Independent 10,514 16.26
84 Chan Yim-kwong Liberal 5,771 8.92
85 Tony Chan Tung-ngok Independent 1,699 2.63
86 Fung Chi-kin DAB 18,674 28.88
I Community, Social and
Personal Services
91 Elizabeth Wong Chien Chi-lien Independent 40,649 41.75
92 Kwok Yuen-hon Independent 14,452 14.84
93 Brian Kan Ping-chee Independent 6,290 6.46
94 Michael Siu Yin-ying DLA 33,596 34.50
95 Fan Kwok-wah Independent 2,386 2.45
J Commercial (First) 201 Paul Cheng Ming-fun Independent Uncontested
K Commercial (Second) 211 Philip Wong Yu-hong NHKA Uncontested
L Industrial (First) 221 James Tien Pei-chun Liberal Uncontested
M Industrial (Second) 231 Ngai Shiu-kit Liberal Uncontested
N Finance 241 David Li Kwok-po Independent Uncontested
O Labour
(2 seats)
251 Lee Kai-ming FLU 533 33.56
252 Cheng Yiu-tong FTU 684 43.07
253 John Luk Woon-cheung Independent 109 6.86
254 Lee Kwok-keung TUC 262 16.50
P Social Welfare 261 Law Chi-kwong Democratic 1,115 64.08
262 Chow Wing-sun Independent 625 35.92
Q Tourism 271 Hau Suk-kei Independent 175 29.76
272 Howard Young Liberal 413 70.24
R Real Estate and Construction 281 Ronald Joseph Arculli Liberal Uncontested
S Financial Services 291 Chen Po-sum Independent 243 40.10
292 Chim Pui-chung Independent 363 59.90
T Medical 301 Cecilia Young Yau-yau Independent 135 5.39
302 Edward Leong Che-hung Independent 2,371 94.61
U Education 311 Leung Siu-tong Independent 4,496 18.69
312 Cheung Man-kwong Democratic 19,558 81.31
V Legal 321 Margaret Ng Independent 723 54.52
322 Alfred Donald Yap Independent 444 33.48
323 Li Wai-ip Independent 159 11.99
W Engineering 331 Samuel Wong Ping-wai Independent 1,382 62.70
332 Raymond Ho Chung-tai Independent 822 37.30
X Health Services 341 Alice Pong Tso Shing-yuk Liberal 1,116 18.34
342 Michael Ho Mun-ka Democratic 4,968 81.66
Y Accountancy 351 Edward Chow Kwong-fai Liberal 477 22.17
352 Eric Li Ka-cheung Independent 1,376 63.94
353 Peter Chan Po-fun Independent 299 13.89
Z Architectural, Surveying and
Planning
361 Edward Ho Sing-tin Liberal Uncontested
Urban Council 1 Mok Ying-fan ADPL Uncontested
Regional Council 1 Alan Tam King-wah Democratic 16 43.24
2 Ngan Kam-chuen DAB 21 56.16
Rural 1 Lau Wong-fat Independent Uncontested

Election Committee ConstituencyEdit

Candidates Affiliation Value of votes
1 Yeung Fuk-kwong Independent (UFSP) 0
2 Lee York-fai Independent 0
3 Fung Kwong-chung Independent 0
4 Lo Suk-ching Independent 26
5 Choy Kan-pui Independent (CF) 26
6 Cheung Bing-leung Democratic 26
7 Lau Hon-chuen Progressive Alliance 26
8 Chan Kam-lam DAB 26
9 Leung Kwong-cheong ADPL 0
10 Law Cheung-kwok ADPL 26
11 Ip Kwok-him DAB 26
12 John Tse Wing-ling Democratic 26
13 David Chu Yu-lin LDF 26
14 Yuen Bun-keung Democratic 0
15 Mark Lin Liberal 0
16 Louis Leung Wing-on Independent 0
17 Yum Sin-ling 123DA 26
18 Paul Chan Sing-kong Independent 0

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Loh, Christine (2010). Underground front. Hong Kong University Press. p. 181. ISBN 9789622099968.
  2. ^ Report on the 1995 Legislative Council General Election. 1995. p. 34.