1915 in aviation

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1915:

Years in aviation: 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s
Years: 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918
A German airship and a French aeroplane battle in the sky, 1915.

EventsEdit

JanuaryEdit

FebruaryEdit

  • February 2 – The only Imperial Russian Navy seaplane carrier to see service in the Baltic Sea during World War I, Orlitza, is commissioned.[10]
  • February 15 – Russian Sikorsky Ilya Muromets bombers attack the Vistula-Dobrzhani area of Poland, the first bombing raid by the Ilya Muromets.
  • February 17 – Only four weeks after they became the first two airships to bomb the United Kingdom, the Imperial German Navy Zeppelins L-3 and L-4 are wrecked in Denmark while attempting to search for British ships off Norway. L-3's crew burns her before being interned by Danish authorities. L-4 is blown out over the North Sea after touching down in Denmark and disappears with four men still on board; the Danes intern the rest of her crew.[11]
  • February 26 – The second German attempt to bomb the United Kingdom fails when strong headwinds force the German Navy Zeppelin L-8, sent out to attack alone, to give up her attempt and land at an Imperial German Army camp in German-occupied Belgium.[12]

MarchEdit

AprilEdit

MayEdit

  • The British War Office issues instructions specifying the aircraft and armament Royal Flying Corps squadrons are to have ready for defense of the United Kingdom against German airships. One aircraft is to be kept ready for immediate takeoff at all times, with the Martinsyde Scout preferred over other aircraft. The instruction also lists a specific mix and numbers of weapons the aircraft are to carry, including bombs, grenades, and incendiary darts.[24]
  • May 3
    • On patrol over the North Sea, the German Navy Zeppelin L 9, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Mathy, encounters four British submarines on the surface and attacks them while HMS E5 fires at her and the other three dive; L 9 tries to bomb E5 as E5 dives, but does no damage. L 9 later catches HMS E4 on the surface and attacks with bombs, but E4 dives and survives as well. L 9 later sights another surfaced submarine and moves in to attack while the submarine fires at her, but the submarine dives before L 9 can attack.[25]
    • The oldest continually operational Royal Air Force station, RAF Northolt (on the edge of London), opens as the home to the Royal Flying Corps' No. 4 Reserve Aeroplane Squadron.
  • May 10–11 (overnight) – The Imperial German Army Zeppelin LZ 38 attempts to bomb Southend-on-Sea on England's Thames Estuary, but is driven off by unexpected gunfire. LZ 38's commander, Hauptmann Erich Linnarz, allegedly scrawls a threat to return on a calling card from his wallet and drops it in a weighted canister which the British find on Canvey Island.[26]
  • May 11 – An early attempt to intercept an airship with a shipborne aircraft takes place in the North Sea when the Royal Navy seaplane tender HMS Ben-my-Chree tries to launch a Royal Naval Air Service Sopwith seaplane to attack a German Zeppelin sighted low on the horizon at a range of 70 nautical miles (130 km). The attempt fails when the launching platform collapses, and the unmolested Zeppelin goes on to bomb four surfaced British submarines – without damaging them.[27]
  • May 16–17 (overnight) – Two Royal Naval Air Service Avro 504s intercept the Imperial German Navy Zeppelins LZ 38 and LZ 39, badly damaging LZ39 with four 20-lb (9-kg) bombs dropped on its envelope from above.[18]
  • May 23 – Italy enters World War I on the side of the Allies, declaring war on Austria-Hungary.
  • May 24 – Italy′s only dirigible, Città de Ferrara, bombs Pola, beginning Italy′s bombing campaign against Austria-Hungary.[28]
  • May 26 – Oberleutnant Kästner and Lt Georg Langhoff score the first German air-to-air victory of World War I.
  • May 31-June 1 (overnight) – The Imperial German Navy Zeppelin LZ 38 carries out the first air raid on London, killing seven people and injuring 14.

JuneEdit

JulyEdit

 
Leutnant Kurt Wintgens' "E.5/15" Fokker Eindecker production prototype, as it appeared for the July 1 combat engagement
 
Capt. Lanoe Hawker's Bristol Scout C, No. 1611, as it appeared for his Victoria Cross-earning engagement.
  • July 25 – Following his bombing raid exploits on the Gontrode zeppelin base some three months earlier, while flying a Lewis machine gun-armed Bristol Scout C, military s/n 1611, Royal Flying Corps Captain Lanoe Hawker shoots down three German aircraft while on patrol over Passchendaele, Belgium. For this achievement, he will become the first single-seat scout/fighter pilot to be awarded the Victoria Cross for combat against enemy airplanes.

AugustEdit

SeptemberEdit

OctoberEdit

  • October 13–14 (overnight) – After a five-week hiatus, German airships resume raids against the United Kingdom, as five German Navy Zeppelins attempt to bomb London. L 15 bombs central London, during which Royal Flying Corps pilot John Slessor, flying a B.E.2c, intercepts her, becoming the first man to intercept an enemy aircraft over the United Kingdom, although he is unable to fire on L 15. The other four Zeppelins scatter their bombs over various towns and the countryside. The raid is one of the deadliest of World War I, killing 71 people and injuring 128.[53]
  • October 14 – Bulgaria enters World War I on the side of the Central Powers. During October, the Imperial Russian Navy's Black Sea Fleet raids Varna, Bulgaria, employing a seaplane carrier-battleship force.[13]
  • October 15 – Orville Wright sells the Wright Company – which he had founded in 1909 with his late brother Wilbur Wright – to a group of New York investors.
  • October 18 – The Third Battle of the Isonzo begins. It will last until 3 November, and during the battle Italian aircraft will make their first contribution to Italy′s ground war."[28]

NovemberEdit

DecemberEdit

First flightsEdit

JanuaryEdit

MarchEdit

AprilEdit

MayEdit

JuneEdit

AugustEdit

OctoberEdit

DecemberEdit

Entered serviceEdit

FebruaryEdit

AprilEdit

JuneEdit

SeptemberEdit

OctoberEdit

NovemberEdit

DecemberEdit

RetirementsEdit

NovemberEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 120.
  2. ^ Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 2. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979..
  3. ^ Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, pp. 29-30.
  4. ^ Wikipedia SM U-12 (Germany) article.
  5. ^ Cross, Wilbur, Zeppelins of World War I, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1991, ISBN 1-56619-390-7, pp. 19-20.
  6. ^ Frankland, Noble, Bomber Offensive: The Devastation of Europe, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1970, p. 10.
  7. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 70, 73-76.
  8. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 94-95.
  9. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 216-218. The 15 January 1915 date given for the incident on p. 217 appears to be a typographical error; the 25 January 1915 date given on p. 216 appears to be accurate.
  10. ^ Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 97.
  11. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 76, 95-96.
  12. ^ a b Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 76.
  13. ^ a b Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, pp. 96, 101.
  14. ^ a b Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 73.
  15. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 76-77.
  16. ^ a b c Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 78.
  17. ^ Franks, Norman, Aircraft vs. Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, p. 11.
  18. ^ a b Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 33.
  19. ^ a b Hollway, Don, "The Sentinel of Verdun," Aviation History, November 2012, p. 36.
  20. ^ Hollway, Don, "The Sentinel of Verdun," Aviation History, November 2012, p. 38.
  21. ^ a b Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 112.
  22. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 79-80.
  23. ^ Heaton, Dan, "Gunfire Over the Rio Grande," Aviation History, May 2014, pp. 16-17.
  24. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 72-73.
  25. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 97-98.
  26. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 80-81.
  27. ^ a b Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 98.
  28. ^ a b Gooch, John, Mussolini and His Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940, Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-85602-7, p. 52.
  29. ^ Clark, Basil, The History of Airships, New York: St Martin's Press, 1961, Library of Congress 64-12336, p. 146.
  30. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 215.
  31. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 84-92.
  32. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 104.
  33. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 93.
  34. ^ Sands, Jeffrey, "The Forgotten Ace, Ltn. Kurt Wintgens and his War Letters", Cross & Cockade USA, Summer 1985.
  35. ^ Franks, Norman, Aircraft vs. Aircraft: The Illustrated Story of Fighter Pilot Combat From 1914 to the Present Day, London: Grub Street, 1998, ISBN 1-902304-04-7, p. 20.
  36. ^ Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9, p. 20.
  37. ^ Swanborough, Gordon, and Peter M. Bowers, United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911, Second Edition, London: Putnam, 1976, ISBN 0-370-10054-9, p. 2.
  38. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 98-100.
  39. ^ Gooch, John, Mussolini and His Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940, Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-85602-7, p. 53.
  40. ^ a b Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 12.
  41. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 101-103.
  42. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 104-106.
  43. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 107-108.
  44. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 108.
  45. ^ Blumberg, Arnold, "Bombing, Italian Style," Aviation History, November 2015, p. 49.
  46. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 108-109.
  47. ^ historyofwar.org Adventure class scout cruisers.
  48. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 109.
  49. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 109-111.
  50. ^ Above Flanders Fields: A Complete Record of the Belgian Fighter Pilots and Their Units During the Great War. p. 72–73.
  51. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 112-113.
  52. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, p. 113.
  53. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN, pp. 113-121.
  54. ^ Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 39.
  55. ^ Wilkinson, Stephan, "Angels of Mercy," Aviation History, January 2016, p. 41.
  56. ^ Chant, Chris, The World's Great Bombers, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2000, ISBN 0-7607-2012-6, p. 37.
  57. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, p. 139.
  58. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-313-X, p. 30.
  59. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 73.