This article contains information about the literary events and publications of 1865.
- January – The first issue appears of Our Young Folks, an American monthly for children produced by Ticknor and Fields in Boston.
- February – Publication of Leo Tolstoy's 1805, an early version of War and Peace, begins in the magazine Russkiy Vestnik.
- April 14 – The President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, is shot while attending a performance of the farce Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C., by actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln dies the following day.
- June 9 – Charles Dickens is caught in the Staplehurst rail crash in Kent, England, together with the actress Ellen Ternan and her mother. Dickens is deeply affected by the event for the rest of his life.
- June 14 – Karl May begins a four-year prison sentence for thefts and frauds at Osterstein Castle (Zwickau).
- July – The American magazine for children The Little Corporal first appears.
- July 4 – Lewis Carroll's children's book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is published by Macmillan in London for Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Carroll), three years after it was first narrated to Alice Liddell and her sisters. He and his illustrator, John Tenniel, withdraw this edition (printed in Oxford), and the first trade editions are published on November 26 and released in December (dated 1866), that published by Appleton in New York using the rejected sheets from the earlier printing.
- November 11 – London West End opening of the comedy drama Society written and directed by Thomas William Robertson at the Prince of Wales's Theatre, considered a milestone in English Victorian drama because of its realism in dialogue and performance.
- November 18 – Mark Twain's story "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" is published in the New York weekly The Saturday Press in its original version as "Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog".
- unknown dates
- José de Alencar – Iracema
- R. M. Ballantyne – The Lighthouse
- Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay – Durgeshnandini
- Annie Hall Cudlip – Theo Leigh
- Charles Dickens – Our Mutual Friend (publication concludes)
- Mary Mapes Dodge – Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates
- Fyodor Dostoyevsky – "The Crocodile" («Крокодил», Krokodil, short story published in Epoch)
- Goncourt brothers – Germinie Lacerteux
- Charles Kingsley – Hereward the Wake
- Sheridan Le Fanu – Guy Deverell
- Nikolai Leskov – Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District («Леди Макбет Мценского уезда», novella published in Epoch January)
- George MacDonald – Alec Forbes of Howglen
- Robert Smith Surtees (died 1864) – Mr. Facey Romford's Hounds
- Anthony Trollope – Can You Forgive Her? (publication concludes)
- Jules Verne – From the Earth to the Moon (De la Terre à la Lune)
- Émile Zola – La Confession de Claude
Children and young peopleEdit
- Wilhelm Busch – Max und Moritz
- Lewis Carroll – Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
- Mary Mapes Dodge – Hans Brinker, or The Silver Skates
- Jean Ingelow – Stories Told to a Child
- Mary Wright Sewell – Mother's Last Words: a ballad
- Francis Burnand – Windsor Castle
- Henry James Byron – War to the Knife
- Henrik Ibsen – Brand
- T. W. Robertson – Society
- Victorien Sardou – La Famille Benoîton
- Edward Lear – The History of the Seven Families of the Lake Pipple-Popple
- A. C. Swinburne
- Atalanta in Calydon
- Chastelard: a tragedy
- Annals of the Joseon Dynasty (final volume)
- Matthew Arnold – Essays in Criticism
- P. T. Barnum – The Humbugs of the World
- Jacob Grimm – Deutsche Sagen (German Sayings)
- Friedrich Albert Lange – History of Materialism and Critique of its Present Importance (Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart, published October dated 1866)
- Karl Marx – Value, Price and Profit (written as speech)
- John Stuart Mill – Examinations of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy
- William Gifford Palgrave – Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia
- James Hutchison Stirling – The Secret of Hegel: Being the Hegelian System in Origin Principle, Form and Matter
- James Hudson Taylor – China's Spiritual Need and Claims
- February 12 – Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Polish poet and novelist (died 1940)
- February 21 – John Haden Badley, English educationalist and writer (died 1967)
- March 15 – Edith Maude Eaton (Sui-Sin Far), English-born writer on Chinese affairs (died 1914)
- March 20 – Arthur Bayldon, English-born Australian poet (died 1958)
- March 27 – Marion Angus, Scottish poet writing in Braid Scots and English (died 1946)
- March 28 – Mary Findlater, Scottish novelist (died 1963)
- March 29 – Stephen Bonsal, American writer, journalist and translator (died 1951)
- May 2 – Clyde Fitch, American playwright (died 1909)
- May 15 – Albert Verwey, Dutch poet (died 1937)
- June 13 – W. B. Yeats, Irish poet (died 1939)
- June 20 – Enrico Corradini, Italian novelist and essayist (died 1931)
- June 26 – Bernard Berenson, American art historian (died 1959)
- July 21 – M. P. Shiel, born Matthew Phipps Shiell, Montserrat-born British fantasy fiction author (died 1947)
- August 14 – Pietro Gori, Italian anarchist poet (died 1911)
- August 26 – Ellen Marriage, English translator of Balzac (died 1946)
- September 11 – Rainis, Latvian poet and dramatist (died 1929)
- November 2 – Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao, Indian writer (died 1940)
- December 11 – Frida Stéenhoff, Swedish writer (died 1945)
- December 13 – Ángel Ganivet, Spanish writer (suicide 1898)
- December 30 – Rudyard Kipling, English poet and fiction writer (died 1936)
- January 11 – Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Ferland, French Canadian historian (born 1805)
- January 18 – Charles Greville, English diarist (born 1794)
- January 19 – Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, French philosopher (born 1809)
- January 21 – X. B. Saintine, French novelist and dramatist (born 1798)
- February 6 – Isabella Beeton, English writer on household management (born 1836)
- February 25 – Otto Ludwig, German novelist and playwright (born 1813)
- April 2
- April 10 – Shoqan Walikhanov, Russian Kazakh historian and folklorist (born 1835)
- April 13 – Theodosia Trollope, English-born writer (born 1816)
- April 15 – Abraham Lincoln, American orator and president of the republic (born 1809)
- May 14 – Pierre François Xavier de Ram, Belgian historian (born 1804)
- June 10 – Lydia Sigourney, American poet (born 1791)
- June 11 – Frederic Charles Lascelles Wraxall, English writer (born 1828)
- August 4 – William Edmondstoune Aytoun, Scottish poet and humorist (born 1813)
- September 29 – Richard Lower, English dialect poet (born 1782)
- September 30 – Dudley Costello, Irish writer and journalist (born 1803)
- November 12 – Elizabeth Gaskell, English novelist (born 1810)
- December 1 – Abraham Emanuel Fröhlich, Swiss poet (born 1796)
- December 3 – Joseph Marie Quérard, French bibliographer (born 1797)
- December 20 – Barton Bouchier, English religious writer (born 1794)
- Claire Wood (5 March 2015). Dickens and the Business of Death. Cambridge University Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-107-09863-3.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. p. 286. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Everett, Jason M., ed. (2006). "1865". The People's Chronology. Thomson Gale.
- "The Works of Charles Dodgson: Alice". The Lewis Carroll Society. 2014-09-20. Archived from the original on 2014-10-14. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
- Pemberton, T. Edgar (1905). "The English Drama from its Beginning to the Present Day". Society and Caste. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co.
- Edwin Abbott (13 November 2009). Flatland. Broadview Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-77048-129-9.
- Hahn 2015, p. 381
- Hahn 2015, p. 16
- Hahn 2015, p. 170
- A. Norman Jeffares (1 September 2001). W.B. Yeats: A New Biography. A&C Black. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4411-1770-0.
- Ernest Samuels (1981). Bernard Berenson: The Making of a Connoisseur. Harvard University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-674-06777-6.
- "BBC - History - Mrs Beeton". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
- Haight, Gordon S. (1930). Mrs. Sigourney, The Sweet Singer of Hartford. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Bertie, David, ed. (January 2000). Scottish Episcopal Clergy, 1689-2000. p. 459. ISBN 9780567087461. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
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