1836 in science
- October 2 – Naturalist Charles Darwin returns to Falmouth, England, aboard HMS Beagle after a 5-year journey collecting biological data he will later use to develop his theory of evolution.
- Writer Georg Büchner's dissertation on the common barbel (fish), Barbus barbus, "Mémoire sur le Système Nerveux du Barbeaux (Cyprinus barbus L.)" is published in Paris and Strasbourg. In October, after receiving his doctorate, he is appointed by the University of Zurich as a lecturer in anatomy.
- Theodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the stomach lining, the first isolation of an animal enzyme.
- French chemist Auguste Laurent discovers o-phthalic acid (1,2-benzenecarboxylic acid) by oxidizing naphthalene tetrachloride.
- The chemical compound acetylene, also called ethyne, is discovered by Edmund Davy.
- James Marsh publishes the Marsh test for the presence of arsenic.
- Hungarian chemistry student János Irinyi invents a noiseless match.
- October 24 – The earliest United States patent for a phosphorus friction match is granted to Alonzo Dwight Phillips of Springfield, Massachusetts.
- February 5 – Alexander Stewart Herschel (died 1907), South African-born British astronomer.
- May 17 – Norman Lockyer (died 1920), English astronomer.
- May 28 – Alexander Mitscherlich (died 1918), German chemist.
- June 9 – Elizabeth Garrett (died 1917), English physician.
- July 20 – Clifford Allbutt (died 1925), English physician.
- August 16 – John Peirce (died 1897), American inventor.
- September 26 – Thomas Crapper (died 1910), English plumber and inventor.
- October 6 – Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (died 1921), German neuroanatomist.
- October 27 – Thomas Gwyn Elger (died 1897), English astronomer.
- Marsh, J. (1836). "Account of a method of separating small quantities of arsenic from substances with which it may be mixed". Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal. 21: 229–236.
- "János Irinyi". Hungarian Patent Office. Archived from the original on 2010-03-04. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- Callan, N. J. (December 1836). "On a new Galvanic battery". Philosophical Magazine. 3:9: 472–478.
- Callan, N. J. (April 1837). "A description of an electromagnetic repeater, or of a machine by which the connection between the voltaic battery and the helix of an electromagnet may be broken and renewed several thousand times in the space of one minute". Annals of Electricity. Sturgeon. 1: 229–230.
- Czarnik, Stanley A. (March 1992). "The classic induction coil". Popular Electronics. Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Retrieved 2011-05-31.
- Griffiths, R. A. (April 2009), "Analysis of James Dredge's Victoria Bridge, Bath" (PDF), Proceedings of Bridge Engineering 2 Conference 2009, University of Bath, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04, retrieved 2012-11-23
- Smiles, Samuel (1912). James Nasmyth Engineer: an Autobiography. John Murray. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- "Copley Medal | British scientific award". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 July 2020.