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Nick Cannon Presents: Wild 'N Out is an American sketch comedy and improv television series that was created and hosted by comedian Nick Cannon.[1] It debuted on July 28, 2005 on MTV.

Wild 'N Out
Also known asNick Cannon Presents: Wild 'N Out
GenreComedy
Improv
Created byNick Cannon
StarringNick Cannon
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons14
No. of episodes205+
Production
Executive producer(s)
  • Candida Boyettons
  • Michael Goldman
  • Nick Cannon
  • Paul Ricci
Running time30 minutes
Production company(s)Mr. Renassiance Entertainment
(Seasons 1–4)
NCredible Entertainment
(Season 5–)
Release
Original networkMTV
(Seasons 1–4, 8–present)
MTV2
(Seasons 5–7)
VH1
(Season 13–present)
Picture format480i (SDTV)
(Seasons 1–4)
1080i (HDTV)
(Seasons 5–present)
Original releaseJuly 28, 2005 (2005-07-28) –
present
External links
Website

In November 2012, it was announced that the series would be returning in 2013 after a six-year hiatus. The revival features celebrities, along with the show's current cast.[2][3] The fifth season premiered on MTV2 to 1.1 million total viewers, making it the highest-rated telecast in the network's history.[4] The show would continue on MTV2 for three seasons.

On June 9, 2016, Wild 'N Out was renewed for an eighth season, which would mark the series' return to its original network on MTV. The season premiered on August 4, 2016.[5] Wild 'N Out was renewed through Season 16 with 90 new episodes on March 26, 2019.[6]

On June 19, 2019, it was announced that Wild 'N Out would move to sister network VH1 with a special Summer season premiering on July 7, 2019 and get its own streaming channel on Pluto TV.[7][8]

PremiseEdit

Similar in premise to shows such as Whose Line Is It Anyway?, the series puts two teams of comedians against each other in a series of Wild 'N Out games which are all basically "improvisational" comedy games. The Teams are the "Red Squad", which was the team name until season 5 where they became the "Platinum Squad" and were permanently captained by Cannon; and the "Black Squad", led by a celebrity guest until season 7 where the situation was reversed with Cannon becoming the Black Squad team captain and the celebrity guest leading the Platinum Squad. For season 8, the colors were revamped once again with the Gold Squad replacing the Black Squad. The Gold Squad is led by Cannon while the celebrity guest remains captain of the Platinum Squad. However starting in Season 9, Nick returned to leading his original Red Squad team color while the Black Squad team color returned also.

After three such games, the two teams square off against each other in the final round of the game called 'WildStyle', in which they must deliver a punchline directed at their opponent's team member(s) within a freestyle rap. The comedians "beef" with each other; however, some are impersonal jokes. Although similar to Whose Line, the "points don't matter", the teams score one point per round victory during the normal rounds, plus one point per favorably judged punchline during 'Wild Style', which makes it similar in format to the improv show ComedySportz.[9]

Each episode also includes a musical performance, occasionally by the guest captain for the Black/Platinum Squad (Nick Cannon performed with Migos in Season 6 in the episode featuring Chanel Iman). At times, the musical guest comes out just before 'Wild Style' as the judge for the beefs. Major changes were implemented for the second season including shifting the show location to Hollywood and the teams now compete for a "Wild 'N Out" Championship belt which if the Black Squad wins, the team captain gets to take home.

ProductionEdit

For the first four seasons, the show filmed from Los Angeles/Hollywood and aired on MTV. The first run episodes were suspended as Mr. Renaissance Entertainment became Ncredible Entertainment in 2012. Upon being renewed in 2013, the show was produced in New York City and aired on MTV2 during Seasons 5–7, In 2016, the show returned to airing new episodes on MTV and also for the first time since Season 4, production was in Los Angeles. Production was in New York City again from Seasons 9-11 and currently, since Season 12, the show is filming in Atlanta, Georgia and airing on VH1 since July 2019.

The "Wild 'n Out Theme Song" for Seasons 1–4 was produced by Fatman Scoop. The theme music for Season 5 onward was created by Cannon himself, with a new remixed version made for Season 8. "We Gon' Wild Out" is the current theme for the show and was introduced in Season 12.

CastEdit

Season 1Edit

Season 2Edit

Season 3Edit

Season 4Edit

Season 5Edit

Season 6Edit

Season 7Edit

Season 8Edit

Season 9Edit

Season 10Edit

Season 11Edit

Season 12Edit

Season 13Edit

Season 14Edit

GamesEdit

  • World's Worst: a game where the world best goes wrong; introduced in Season 1 in an episode featuring SNL comedian, Kenan Thompson.
  • You Can't Say That: A game where the most inappropriate thing is said on live TV; this game was first introduced in Season 1 in an episode featuring Wu-Tang Clan member, Method Man.
  • Let Me Holla: Members from each team use a pick up line on a Wild'n Out girl. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • The Interrogation Game: an improv comedy game of interrogating an unknown suspect and the suspect must give out a clue of who they are. This was used in Season 1 by Christina Milian.
  • The Hating Game: a comedic version of the Dating Game with bad intentions heard about the bachelors. Used in Season 1 featuring guest team captain, Fonzworth Bentley.
  • Before and After: A game where one person from each team is giving a category as he/she must act out a person or thing before and after.
  • Tore Up from the Floor Up: A game where people from the audience are called to walk the runway as the teams clown about the outfits. the team with funny lines, earn bells. Buzzers for non-funny jokes.
  • Celebrity Death Battle: an improv game where two people have a rap battle, acting as the celebrities shown on the monitor.
  • Turn Up For What: A member from each team shout "Turn up......" The audience then ask "Turn up for what?" If the reply is funny, music is played and everyone 'turns up'; if it's unfunny, they get crickets. The team with the most points wins.
  • Got Props: Each team is given a prop and has to use it in a scenario. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • That's My Dog: A game where two people of the same team (one the owner of the dog and the other as the dog) must come to an understanding of clues DJ D-Wrek gives out. First introduced in Season 1 by principal cast member (later guest team captain), Kevin Hart.
  • Unhappily Ever After: A funny take on fairy tales with bad endings. Used in Season 1 by guest team captain, Kanye West.
  • Remix: Each team has to remix a nursery rhyme or a beloved/well-known song, generally one directed towards children. The audience decides the winner after by the ferocity of their applause.
  • Trap N Out: an alternative version of Remix first introduced in Wild N' Out Season 8 when the Migos were team captains/performers. In this game, the teams get a word/prompt and turn it into a trap song
  • R and Beef: Each team has to make a R&B song from audience suggestions or problems. The audience decides the winner after based on their applause.
  • Rock N Beef: An alternative version of R & Beef used in an episode featuring Pete Wentz of Fall Out Boy.
  • Pie or Die: Each member is given a word and has to use it correctly in a freestyle rap. If they use it correctly, they gain a bell. If they don't use it correctly, screw up the rap by forgetting what to say next, they get a pie to the face. The team with the most bells wins.
  • Talking Spit: The team captains sit down and fill their mouth with water. Opposite members of each team try to make them laugh. The team that has the most spits loses.
  • Pillow Talk: An alternative version of Talkin' Spit using pillows in substitution of water bottles and a bucket. This concept was used in an episode featuring Victoria's Secret model Chanel Iman.
  • Family Reunion: Each member of each team have to introduce a member of the audience as their "family member" and if the introduction is funny they get a bell, if it's unfunny they get a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • Eat Dat Ass Up: Each team is given a random word or phrase to come up with a dance to do. The team that does it the best wins.
  • Plead the Fifth: The team captain of both teams sit in a cage and are asked questions by the opposing members. The captains have to answer the questions truthfully. The only way to get out of answering the question is saying "I plead the fifth". The team who pleads the fifth the most loses.
  • Now You Wild Out: Each team is given a place to rap a description about what to do at the place and end with punchline "Now You Wild Out" and its keep going until one team can't think of a rhyme. The team with the most points wins.
  • Pick up and Kill it: One person from each team is rap battling about a specific topic. Whichever player fumbles on their rhymes first, or doesn't have an idea for the next verse loses, and the other team gets the point for that round. The team with the most points wins.
  • Flow Job: One member of each team must freestyle rap about the occupation they are given to a Wild 'n Out girl. If she gets it, they earn a bell, and if she doesn't, they get a buzzer.
  • Twerk Work: Teams make up twerk songs based on occupation suggestions from twitter. The audience decides the winner after.
  • Breaking Up Is Hard to Do: Members from each team use their best breaking up technique on a wild'n out girl. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • So Fly: Members from each team compliment their captain. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • So Ballin': an alternative version of So Fly used in Season 4 by rap artist, Jim Jones.
  • Late Night Questions: A game were one person ask a question in bed causing the other to be uncomfortable.
  • Star Sightings: Members from each team go out and find people in the audience that look like stars. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • Who's On The Pole: Members from each team can say jokes about audience members who go up on stage and dance on the pole. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's not funny, you get nothing. The team with the most points wins.
  • Bail Me Out: Members from each team try to get their captain to say which celebrity they are trying to be. The team that gets the most right wins.
  • Wildagram: DJ D-Wrek will give each team a celebrity name and they got 15 seconds to act out their "Wildagram" post. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • Instaham: Photo of a celebrity will be shown on the screen and the cast members have to explain what happened with a funny punchline. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins. This game was introduced in Season 1 as Snap on the Shots with guest team captain, Eva Pigford.
  • Hood Jeopardy: Jeopardy with a twist, each team member can go up and say the answer to what's on screen. If it's funny, it gets a bell; if it's unfunny, it gets a buzzer. The team with the most points wins.
  • Bullspittin: Members from each team get on a mechanical bull. They get a topic to rap about and each time they complete one, the team gets a point and a new one is given. They rap on as many topics as they can before falling off the bull.
  • Got Damned: Team members take turns going one on one with a member from the other team in a roasting battle, if you take too long to think of a roast or you stutter, the other team gets a point. The team with the most points wins. Also Emmanuel Hudson is the referee of this game making him the only cast member to control the game other than DJ D-Wrek.

EpisodesEdit

Season 1Edit

  1. Orlando Jones/Cassidy/Biz Markie
  2. Christina Milian/Common
  3. Ying Yang Twins
  4. Kanye West/Tracee Ellis Ross
  5. Eva Marcille/T.I.
  6. Kenan Thompson/The Pussycat Dolls
  7. Fonzworth Bentley/Trillville
  8. Omarion/Lil Wayne
  9. Kevin Hart/David Banner
  10. Method Man/Lil Scrappy

Season 2Edit

The 2nd season contains a total of 10 episodes which were broadcast from February 2 to April 6, 2006 on MTV.

  1. Lil Jon/Three 6 Mafia
  2. Tyra Banks/Sean Paul
  3. Cedric the Entertainer/Dem Franchise Boyz/Da Brat/Jermaine Dupri
  4. Marques Houston/Rhymefest/Kanye West/Bobby Brown
  5. Rev Run/Young Jeezy/Akon
  6. Kelly Rowland/Ne-Yo
  7. Mike Jones
  8. Charlie Murphy/Busta Rhymes
  9. Wayne Brady/Paul Wall
  10. Mike Epps/Joy Bryant/Pitbull

Season 3Edit

The 3rd season contains a total of 8 episodes which were broadcast from August 10 to October 5, 2006 on MTV.

  1. Lil Jon/Purple Ribbon All Stars/Big Boi
  2. Fat Joe/Clipse/Pharrell Williams
  3. Andy Milonakis/Field Mob
  4. Warren Sapp/Method Man
  5. Jamie Kennedy/Chamillionaire
  6. E-40
  7. Ray J/Yung Joc
  8. Talib Kweli/Lupe Fiasco

Season 4Edit

The 4th season contains a total of 20 episodes which were broadcast from May 12 to September 6, 2007 on MTV.

  1. Snoop Dogg
  2. Ne-Yo
  3. Lloyd
  4. Steve-O/Big Daddy Kane
  5. Fabolous
  6. Brooke Hogan/Three 6 Mafia
  7. Redman
  8. Swizz Beatz
  9. Tara Reid/Izzy Battle
  10. Young Buck
  11. Pauly Shore/The Fixxers
  12. Jim Jones
  13. Serena Williams/Crime Mob
  14. Common
  15. Terry Crews/Pretty Ricky
  16. Paula DeAnda/Baby Boy da Prince
  17. Big Boy/Mike Jones
  18. Sommore/DJ Unk
  19. Bruce Bruce/Paul Wall
  20. Katt Williams/Huey

Season 5Edit

The 5th season contains a total of 12 episodes which were broadcast from July 9 to September 24, 2013 on MTV2.

  1. Kevin Hart/DJ Khaled
  2. Mac Miller
  3. 2 Chainz/Lil Duval
  4. Vinny Guadagnino/Mike Epps/Talib Kweli
  5. French Montana/Guy Code Cast
  6. A$AP Rocky
  7. Amar'e Stoudemire/Macklemore & Ryan Lewis
  8. Lil Duval/Charlamagne Tha God/Joey Bada$$
  9. Chanel West Coast/Pusha T
  10. Joe Budden/Big Boi
  11. MGK
  12. Kevin Hart/Kirko Bangz

Season 6Edit

The 6th season contains a total of 16 episodes which were broadcast from July 2, 2014 to February 4, 2015 on MTV2.

  1. Rick Ross/MMG
  2. Nelly
  3. Skylar Diggins/Vic Mensa
  4. Bow Wow/Que
  5. Crissy Teigen/PWD/Michael Strahan
  6. Austin Mahone
  7. RiFF RaFF
  8. Asher Roth/Drita D'Avonso/Troy Ave
  9. Tech N9ne/MURS
  10. Amber Rose/Wiz Khalifa
  11. Brandon T. Jackson/Jim Jones/Wonder Broz/Sage the Gemini
  12. Maino/Yo Gotti/Rich Homie Quan
  13. Chanel Iman/Migos
  14. Peter Gunz/Angel Haze
  15. Sage the Gemini
  16. Adrien Broner/Yo Gotti/Rich Homie Quan

Season 7Edit

The 7th season contains a total of 16 episodes which were broadcast from June 10, 2015 to January 6, 2016 on MTV2. There are also stand up specials after the episodes in this season are finished.

  1. Fabolous/Kevin Hart
  2. Rae Sremmurd
  3. T-Pain
  4. Pete Wentz/Fetty Wap
  5. Zendaya/Ne-Yo
  6. Nick Young/A-Town/Snacks/French Montana
  7. Ty Dolla $ign/IceJJFish
  8. Mack Wilds/DJ Drama/O.T. Genasis
  9. Dej Loaf
  10. A$AP Ferg/Hailey Clauson/Marty Baller
  11. Jordin Sparks/Snoop Dogg/Arsonal da Rebel
  12. Shaquille O'Neal/Migos
  13. Ray J/Lil Duval
  14. Remy Ma/The Breakfast Club/K Camp
  15. Tommy Lister/Conceited/Hitman Holla
  16. Fat Joe/Desus Nice/The Kid Mero

Season 8Edit

The 8th season contains a total of 21 episodes which were broadcast from August 4, 2016 to April 20, 2017 on MTV, marking the first time in almost a decade that the show aired new episodes on its original network.

  1. Tyga/Scott Disick
  2. Iggy Azalea/Travis Mills
  3. Waka Flocka/Tate Kobang
  4. Travis Scott
  5. Bella Thorne/Jadakiss
  6. T.I./Young Dro
  7. Lil Dicky/Rachel Hilbert
  8. Keke Palmer/Erykah Badu/Mack Wilds/Curren$y
  9. Timbaland/Les Twins/Jay Leno/Lyfe Jennings/Kehlani
  10. Stevie J/Joseline Hernandez/Yo Gotti
  11. 2 Chainz
  12. K. Michelle/Antonio Cromartie/Flo Rida
  13. Trevor Jackson/DRAM
  14. Chris Paul/iLoveMemphis
  15. Samantha Hoopes/Russel Peters/Don Benjamin/Jeremih
  16. Trina
  17. Lil Bibby/Ta'Rhonda Jones/Dreezy
  18. Migos
  19. Faizon Love/2 Milly
  20. Deontay Wilder/Tory Lanez
  21. Omarion/Safaree

Season 9Edit

The 9th season contains a total of 16 episodes which were broadcast from June 29 to October 5, 2017 on MTV.

  1. Chance the Rapper/Saba
  2. Vic Mensa/Method Man
  3. Dave East/Nev Schulman
  4. Lil Yachty
  5. Blac Chyna/ItsAMovie
  6. The Cast of the New Edition Story/Nick Grant
  7. Tami Roman/Lecrae
  8. Remy Ma/Papoose/Conceited/Hitman Holla
  9. Killer Mike/Run the Jewels
  10. Young M.A.
  11. Rick Ross/Slab/YesJulz
  12. Jake Miller/Shameik Moore
  13. Lil Rel Howery/Mia Kang/Ayo & Teo
  14. LeSean McCoy/SNS/Kid The Wiz/Todrick Hall
  15. DJ Self/Demaris Lewis/Kodie Shane
  16. Wendy Williams/Blac Youngsta/Cipha Sounds

Season 10Edit

The 10th season contains a total of 16 episodes which were broadcast from November 30, 2017 to March 1, 2018 on MTV.

  1. Desiigner/Kranium
  2. Wu-Tang Clan
  3. Sereyah/Fatboy SSE
  4. Santa Claus/Slick Woods/Jacquees
  5. Pete Davidson/PnB Rock
  6. MGK/Sommer Ray
  7. Ayo & Teo
  8. Keyshia Cole/Smokepurpp
  9. Fabolous/Elijah Kelley
  10. The Combs Brothers
  11. Tee Grizzley
  12. Wyclef Jean/Sara Sampio
  13. KYLE/Sky
  14. Gary Owen/CyHi the Prynce/21 Savage
  15. A Boogie wit da Hoodie/Don Q/CyHi the Prynce
  16. A$AP Mob
  • International Women's Day Special

Season 11Edit

The 11th season consists of 21 episodes and premiered on March 15, 2018 on MTV, two weeks after the end of Season 10, & concluded September 29, 2019 on VH1.

  1. All That Cast/Shameik Moore
  2. PRETTYMUCH
  3. Laurie Hernandez/Yvng Swag
  4. Rick Ross/Slab
  5. Tyga
  6. T.I./Hustle Gang
  7. Keke Palmer/Vic Mensa
  8. Baby Ariel/BJ the Chicago Kid
  9. Dolph Ziggler/Rich the Kid
  10. Prince Royce/Shameik Moore
  11. Blac Youngsta/Cordell Broadus
  12. Amara LeNegra/Bobby Lytes/Derez De'Shon
  13. Winnie Harlow/Rapsody/Shameik Moore
  14. Rachel Lindsay/Vic Mensa/Kent Jones
  15. Dream Doll/Caroline Lowe/Roy Woods
  16. Matt Barnes/Mariah Lynn/Kap G
  17. Justine Sky/Vic Mensa
  18. Affion Crockett/Karlie Redd/Vic Mensa
  19. Mikey Day/Jack & Jack
  20. Trick Daddy/Famous Dex
  21. Wild 'N Out: Veterans vs Rookies/Maino

Season 12Edit

The 12th season approximately consists of 26 episodes and premiered on August 17, 2018 on MTV.

  1. Chance the Rapper/Reesey Nem
  2. Ludacris
  3. Azealia Banks/Lil Yachty/JaVale McGee
  4. Rae Sremmurd
  5. Chloe x Halle
  6. Trevor Jackson/Deon Cole
  7. Love & Hip-Hop: Atlanta
  8. Jonathan Cheban/Lais Ribeiro/Ayo & Teo
  9. Matt Triplet/Yung Joc/Curt Chambers
  10. Dwight Howard/Brett Grey/Trinidad Cordona
  11. Tiffany Hayes/Angel McCoughtry/Jay Rock
  12. BlocBoy JB
  13. Sasha Banks/Yung Joc/MadeinTYO
  14. Jacquees
  15. So So Def Anniversary Special
  16. Goodie Mob Reunion
  17. Young M.A./Erica Mena/O.G. Parker/Justin Hires
  18. O.T. Genasis/Nate Robinson
  19. Andre Drummond/Kandi Burruss/Lil Baby
  20. Shaun T/Tyron Woodley/YBN Crew/O.G. Parker
  21. Desiigner/Love & Hip-Hop: Atlanta
  22. Tiny Harris/Zonnique/Bun B
  23. Big Tigger/Rico Nasty
  24. Lil Durk/Bernice Burgos
  25. Trae tha Truth/Josephine Skriver
  26. 85 South Show/James Davis/Eric Bellinger/F.L.Y.

Season 13Edit

The thirteenth season was filmed in Atlanta from October 29 to November 11, 2018. It premiered on February 1, 2019 on MTV and continued on July 7 and concluded September 15 on VH1.[7]

  1. Lil Duval
  2. Soulja Boy
  3. Sky/Doja Cat
  4. Tory Lanez
  5. Marlon Wayans/Anderson .Paak/DaniLeigh
  6. Wiz Khalifa
  7. Karlous Miller/LightSkin Keisha/B.Smyth
  8. Toya Wright/Tiny Harris/Monica Brown/Shy Glizzy
  9. Vinny Guadagnino/Ronnie Ortiz-Magro/Karol G
  10. Carmella/R-Truth/Sofi Tukker
  11. Swizz Beatz/Kash Doll
  12. Perez Hilton/Lay Lay/J.I.D
  13. Shiggy/Lil Mosey
  14. T-Pain/MoneyBagg Yo
  15. Love & Hip Hop: Hollywood/Kash Doll
  16. NeNe Leakes/Brentt Leakes/Diggy Simmons/Smino
  17. Marshmello/Sherrie Silver/O.G. Parker/Yella Beezy
  18. G Herbo/Eva Marcille
  19. Akon/Buddy/Sarunas J. Jackson
  20. Jimmy O. Yang/Michael Rainey Jr./Pardison Fontaine
  21. Ne-Yo/Kodie Shane
  22. Cynthia Bailey/YFN Lucci
  23. Lupe Fiasco
  24. A$AP Ferg
  25. Denzel Curry
  26. TK Kravitz

Season 14Edit

The fourteenth season was filmed in Atlanta from May 14 to 25, 2019. The season premiered on August 17, 2019 with two episodes and a special that aired on MTV. The rest of the season will air on VH1.

  1. Dinah Jane
  2. 2 Chainz
  • The W.M.A's: The Wildest Moments Awards

Season 15Edit

The fifteenth season will be filming in Atlanta from December 9 to 18, 2019 and will air sometime in 2020 either on MTV or VH1.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "MTV Announces Premiere of 'Nick Cannon Presents Wild'N Out'". The Futon Critic. July 14, 2005.
  2. ^ "MTV2 Greenlights Re-Imagination of 'Nick Cannon Presents Wild 'n Out' to Premiere in 2013". The Futon Critic. November 12, 2012.
  3. ^ Bibel, Sara (November 12, 2012). "MTV2 Greenlights Re-Imagination of 'Nick Cannon Presents Wild 'n Out' to Premiere in 2013". TV by the Numbers.
  4. ^ Bibel, Sara (July 11, 2013). "'Nick Cannon Presents: Wild 'n Out' & 'Ain't That America with Lil Duval' Deliver Highest Ratings in MTV2 History". TV by the Numbers.
  5. ^ McCrary, Michelle (June 9, 2016). "Season Eight of Nick Cannon Presents Wild-N-Out Returns to MTV" (Press release). Viacom. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  6. ^ "MTV's "Wild 'N Out" Renewed Through Season 16". RenewCancelTV. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  7. ^ a b "MTV's "Nick Cannon Presents: Wild 'N Out" Expands to VH1 for Summer Stunt" (Press release). The Futon Critic. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  8. ^ Out, Wild 'N (June 19, 2019). "This is NOT a test ALL NEW #WildNOut x @VH1 starting SUNDAY, July 7th at 7/6c pic.twitter.com/VyI1C310Wh". @wildnout. Retrieved June 20, 2019.
  9. ^ Fotis, Matt (2014). Long form improvisation and American comedy : the Harold. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-37658-9.

External linksEdit