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White guilt is the individual or collective guilt felt by some white people for harm resulting from racist treatment of ethnic minorities by other white people both historically and currently in the United States and to a lesser extent in Canada, South Africa, France and the United Kingdom.[1] White guilt has been described[by whom?] as one of the psychosocial costs of racism for white individuals along with empathy (sadness and anger) for victims of racism and fear of non-whites.[2]

HistoryEdit

Judith Katz, the author of the 1978 publication White Awareness: Handbook for Anti-Racism Training, is critical of what she calls self-indulgent white guilt fixations. Her concerns about white guilt led her to move from black-white group encounters to all-white groups in her anti-racism training. She also avoided using non-white people to re-educate whites, she said, because she found this led whites to focus on getting acceptance and forgiveness rather than changing their own actions or beliefs.[3]

A report in The Washington Post from 1978 describes the exploitation of white guilt by con artists: "Telephone and mail solicitors, trading on 'white guilt' and on government pressure to advertise in minority-oriented publications, are inducing thousands of businessmen to buy ads in phony publications."[4]

Academic researchEdit

In 1999, academic research conducted at the University of Pennsylvania examined the extent of societal feeling of white guilt, possible guilt-based antecedents, and white guilt's relationship to attitudes towards affirmative action. The four studies revealed that "Even though mean White guilt tended to be low, with the mean being just below the midpoint of the scale, the range and variability confirms the existence of feelings of White guilt for some". The findings also showed that white guilt was directly linked to "more negative personal evaluations" of white people generally, and the extent of an individual's feelings of white guilt independently predicted attitudes towards white privilege, racial discrimination and affirmative action.[5]

2003 research at the University of California, Santa Cruz, in its first study, replicated the link between white guilt and strength of belief in white privilege. The second study revealed that white guilt "resulted from seeing European Americans as perpetrators of racial discrimination", and was also predictive of support for compensatory efforts for African Americans.[6]

Modern dayEdit

American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin wrote that reparations for slavery would be an exploitation of white guilt and damage the "integrity of blacks".[7] In 2006, then-Senator Barack Obama wrote in his book The Audacity of Hope that "rightly or wrongly, white guilt has largely exhausted itself in America".[8] His view on the subject was based on an interaction in the US Senate, where he witnessed a white legislator complain about being made to "feel more white" when a black colleague discussed systemic racism with them.[9]

Shelby Steele, a conservative black political writer, discussed the concept in his 2006 book White Guilt: How Blacks and Whites Together Destroyed the Promise of the Civil Rights Era. Steele criticizes "white guilt" saying that it is nothing more than an alternative interpretation of the concept of "black power":

Whites (and American institutions) must acknowledge historical racism to show themselves redeemed by it, but once they acknowledge it, they lose moral authority over everything having to do with race, equality, social justice, poverty and so on. [...] The authority they lose transfers to the 'victims' of historical racism and becomes their great power in society. This is why white guilt is quite literally the same thing as Black power.[10]

George F. Will, a conservative American political columnist, wrote: "[White guilt is] a form of self-congratulation, where whites initiate 'compassionate policies' toward people of color, to showcase their innocence to racism."[11]

One academic paper suggests in France, white guilt may be a common feature of management of race relations – in contrast to other European countries.[12]

In 2015, when it came to light American civil rights activist Rachel Dolezal had been posing as African American, Washington Post journalist Krissah Thompson described her as "an archetype of white guilt played to its end". Thompson discussed the issue with psychologist Derald Wing Sue, an expert on racial identity, who suggested that Dolezal had become so fascinated by racism and racial justice issues she "over-identified" with black people.[13] In 2016, the school district of Henrico County, Virginia ceased future use of an educational video, Structural Discrimination: The Unequal Opportunity Race, which visualized white privilege and structural racism. Parents complained, calling it a white guilt video, which led to a ban by the county's superintendent.[14][15]

In 2019, it was reported how liberal white Americans were being influenced by white guilt, changing patterns of political and social behaviour to be more racially inclusive since the election of Donald Trump. This included the methods by which Democratic nominees were being considered for the 2020 presidential election.[16][17]

Critical opinionsEdit

Commentator Sunny Hundal, writing for The Guardian, stated it is "reductionist" to assign political opinions to a collective guilt such as "white guilt" and few people on the left actually hold the views being ascribed to them by the conservative writers who expound on the concept of "white guilt" and its implications. Hundal concludes: "Not much annoys me more than the stereotype that to be liberal is to be full of guilt. To be socially liberal, in my view, is to be more mindful of compassion and empathy for others…to label that simply as guilt is just...insulting".[18]

In 2015, Gary Younge explored white guilt's impotence in society, writing that "It won’t close the pay gap, the unemployment gap, the wealth gap or the discrepancy between black and white incarceration. It won’t bring back Walter Scott, Trayvon Martin or Brandon Moore".[19] Coleman Hughes has suggested that white guilt causes the misdirection of anti-racist efforts, writing that "where white guilt is endemic, demands to redress racism will be strongest, regardless of how much racism actually exists".[20]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shelby Steele. A World of Difference: White Guilt. internet: WPSU-FM. Archived from the original on 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
  2. ^ Lisa Spanierman. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 51(2):249–262 Apr 2004.
  3. ^ Alcoff, Linda Martín. "What Should White People Do?". Historyisaweapon.com.
  4. ^ Lou Cannon. Phony Ad Salesmen Prey on "White Guilt". The Washington Post. January 16, 1978. Accessed September 30, 2007.
  5. ^ Janet K. Swim; Deborah L. Miller (1999). White Guilt: Its Antecedents and Consequences for Attitudes Toward Affirmative Action (Volume: 25 issue: 4 ed.). Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania. p. 500-514.
  6. ^ Aarti Iyer; Colin Wayne Leach; Faye J. Crosby (2003). White Guilt and Racial Compensation: The Benefits and Limits of Self-Focus (Volume: 29 issue: 1 ed.). Santa Cruz: University of California, Santa Cruz. p. 117-129.
  7. ^ "Should black Americans get slavery reparations?". BBC. March 21, 2019.
  8. ^ "The great black and white hope?". The Times. April 27, 2007.
  9. ^ "White guilt won't fix America's race problem. Only justice and equality will". The Guardian. April 10, 2015.
  10. ^ Shelby Steele. (2006) White Guilt: How Blacks and Whites Together Destroyed the Promise of the Civil Rights Era. HarperCollins. Except from Chapter 4: Certain Knowledge, p24. Accessed September 30, 2007.
  11. ^ Will, George F. (June 5, 2006). "White Guilt, Deciphered". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
  12. ^ Bonnet, François (August 8, 2009). "Racial Interactions, Racism Accusations and White Guilt in France and Italy". Retrieved February 26, 2015.
  13. ^ Thompson, Krissah (June 12, 2015). "Passing in reverse: What does an NAACP leader's case say about race?". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
  14. ^ Peter Holley (February 11, 2016). "Parents outraged after students shown 'white guilt' cartoon for Black History Month". The Washington Post.
  15. ^ "Parents outraged after students shown 'white guilt' cartoon for Black History Month". Associated Press. February 12, 2016.
  16. ^ Astead W. Herndon (October 13, 2019). "How 'White Guilt' in the Age of Trump Shapes the Democratic Primary". The New York Times.
  17. ^ Asma Khalid (October 13, 2019). "How White Liberals Became Woke, Radically Changing Their Outlook On Race". NPR.
  18. ^ Sunny Hundal. The guilt-free liberal. The Guardian. September 3, 2007. Accessed September 30, 2007.
  19. ^ Gary Younge (April 10, 2015). "White guilt won't fix America's race problem. Only justice and equality will". The Guardian.
  20. ^ Coleman Hughes (June 23, 2018). "The diversity trap". The Spectator.

Further readingEdit