Aotearoa

Aotearoa (Māori: [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]; commonly pronounced by English speakers as /ˌɑːtəˈrə/[1]) is the Māori name for New Zealand. It was originally used by the Māori people in reference to only the North Island[2] but, since the late 19th century, the word has come to refer to the whole archipelago. Several meanings have been proposed for the name; the most popular translation usually given is "long white cloud",[3] or variations thereof. This refers to the cloud formations which helped early Polynesian navigators find the country.

External audio
audio icon Pronunciation at Kōrero Māori, the Māori Language Commission website

Beginning in the late 20th century, Aotearoa is becoming widespread in the bilingual names of national organisations and institutions. Since the 1990s, it has been customary to sing the New Zealand national anthem, "God Defend New Zealand" (or "Aotearoa"), in both Māori and English,[4] exposing the name to a wider audience.

EtymologyEdit

The original meaning of Aotearoa is not known.[5] The word can be broken up as: ao ('cloud', 'dawn', 'daytime' or 'world'), tea ('white', 'clear' or 'bright') and roa ('long'). It can also be broken up as Aotea, the name of one of the migratory canoes that travelled to New Zealand, and roa ('long'). One literal translation is 'long white cloud',[3] commonly lengthened to 'the land of the long white cloud'.[6] Alternative translations are 'long bright world' or 'land of abiding day' referring to the length and quality of the New Zealand daylight (when compared to the shorter days found further north in Polynesia).[7]

MythologyEdit

In some traditional stories, Aotearoa was the name of the canoe (waka) of the explorer Kupe, and he named the land after it.[8] Kupe's wife Kuramārōtini (in some versions, his daughter) was watching the horizon and called "He ao! He ao!" ('a cloud! a cloud!').[9] Other versions say the canoe was guided by a long white cloud in the course of the day and by a long bright cloud at night. On arrival, the sign of land to Kupe's crew was the long cloud hanging over it. The cloud caught Kupe's attention and he said "Surely is a point of land". Due to the cloud which greeted them, Kupe named the land Aotearoa.[3]

UsageEdit

It is not known when Māori began incorporating the name into their oral lore. Beginning in 1845, George Grey, Governor of New Zealand, spent some years amassing information from Māori regarding their legends and histories. He translated it into English, and in 1855 published a book called Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand Race. In a reference to Māui, the culture hero, Grey's translation from the Māori reads as follows:

Thus died this Maui we have spoken of; but before he died he had children, and sons were born to him; some of his descendants yet live in Hawaiki, some in Aotearoa (or in these islands); the greater part of his descendants remained in Hawaiki, but a few of them came here to Aotearoa.[10]

 
Elsdon Best and Stephenson Percy Smith of the Polynesian Society, who did much to popularise the use of Aotearoa in Edwardian school books, pictured in 1908

The use of Aotearoa to refer to the whole country is a post-colonial custom.[11] Before the period of contact with Europeans, Māori did not have a commonly-used name for the entire New Zealand archipelago. As late as the 1890s the name was used in reference to the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) only; an example of this usage appeared in the first issue of Huia Tangata Kotahi, a Māori-language newspaper published on February 8, 1893. It contained the dedication on the front page, "He perehi tenei mo nga iwi Maori, katoa, o Aotearoa, mete Waipounamu",[12] meaning "This is a publication for the Māori tribes of the North Island and the South Island".

After the adoption of the name New Zealand (anglicised from Nova Zeelandia[13]) by Europeans, one name used by Māori to denote the country as a whole was Niu Tireni,[14][note 1] a respelling of New Zealand derived from an approximate pronunciation.

The expanded meaning of Aotearoa among Pākehā became commonplace in the late 19th century. Aotearoa was used for the name of New Zealand in the 1878 translation of "God Defend New Zealand", by Judge Thomas Henry Smith of the Native Land Court[15]—this translation is widely used today when the anthem is sung in Māori.[4] Additionally, William Pember Reeves used Aotearoa to mean New Zealand in his history of the country published in 1898, The Long White Cloud Ao-tea-roa.[note 2]

 
A bilingual sign outside the National Library of New Zealand uses Aotearoa alongside New Zealand.

The combined Aotearoa New Zealand has been popularised since the 1980s as a symbolic name to emphasise the bicultural elements of New Zealand society.[5] Since the late 20th century Aotearoa is becoming widespread also in the bilingual names of national organisations, such as the National Library of New Zealand / Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa.[16]

In 2015, to celebrate Māori Language Week, the Black Caps (the New Zealand national cricket team) played under the name Aotearoa for their first match against Zimbabwe.[17]

MusicEdit

2018 and 2019 petitionsEdit

A petition initiated by David Chester was presented to Parliament on 13 April 2018, requesting legislation to change the name of New Zealand to Aotearoa – New Zealand.

A petition initiated by Danny Tahau Jobe for a referendum on whether the official name of New Zealand should change to include Aotearoa, [20] received 6,310 signatures.[21] The petition was presented to Parliament by the Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand co-leader Marama Davidson on 1 May 2019.[21]

The petitions were considered together by Parliament's Governance and Administration Select Committee[21] which responded that it acknowledged the significance of the name "Aotearoa" and that it is increasingly being used to refer to New Zealand.

The committee also noted that there are references throughout legislation to both "Aotearoa" and "New Zealand" and that while not legislated, the use of bilingual titles throughout Parliament and government agencies is common.

"However, at present we do not consider that a legal name change, or a referendum on the same change, is needed," the committee said.

See alsoEdit

Explanatory notesEdit

  1. ^ The spelling varies, for example, the variant Nu Tirani appears in the Māori version of the Declaration of Independence of New Zealand and the Treaty of Waitangi. Whatever the spelling, this name is now rarely used as Māori no longer favour the use of transliterations from English.
  2. ^ The long White Cloud Ao-tea-roa can be viewed online at Project Gutenberg.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
  2. ^ King, Michael (13 October 2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand. Penguin Random House New Zealand. ISBN 9781742288260. In fact in the pre-European era, Maori had no name for the country as a whole. Polynesian ancestors came from motu or islands and it was to islands that they gave names.
  3. ^ a b c McLintock, A. H., ed. (1966). "Aotearoa". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 19 July 2020 – via Te Ara.
  4. ^ a b "God Defend New Zealand/Aotearoa | Ministry for Culture and Heritage". mch.govt.nz. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b Orsman, Harry (1998). "Aotearoa". In Robinson, Roger; Nelson, Wattie (eds.). The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195583489.001.0001. ISBN 9780195583489.
  6. ^ "Swirling cloud captured above New Zealand — 'The Land of the Long White Cloud'". The Daily Telegraph. 22 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  7. ^ Jock Philips (ed.). "Light -Experiencing New Zealand light". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand.
  8. ^ Percy Smith, Stephenson (1910). History and traditions of the Maoris of the West Coast, North Island of New Zealand, prior to 1840 (First ed.). Polynesian Society, New Plymouth. p. 77. Retrieved 14 March 2021. The first we hear of this Uenuku in Maori story is, that he was living at a place named Aotea-roa (the same name as New Zealand—a point worth noting) which, from what follows was Tahiti, where indeed his grandfather and great-grandfather held lands, until the former was expelled by Tu-tapu at the point of the spear; but even then the great-grandfather, Kau-ngaki (Kahu-ngaki in Maori), remained there and no doubt kept "the fire burning" on their ancestral lands.
  9. ^ Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, Te Ahukaramū Charles. "First peoples in Māori tradition - Kupe". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  10. ^ Grey, Sir George. "Polynesian Mythology and Ancient Traditional History of the New Zealand Race". New Zealand Texts Collection, Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  11. ^ Holmes, Paul (10 October 2003). "Michael King talks moa, flightless geese and the name Aotearoa - 1ZB Interview with Michael King - co-recipient of the inaugural Prime Minister's Awards for literary achievment". The Big Idea. Retrieved 14 March 2021. The other thing you talk about in your book is the word, the name "Aotearoa" and you say that in fact pre European, Maori did not actually call this place Aotearoa? King: There were some Maori tribes that had a tradition that the North Island had been called Aotea and Aotearoa but the two writers who popularised the Aotearoa name and the story of Kupe associated with it, were a man called Stephenson Percy-Smith and William Pember-Reeves and in a school journal in particular, it went into every school in the country in the early 20th century, they used Percy-Smith's material and the story about Kupe and Aotearoa said this is a wonderful name and it's a wonderful story, wouldn't it be great if everybody called New Zealand, Aotearoa. And the result was that Maori children went to school.. We had a pretty extensive education system both in general schools and in the native school system.. And they learnt at school that the Maori name of New Zealand was Aotearoa and that's how it became the Maori name.
  12. ^ "Huia Tangata Kotahi". New Zealand Digital Library, University of Waikato. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  13. ^ McKinnon, Malcolm (November 2009). "Place names – Naming the country and the main islands". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  14. ^ Robinson, Roger; Nelson, Wattie, eds. (1998). "Niu Tirani". The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Literature. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195583489.001.0001. ISBN 9780195583489.
  15. ^ "History of God Defend New Zealand". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  16. ^ "National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa) Act 2003". legislation.govt.n. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 5 May 2003. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  17. ^ "New Zealand to play as Aotearoa". ESPNCricinfo. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  18. ^ "Overture: Aotearoa". SOUNZ. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  19. ^ "Land of the Long White Cloud". C. Alan Publications. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  20. ^ "Petition for referendum to include Aotearoa in official name of New Zealand". Stuff. 1 February 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  21. ^ a b c "Petition of Danny Tahau Jobe - Referendum to include Aotearoa in the official name of New Zealand". New Zealand Parliament. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2019.

External linksEdit

  •   The dictionary definition of Aotearoa at Wiktionary