Open main menu

Vaccination policy

Vaccination policy refers to the health policy a government adopts in relation to vaccination. Vaccination policies have been developed over the approximately two centuries since the invention of vaccination with the purpose of eradicating disease from, or creating a herd immunity for the population the government aims to protect. Vaccinations are voluntary in some countries and mandatory in others, with mandatory vaccination policies sparking opposition. Some governments pay for all or part of the costs of vaccinations in a national vaccination schedule. Cost-benefit analyses of vaccinations have shown that there is an economic incentive to implement vaccination policies as vaccinations can save a significant number of lives and costs.

Vaccination policy by country
     Mandatory      Required for schooling or welfare      Recommended

GoalsEdit

Immunity and herd immunityEdit

 
Illustration of how herd immunity prevents the spread of disease in a population

Vaccination policies aim to produce immunity to preventable diseases. Besides individual protection from getting ill, some vaccination policies also aim to provide the community as a whole with herd immunity. Herd immunity refers to the idea that the pathogen will have trouble spreading when a significant part of the population has immunity against it. This protects those unable to get the vaccine due to medical conditions, such as immune disorders.[1] However, in order for herd immunity to be effective in a population, a majority of those that are vaccine-eligible must be vaccinated.[2]

Vaccine-preventable diseases remain a common cause of childhood mortality with an estimated three million deaths each year.[3] Each year, vaccination prevents between two and three million deaths worldwide, across all age groups, from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles.[4]

Eradication of diseasesEdit

 
Malaria Clinic in Tanzania helped by SMS for Life program which organizes malaria vaccine delivery

With some vaccines, a goal of vaccination policies is to eradicate the disease – it disappear from Earth altogether. The World Health Organization coordinated the effort to eradicate smallpox globally through vaccination, the last naturally occurring case of smallpox was in Somalia in 1977.[5] Endemic measles, mumps and rubella have been eliminated through vaccination in Finland.[6] The WHO has targeted polio for eradication by the year 2018.[7]

Individual versus group goalsEdit

Rational individuals will attempt to minimize the risk of illness, and will seek vaccination for themselves or their children if they perceive a high threat of disease and a low risk to vaccination.[8] However, if a vaccination program successfully reduces the disease threat, it may reduce the perceived risk of disease enough so that an individual's optimal strategy is to encourage everyone but their family to be vaccinated, or (more generally) to refuse vaccination once vaccination rates reach a certain level, even if this level is below that optimal for the community.[9][10] For example, a 2003 study found that a bioterrorist attack using smallpox would result in conditions where voluntary vaccination would be unlikely to reach the optimum level for the U.S. as a whole,[11] and a 2007 study found that severe influenza epidemics cannot be prevented by voluntary vaccination without offering certain incentives.[12] Governments often allow exemptions to mandatory vaccinations for religious or philosophical reasons, but decreased rates of vaccination may cause loss of herd immunity, substantially increasing risks even to vaccinated individuals.[13] However, mandatory vaccination policies raise ethical issues regarding parental rights and informed consent.[14]

Compulsory vaccinationEdit

At various times governments and other institutions have established policies requiring vaccination, with the aim of reducing the risk of disease. For example, an 1853 law required universal vaccination against smallpox in England and Wales, with fines levied on people who did not comply.[15] In the United States, the Supreme Court ruled in Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905) that states have the authority to require vaccination against smallpox during a smallpox epidemic.[16] All 50 U.S states require that children be vaccinated in order to attend public school;[17] although 47 states provide exemptions based on religious or philosophical beliefs.[18] A few other countries also follow this practice. Compulsory vaccination greatly reduces infection rates for associated diseases.[19] These policies stirred resistance from a variety of groups, collectively called anti-vaccinationists, who objected on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds.[20] Other reasons including that socioeconomic disparities and being an ethnic minority can prevent reasonable access to vaccinations.[21][22] Common objections included the argument that governments should not infringe on an individual's freedom to make medical decisions for themselves or their children, or claims that proposed vaccinations were dangerous.[20] Many modern vaccination policies allow exemptions for people with compromised immune systems, allergies to vaccination components, or strongly held objections.[23] It has also been argued that for vaccination to effectively prevent disease, there must not only be available vaccines and a population willing to immunize, but also sufficient ability to decline vaccination on grounds of personal belief.[24]

In 1904 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, following an urban renewal program that displaced many poor, a government program of mandatory smallpox vaccination triggered the Vaccine Revolt, several days of rioting with considerable property damage and a number of deaths.[25]

Compulsory vaccination is a difficult policy issue, requiring authorities to balance public health with individual liberty:

"Vaccination is unique among de facto mandatory requirements in the modern era, requiring individuals to accept the injection of a medicine or medicinal agent into their bodies, and it has provoked a spirited opposition. This opposition began with the first vaccinations, has not ceased, and probably never will. From this realisation arises a difficult issue: how should the mainstream medical authorities approach the anti-vaccination movement? A passive reaction could be construed as endangering the health of society, whereas a heavy-handed approach can threaten the values of individual liberty and freedom of expression that we cherish."[20]

An ethical dilemma emerges when health care providers attempt to persuade vaccine-hesitant families towards receiving vaccinations as this persuasion may lead to violating their autonomy.[2] Investigation of different types of vaccination policy finds strong evidence that standing orders and allowing healthcare workers without prescription authority (such as nurses) to administer vaccines in defined circumstances increases vaccination rates, and sufficient evidence that requiring vaccinations before attending child care and school also does so.[26] However, there is insufficient evidence to assess effectiveness of requiring vaccinations as a condition for hospital and other healthcare jobs.[27]

Many countries, including Canada, Germany, Japan, and the United States have specific requirements for reporting vaccine-related adverse effects, while other countries including Australia, France, and the United Kingdom include vaccines under their general requirements for reporting injuries associated with medical treatments.[28] A number of countries have both compulsory vaccination and national programs for the compensation of injuries alleged to have been caused by a vaccination.[29]

Children's rightsEdit

Medical ethicist Arthur Caplan argues that children have a right to the best available medical care, including vaccines, regardless of parental opinions toward vaccines, saying "Arguments about medical freedom and choice are at odds with the human and constitutional rights of children. When parents won’t protect them, governments must."[30][31] However, government entities such as child protective services can only intervene when the parents directly harm their child via abuse or neglect. Although withholding medical care meets the criteria of abuse or neglect, refusing vaccinations does not as the child is not being harmed directly.[32]

To prevent the spread of disease by unvaccinated individuals, some schools and doctors' surgeries have prohibited unvaccinated children from being enrolled, even where not required by law.[33][34] Refusal of doctors to treat unvaccinated children may cause harm to both the child and public health, and may be considered unethical, if the parents are unable to find another healthcare provider for the child.[35] Opinion on this is divided, with the largest professional association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, saying that exclusion of unvaccinated children may be an option under narrowly defined circumstances.[36]

Evaluating vaccination policyEdit

Vaccines as a positive externalityEdit

The promotion of high levels of vaccination produces the protective effect of herd immunity as well as positive externalities in society.[37] Vaccinations are public goods, they are both non-rivalrous and non-excludable, and given these traits, individuals may avoid the costs of vaccination by "free-riding"[37] off the benefits of others being vaccinated.[37][38][39] The costs and benefits to individuals and society have been studied and critiqued in stable and changing population designs.[40][41][42] Other surveys have indicated that free-riding incentives exist in individual decisions,[43] and in a separate study that looked at parental vaccination choice, the study found that parents were less likely to vaccinate their children if their children's friends had already been vaccinated.[44]

Trust in vaccinationEdit

Trust in vaccines and in the health system is an important element of public health programs that aim to deliver lifesaving vaccines. Trust in vaccination and health care is an important indicator of government work and the effectiveness of social policy. The success in overcoming diseases and in vaccination depend on the level of trust in vaccine and health care. The lack trust in vaccines and immunization programs can lead to vaccine refusal, risking disease outbreaks and challenging immunization goals in high- and low-income settings. Today, the medical and scientific communities obviously face a big challenge where vaccines are concerned, namely enhancing the trust with which the general public regards the entire endeavor. Indeed, earning the public’s trust in public health is a big challenge. Accurately, studying the trust in vaccines, understanding the factors that effect on the reduction of trust, allows authorities to build an effective vaccine campaign and communication strategies to fight the disease. Trust is key parameter to work with before and while undertaking any vaccine campaigns. The state is responsible to provide a smart communication and inform a population about disease, vaccine and risks. According WHO recommendations, the state should: work long-term to build population resilience against vaccine rumours and scares, build a strong programme that is well prepared to respond to any event that may erode trust; respond immediately to any event which may erode trust in vaccination and health authorities.[45]

Cost-benefit—United StatesEdit

Since the first economic analysis of routine childhood immunizations in the United States in 2001 that reported cost savings over the lifetime of children born in 2001,[46] other analyses of the economic costs and potential benefits to individuals and society have since been studied, evaluated, and calculated.[47][48] In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a decision analysis that evaluated direct costs (program costs such as vaccine cost, administrative burden, negative vaccine-linked reactions, and transportation time lost to parents to seek health providers for vaccination).[48] The study focused on diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate, poliovirus, measles/mumps/rubella (MMR), hepatitis B, varicella, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, and rotavirus vaccines, but excluded influenza. Estimated costs and benefits were adjusted to 2009 dollars and projected over time at 3% annual interest rate.[48] Of the theoretical group of 4,261,494 babies beginning in 2009, that had regular immunizations through childhood in accordance with the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines "will prevent ∼42 000 early deaths and 20 million cases of disease, with net savings of $13.5 billion in direct costs and $68.8 billion in total societal costs, respectively." [48] In the United States, and in other nations,[49][50][51] there is an economic incentive and "global value" to invest in preventive vaccination programs, especially in children as a means to prevent early infant and childhood deaths.[52]

Cost-benefit for older adultsEdit

Furthermore, there is an economic incentive to establish vaccination programs for older adults as the general population is aging due to increasing life expectancy and decreasing birth rates.[53] Vaccinations can be used to reduce the issues linked with both polypharmacy and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the older demographic with comorbidities by preventing infectious diseases and decreasing the necessity of polypharmacy and antibiotics.[54][55] One study done in Western Europe found that the estimated cost of vaccinating one person over a lifetime against 10 to 17 potentially debilitating pathogens would be between €443 to €3,395, assuming 100% compliance.[56] Another European study found that if 75% of adults over 65 were vaccinated against seasonal influenza, 1.6-2.1 million cases and 25,000-37,000 influenza-related deaths could be avoided, and €153–219 million saved annually.[57]

International OrganizationsEdit

In 2006, the World Health Organization and UNICEF created the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS). This organization created a ten-year strategy with four main goals:[58]

  • to immunize more people against more diseases
  • to introduce a range of newly available vaccines and technologies
  • to integrate other critical health interventions with immunization
  • to manage vaccination programmes within the context of global interdependence

The Global Vaccination Action Plan was created by the World Health Organization and endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012. The plan which is set from 2011–2020 is intended to "strengthen routine immunization to meet vaccination coverage targets; accelerate control of vaccine-preventable diseases with polio eradication as the first milestone; introduce new and improved vaccines and spur research and development for the next generation of vaccines and technologies".[59]

By countryEdit

SummaryEdit

Countries
Strictest policy
Required for school Required for welfare Sources
  Austria RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA RA RA RA NO No [60]
  Belgium MA NO RA RA RS RA RA RA RA RA RA MA NO RA NO RS NO NO Nurseries and daycare [60]
  Bulgaria MA MA MA RA NO MA MA RS NO MA MA MA NO NO NO NO NO NO N/A [60]
  Croatia MA RA MA RA NO MA MA RA NO MA MA MA NO NO NO NO NO NO Nurseries, preschools and kindergartens [60]
  Cyprus RA RS RA RA RS RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO NO NO RA NO NO [60]
  Czech Republic MA MS MA RA RS MA MA RA RS MA MA RA RS RA RA RS RA NO Nurseries, preschools and kindergartens [60]
  Denmark RA NO RA RA NO RS RA RA NO RA RA RA NO NO NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Estonia RA RA RA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Finland RA RS RA RA NO RS RA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA RS RA NO NO No [60]
  France MA RS MA RA NO MA MA RA MA MA MA MA NO NO NO NO RA NO Yes [60][61]
  Germany RA NO RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA NO RA NO NO No [60]
  Greece RA RS RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA NO RA RA NO N/A [60]
  Hungary MA MA MA RA NO MA MA RA NO MA MA MA NO NO NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Iceland RA NO RA RA NO MA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO NO NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Ireland RA RA RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Italy MA NO MA RA NO MA MA RA RA MA MA RA NO RA NO MA RA NO No [60][62]
  Latvia RA RA RA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO NO No [60]
  Liechtenstein RA RS RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO NO NO RA NO NO [60]
  Lithuania RA RA RA RS NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Luxembourg RA RS RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA NO RA NO NO [60]
  Malta MA RS MA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA RA MA MA NO NO MA NO NO [60]
  Netherlands RA NO RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO NO NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Norway RA RS RA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Poland MA MA MA RA NO MA MA RA RA MA MA MA NO RA NO RS NO NO No [60]
  Portugal RA RS RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO NO NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Romania RA RA RA RA NO RA RA RS NO RA RA RA NO NO NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Slovakia MA NO MA RA NO MA MA RA NO MA MA MA NO NO NO NO NO NO No [60]
  Slovenia MA RA MA RA NO MA MA RA NO MA MA MA NO NO RS NO NO NO No [60]
  Spain RA NO RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO NO NO RA NO NO No [60]
  Sweden RA RS RA RS NO RA RA RA NO RA RA RA NO RA NO NO NO NO No [60]
  United Kingdom RA RS RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA NO RS RA NO No [60]
  Australia RA NO RA RA NO RA RA RA RA NO RA RA NO RA NO RA RA NO Pre-school and daycare in NSW, VIC and WA Yes [63][64][65][66]
  Argentina N/A Yes
  Brazil RA RA RA RA RA RA NO RA RA RA RA RA RS RA NO RA RS RS No Yes [67][68]
  Canada N/A In New Brunswick and Ontario [69]
  Japan N/A No [70]
  Russia N/A No [71]
  South Africa N/A No [72]
  Switzerland N/A No
  Ukraine N/A Yes
  United States N/A Yes
Countries
Strictest policy
Required for school Required for welfare Sources
 MA  Mandatory to all  MS  Mandatory to specific people  RA  Recommended to all  RS  Recommended to specific people  NO  Neither mandatory nor recommended

ArgentinaEdit

In December 2018, Argentina enacted a new vaccine policy requiring all persons who are medically able, both adults and children, to be vaccinated against specified diseases. Proof of vaccination is required to attend any level of school, from infancy through adulthood, or obtain a marriage license, or any kind of government ID, including a passport or driver's license. Furthermore, the law requires the government to pay for all aspects of all vaccinations. The law deems vaccination to be a national emergency, and therefore exempts vaccines from internal and customs taxes.[73][74]

AustraliaEdit

Vaccine Schedule
Australia Vaccine Schedule: 2016[75]
Vaccine Birth Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 24 4 10-15 15-64 65+ 70-79
Hepatitis A HepA[1]
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB HepB [76] [77]
Diphtheria DTPa DTPa DTPa [76] DTPa [76] DTPa dTpa
Pertussis
Tetanus
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB [76]
Polio IPV IPV IPV [76] IPV [77]
Pneumococcus 13vPCV 13vPCV 13vPCV 13vPCV[1] 23vPPV 23vPPV[2] 23vPPV
13vPCV
[76]
Rotavirus RV RV RV
Measles MMR MMR [76] [77]
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV [76] [76]
Meningococcus MenCCV [76] [77]
Human papillomavirus HPV
Flu IIV (yearly)
Shingles Zostavax
  Recommended ages for everyone.
  Recommended range of additional vaccinations for Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders.
  Recommended ages for certain other high-risk groups.
  Recommended ages for catch-up immunization or for people who lack evidence of immunity (e.g., lack documentation of vaccination or have no evidence of prior infection).

[1] 1 2 In high-risk areas.
[2] 1 50 years and older if otherwise low risk Further details at Australian Government, Department of Health website

Australia Vaccine Schedule: 2016[78]
Vaccine Birth Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 24 4 10-15 15-64 65+ 70-79
Hepatitis A HepA[1]
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB HepB [76] [77]
Diphtheria DTPa DTPa DTPa [76] DTPa [76] DTPa dTpa
Pertussis
Tetanus
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB [76]
Polio IPV IPV IPV [76] IPV [77]
Pneumococcus 13vPCV 13vPCV 13vPCV 13vPCV[1] 23vPPV 23vPPV[2] 23vPPV
13vPCV
[76]
Rotavirus RV RV RV
Measles MMR MMR [76] [77]
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV [76] [76]
Meningococcus MenCCV [76] [77]
Human papillomavirus HPV
Flu IIV (yearly)
Shingles Zostavax
  Recommended ages for everyone.
  Recommended range of additional vaccinations for Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders.
  Recommended ages for certain other high-risk groups.
  Recommended ages for catch-up immunization or for people who lack evidence of immunity (e.g., lack documentation of vaccination or have no evidence of prior infection).

[1] 1 2 In high-risk areas.
[2] 1 50 years and older if otherwise low risk Further details at Australian Government, Department of Health website

In an effort to boost vaccination rates in Australia, the Australian government has decided that starting on 1 January 2016, certain benefits (such as the universal 'Family Allowance' welfare payments for parents of children) will no longer be available for conscientious objectors of vaccination; those with medical grounds for not vaccinating will continue to receive such benefits. The policy is supported by a majority of Australian parents as well as the Australian Medical Association (AMA) and Early Childhood Australia. In 2014, about 97 percent of children under 7 years were vaccinated, though the number of conscientious objectors to vaccination has increased by 24,000 to 39,000 over the past decade.[79]

The government began the Immunise Australia Program to increase national immunisation rates.[80] They fund a number of different vaccinations for certain groups of people. The intent is to encourage the most at-risk populations to get vaccinated.[81] The government maintains an immunization schedule.[82]

In most states and territories, children can consent to vaccinations if they are judged Gillick competent; normally, this applies to children aged 15 or older.[83] In South Australia, the Consent to Medical Treatment and Palliative Care Act 1995 allows children 16 and older to consent to medical treatment.[84] Additionally, children under this age can be immunized if judged capable of informed consent.[84] In New South Wales, children can consent to medical treatment at the age of 14.[84]

BrazilEdit

Vaccine Schedule
Brazilian National Vaccination Schedule: 2018[85]
Infection Gestation Birth Months Years
2 3 4 5 6 9 12 15 4 5 9 11 10-59 60+
Tuberculosis BCG
Leprosy
Hepatitis A HepA
Hepatitis B HepB 5V 5V 5V
Diphtheria DTPa DTPa DTPa DTPa
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae
Polio IPV IPV IPV OPV OPV
Pneumococcus 10v 10v 10v 23v 23v
Meningococcus MenC MenC MenC
Rotavirus RV RV
Measles MMR MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV
Yellow fever YF
Human papillomavirus HPV x2 (girls) HPV x2 (boys)
Flu[86] IIV IIV (yearly) IIV (yearly)
Brazilian National Vaccination Schedule: 2018[85]
Infection Gestation Birth Months Years
2 3 4 5 6 9 12 15 4 5 9 11 10-59 60+
Tuberculosis BCG
Leprosy
Hepatitis A HepA
Hepatitis B HepB 5V 5V 5V
Diphtheria DTPa DTPa DTPa DTPa
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae
Polio IPV IPV IPV OPV OPV
Pneumococcus 10v 10v 10v 23v 23v
Meningococcus MenC MenC MenC
Rotavirus RV RV
Measles MMR MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV
Yellow fever YF
Human papillomavirus HPV x2 (girls) HPV x2 (boys)
Flu[86] IIV IIV (yearly) IIV (yearly)

CanadaEdit

Vaccination in Canada is voluntary.[69] While vaccination is generally required to attend school in Ontario and New Brunswick there are exemptions given to those who are opposed.[69]

AlbertaEdit

Vaccine Schedule
Alberta Vaccine Schedule: 2015[87]
Infection Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4 10-13 15-17 65+
Hepatitis B HepB
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PneuC13 PneuC13 PneuC13
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMRV MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella
Meningococcus MenC MenC MenC-ACYW
Human papillomavirus HPV HPV (boys)
Flu IIV (yearly)
Alberta Vaccine Schedule: 2015[87]
Infection Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4 10-13 15-17 65+
Hepatitis B HepB
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PneuC13 PneuC13 PneuC13
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMRV MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella
Meningococcus MenC MenC MenC-ACYW
Human papillomavirus HPV HPV (boys)
Flu IIV (yearly)

British ColumbiaEdit

Vaccine Schedule
British Columbia Vaccine Schedule: 2015[87]
Infection Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4 10-13 15-17 65+
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PneuC13 PneuC13 PneuC13
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMR MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV
Meningococcus MenCCV MenCCV
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)
Flu IIV (yearly)
British Columbia Vaccine Schedule: 2015[87]
Infection Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4 10-13 15-17 65+
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PneuC13 PneuC13 PneuC13
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMR MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV
Meningococcus MenCCV MenCCV
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)
Flu IIV (yearly)

New BrunswickEdit

Vaccine Schedule
New Brunswick Vaccine Schedule: 2015[87]
Infection Birth Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4 10-13 15-17 65+
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PneuC13 PneuC13 PneuC13
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMRV MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella
Meningococcus MenCCV MenC-ACYW
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)
Flu IIV (yearly)
New Brunswick Vaccine Schedule: 2015[87]
Infection Birth Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4 10-13 15-17 65+
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PneuC13 PneuC13 PneuC13
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMRV MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella
Meningococcus MenCCV MenC-ACYW
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)
Flu IIV (yearly)

OntarioEdit

QuebecEdit

Vaccine Schedule
Quebec Vaccine Schedule: 2019[88][89]
Infection Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4-6 9 14-16 Adult 50 65 75
Hepatitis A HepA
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB HepB
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap Tdap Tdap Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PCV10 PCV10 PCV10 PPV23
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMR MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV
Meningococcus MenCC MenCC
Human papillomavirus HPV
Flu IIV IIV IIV IIV (yearly)
Quebec Vaccine Schedule: 2019[88][89]
Infection Months Years
2 4 6 12 18 4-6 9 14-16 Adult 50 65 75
Hepatitis A HepA
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB HepB
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap Tdap Tdap Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PCV10 PCV10 PCV10 PPV23
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMR MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV
Meningococcus MenCC MenCC
Human papillomavirus HPV
Flu IIV IIV IIV IIV (yearly)

ChinaEdit

China has passed the World Health Organization's (WHO) regulatory vaccine assessments, demonstrating that they adhere to international standards.[90] The Chinese government's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) was created in 1978 and provides certain obligatory vaccines, named Category 1 vaccines, for free to all children up to 14 years of age. Initially, the vaccines consisted of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV), measles vaccine (MV) and diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DPT vaccine).[91] By 2007, the vaccine list was expanded to include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, A + C meningococcal polysaccharide, mumps, Rubella, hemorrhagic fever, anthrax, and leptospirosis.[92] Category 2 vaccines, such as the rabies vaccine, are private-sector, non-obligatory vaccines that are not included in neither EPI nor the government health insurance.[93] Due to the privatized nature of Category 2 vaccines, these vaccinations are associated with low coverage rates.[94]

Both the Changsheng Bio-Technology Co Ltd and the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products have been fined for selling ineffective vaccines.[95][96] In December 2018, China enacted new laws imposing strict controls over the production and inspection of aspects of vaccine production from research, development, and testing through production and distribution.[97][98]

FinlandEdit

Vaccine Schedule
Finland's Vaccination Schedule[99][100]
Birth Months Years
2 3 5 6 12 18 3 4 6 11-12 14‑15 25 65+
Tuberculosis BCG[a]
Rotavirus RV RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP dTaP Td (10‑yearly)[b]
Tetanus
Pertussis
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB
Hepatitis B HepB
Pneumococcus PCV10[47] PCV10[47] PCV10[47] PCV13 + PPSV23[47][c]
Measles MMR[d] MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella[e] VV
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)[101]
Flu IIV3[f] IIV3
Tick-borne encephalitis TBE[g]
  1. ^ For specific at risk-groups only (to be given at the earliest age)
  2. ^ Thereafter Td booster every 10 years with or without vaccination against poliomyelitis (IPV) in case of travel to endemic areas and when previous IPV dose was given more than 5 years before
  3. ^ Recommended but not free of charge for those over 65 years.
  4. ^ Vaccination can be given from 6 months of age in case of travel abroad. If vaccination starts before 12 months of age, 2 doses are recommended (14–18 months and 6 years) The temporary recommendation of giving measles at 12 months of age was made a permanent recommendation; ie. now MMR should be given from 12–18 months except if travelling abroad to measles infected countries when it can be given from 6 months on. In case MMR is given at 6–11 months, the child needs a second and third dose to complete the series.
  5. ^ Varicella vaccination implemented from 1 September 2017. Catch-up to all those born on 1st January 2006 or after and with no history of varicella.
  6. ^ One or two doses administered depending on previous influenza vaccination history. Annual vaccination. IIV tri-or quadrivalent used as follows: IIV3 for all those 6–35 months. IIV4 with nonpreferential alternative to all those 24–35 months. IIV3 also recommended to medical risk group children from 36 months up.
  7. ^ TBE vaccination for to those living permanently on the island of Åland
History
1960: Mumps vaccinations for military recruits.
1975: Measles vaccination for 1 year old children.
1975: Rubella vaccination for 11–13 years old girls and seronegative mothers.
1982: Two doses of MMR vaccination at 14–18 months and 6 years of age were introduced in the national childhood vaccination programme.
2009: Rotavirus vaccine introduced at 2, 3 and 5 months to all children (September 2009)
2010: PCV introduced at 3, 5 and 12 months of age to all children (September 2010).
2013: HPV vaccination introduced
2017: Varicella vaccination introduced (1 Sept. 2017) at 18 months, 6 years + catch-up of all born from 1 jan 2006 or after with no history of varicella
Finland's Vaccination Schedule[102][103]
Birth Months Years
2 3 5 6 12 18 3 4 6 11-12 14‑15 25 65+
Tuberculosis BCG[a]
Rotavirus RV RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP dTaP Td (10‑yearly)[b]
Tetanus
Pertussis
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB
Hepatitis B HepB
Pneumococcus PCV10[47] PCV10[47] PCV10[47] PCV13 + PPSV23[47][c]
Measles MMR[d] MMRV
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella[e] VV
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)[104]
Flu IIV3[f] IIV3
Tick-borne encephalitis TBE[g]
  1. ^ For specific at risk-groups only (to be given at the earliest age)
  2. ^ Thereafter Td booster every 10 years with or without vaccination against poliomyelitis (IPV) in case of travel to endemic areas and when previous IPV dose was given more than 5 years before
  3. ^ Recommended but not free of charge for those over 65 years.
  4. ^ Vaccination can be given from 6 months of age in case of travel abroad. If vaccination starts before 12 months of age, 2 doses are recommended (14–18 months and 6 years) The temporary recommendation of giving measles at 12 months of age was made a permanent recommendation; ie. now MMR should be given from 12–18 months except if travelling abroad to measles infected countries when it can be given from 6 months on. In case MMR is given at 6–11 months, the child needs a second and third dose to complete the series.
  5. ^ Varicella vaccination implemented from 1 September 2017. Catch-up to all those born on 1st January 2006 or after and with no history of varicella.
  6. ^ One or two doses administered depending on previous influenza vaccination history. Annual vaccination. IIV tri-or quadrivalent used as follows: IIV3 for all those 6–35 months. IIV4 with nonpreferential alternative to all those 24–35 months. IIV3 also recommended to medical risk group children from 36 months up.
  7. ^ TBE vaccination for to those living permanently on the island of Åland

HistoryEdit

  • 1960: Mumps vaccinations for military recruits.
  • 1975: Measles vaccination for 1 year old children.
  • 1975: Rubella vaccination for 11–13 years old girls and seronegative mothers.
  • 1982: Two doses of MMR vaccination at 14–18 months and 6 years of age were introduced in the national childhood vaccination programme.
  • 2009: Rotavirus vaccine introduced at 2, 3 and 5 months to all children (September 2009)
  • 2010: PCV introduced at 3, 5 and 12 months of age to all children (September 2010).
  • 2013: HPV vaccination introduced
  • 2017: Varicella vaccination introduced (1 Sept. 2017) at 18 months, 6 years + catch-up of all born from 1 jan 2006 or after with no history of varicella

FranceEdit

 
Vaccination Schedule 2015[105]

In France, the High Council of Public Health is in charge of proposing vaccine recommendations to the Minister of Health. Each year, immunization recommendations for both the general population and specific groups are published by the Institute of Epidemiology and Surveillance.[france 1] Since some hospitals are granted additional freedoms, there two key people responsible for vaccine policy within hospitals: the Operational physician (OP), and the Head of the hospital infection and prevention committee (HIPC).[france 1] Mandatory immunization policies on BCG, diphtheria, tetanus, and poliomyelitis began in the 1950s and policies on Hepatitis B began in 1991. Recommended but not mandatory suggestions on influenza, pertussis, varicella, and measles began in 2000, 2004, 2004, and 2005, respectively.[france 1] According to the 2013 INPES Peretti-Watel health barometer, between 2005 and 2010, the percentage of French people between 18–75 years old in favor of vaccination dropped from 90% to 60%.[citation needed]

Since 2009, France has recommended meningococcus C vaccination for infants 1–2 years old, with a catch up dosage up to 25 years later. French insurance companies have reimbursed this vaccine since January 2010, at which point coverage levels were 32.3% for children 1–2 years and 21.3% for teenagers 14–16 years old.[106] In 2012, the French government and the Institut de veille sanitaire launched a 5-year national program in order to improve vaccination policy. The program simplified guidelines, facilitated access to vaccination, and invested in vaccine research.[107] In 2014, fueled by rare health-related scandals, mistrust of vaccines became a common topic in the French public debate on health.[108] According to a French radio station, as of 2014, 3 to 5 percent of kids in France were not given the mandatory vaccines.[108] Some families may avoid requirements by finding a doctor willing to forge a vaccination certificate, a solution which numerous French forums confirm. However, the French State considers "vaccine refusal" a form of child abuse.[108] In some instances, parental vaccine refusals may result in criminal trials. France's 2010 creation of the Question Prioritaire Constitutionelle (QPC) allows lower courts to refer constitutional questions to the highest court in the relevant hierarchy.[france 2] Therefore, criminal trials based on vaccine refusals may be referred to the Cour de Cassation, which will then certify whether the case meets certain criteria.[france 2] In May 2015, France updated its vaccination policies on diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae b infections, and hepatitis B for premature infants. As of 2015, while failure to vaccinate is not necessarily illegal, a parent's right to refuse to vaccinate his or her child is technically a constitutional matter. Additionally, children in France cannot enter schools without proof of vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio.[109] French Health Minister, Marisol Touraine, finds vaccinations "absolutely fundamental to avoid disease," and has pushed to have both trained pharmacists and doctors administer vaccinations.[109] Most recently, the Prime Minister's 2015–2017 roadmap for the "multi-annual social inclusion and anti-poverty plan" includes free vaccinations in certain public facilities.[110] Vaccinations within the immunization schedule are given for free at immunization services within the public sector. When given in private medical practices, vaccinations are 65% reimbursed.

GermanyEdit

 
Vaccination Schedule 2015[105]

In Germany, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) is the federal commission responsible for recommending an immunization schedule. The Robert Koch Institute in Berlin (RKI) compiles data of immunization status upon the entry of children at school, and measures vaccine coverage of Germany at a national level.[111] Founded in 1972, the STIKO is composed of 12–18 volunteers, appointed members by the Federal Ministry for Health for 3-year terms.[112] Members include experts from many scientific disciplines and public health fields and professionals with extensive experience on vaccination.[113] The independent advisory group meets biannually to address issues pertaining to preventable infectious diseases.[114] Although the STIKO makes recommendations, immunization in Germany is voluntary and there are no official government recommendations. German Federal States typically follow the Standing Vaccination Committee's recommendations minimally, although each state can make recommendations for their geographic jurisdiction that extends beyond the recommended list.[111] In addition to the proposed immunization schedule for children and adults, the STIKO recommends vaccinations for occupational groups, police, travelers, and other at risk groups.[111] Vaccinations recommendations that are issued must be in accordance with the Protection Against Infection Act (Infektionsschutzgesetz), which regulates the prevention of infectious diseases in humans.[115] If a vaccination is recommended because of occupational risks, it must adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Act involving Biological Agents.[116] Criteria for the recommendation include disease burden, efficacy and effectiveness, safety, feasibility of program implementation, cost-effectiveness evaluation, clinical trial results, and equity in access to the vaccine.[113] In the event of vaccination related injuries, federal states are responsible for monetary compensation.[116] Germany's central government does not finance childhood immunizations, so 90% of vaccines are administered in a private physician's office and paid for through insurance. The other 10% of vaccines are provided by the states in public health clinics, schools, or day care centers by local immunization programs.[111] Physician responsibilities concerning immunization include beginning infancy vaccination, administering booster vaccinations, maintaining medical and vaccination history, and giving information and recommendations concerning vaccines.[116]

Children aged 15 and over can legally consent to being vaccinated, even if their parents expressly object, provided the child gives the impression of being mature, informed, and capable of understanding the risks and benefits of their decision.[117][118]

IndiaEdit

Vaccine Schedule
IAP Immunization Timetable: 2016[60]
Infection Birth Months Years
1.5 2.5 3.5 6 9 9-12 12 15 16-18 18 2 4-6 10-12
Tuberculosis BCG
Polio OPV OPV OPV OPV
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Rotavirus RV RV RV
Diphtheria DTwP DTwP DTwP DTwP DTwP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV PCV
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMR MMR MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Typhoid TCV TCV
Hepatitis A HepA HepA
Varicella VV VV
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)
IAP Immunization Timetable: 2016[60]
Infection Birth Months Years
1.5 2.5 3.5 6 9 9-12 12 15 16-18 18 2 4-6 10-12
Tuberculosis BCG
Polio OPV OPV OPV OPV
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Rotavirus RV RV RV
Diphtheria DTwP DTwP DTwP DTwP DTwP Tdap
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV PCV
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Measles MMR MMR MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Typhoid TCV TCV
Hepatitis A HepA HepA
Varicella VV VV
Human papillomavirus HPV (girls)

IrelandEdit

In the Republic of Ireland, childhood vaccination (up to age 16) requires the consent of the parents. The Department of Health strongly recommend vaccinations.[119]

ItalyEdit

 
Vaccination Schedule 2015[105]

As aging populations in Italy bring a rising burden of age-related disease, the Italian vaccination system remains complex.[120] The fact that services and decisions are delivered by 21 separate regional authorities creates many variations in Italian vaccine policy.[120] There is a National committee on immunizations that updates the national recommended immunization schedule, with input from the ministry of health representatives, regional health authorities, national institute of health, and other scientific societies.[121] Regions may add more scheduled vaccinations, but cannot exempt citizens from nationally mandated or recommended ones.[121] For instance, a nationwide plan for eliminating measles and rubella began in 2001.[121] Certain vaccinations in Italy are based on findings from the National Centre for Epidemiology, Surveillance and Health Promotion are also used to determine miscellaneous vaccination mandates.

Childhood vaccinations included in national schedules are guaranteed free of charge for all Italian children and foreign children who live in the country.[121] Estimated insurance coverage for the required three doses of HBV-Hib-IPV vaccines is at least 95% when the child is 2 years old. Later, Influenza is the only nationally necessary vaccine for adults, and is administered by general practitioners.[121] To mitigate some public concerns, Italy currently has a national vaccine injury compensation program. Essentially, those who are ill or damaged by mandatory and recommended vaccinations may receive funding from the government as compensation. One evaluation of vaccine coverage in 2010, which covered the 2008 birth cohort, showed a slight decline in immunization insurance coverage rates of diphtheria, hepatitis B, polio, and tetanus after those specific vaccinations had been made mandatory.[122] However, vaccination levels continued to pass the Italian government's goal of 95% outreach.[122]

Aiming to integrate immunization strategies across the country and equitize access to disease prevention, the Italian Ministry of Health issued the National Immunization Prevention Plan (Piano Nazionale Prevenzione Vaccinale) in 2012. This plan for 2012–2014 introduced an institutional "lifecourse" approach to vaccination to complement the Italian health policy agenda.[123] HPV vaccine coverage increased well, and pneumococcal vaccine and meningococcal C vaccines faced positive public reception. However, both infant vaccine coverage rates and influenza immunization in the elderly have been decreasing.[123] A 2015 government plan in Italy aimed to boost vaccination rates and introduce a series of new vaccines, triggering protests among public health professionals.[124] Partially in response to the statistic that less than 86% of Italian children receive the measles shot, the National Vaccination Plan for 2016–18 (PNPV) increased vaccination requirements.[124] For instance, nationwide varicella shots would be required for newborns.[124] Under this plan, government spending on vaccines would double to €620 million annually, and children could be barred from attending school without proving vaccination.[124] Although these implementations would make Italy a European frontrunner in vaccination, some experts questioned the need for several of the vaccines, and some physicians worried about the potential punishment they may face if they do not comply with the proposed regulations.[124]

There were 5,000 cases of measles in 2017, up from 870 in 2016, 29% of all those in the European Union. The law compelling children to have 10 vaccinations in order to enroll at state schools came into effect in March 2018 but in August 2018 the Five Star Movement pushed legislation through the Italian Senate abolishing it. It did not pass the Chamber of Deputies but parents did not have to provide schools with a doctor's note to show their children have been vaccinated.[125] By November 2018 the government had changed its stance because of the "measles emergency" and decided to uphold the obligation for children up to the age of 16, teachers and health professionals to be vaccinated. A midwife working at a hospital in central Italy was sacked for refusing vaccination.[126]

JapanEdit

In Japan vaccination is no longer mandatory as of 1994.[70]

LatviaEdit

According to a 2011 publication in CMAJ:[127] The notion of "mandatory" in Latvia differs from that of other nations. Latvia appears unique in that it compels health care providers to obtain the signatures of those who decline vaccination. Individuals have the right to refuse a vaccination, but if they do so, health providers have a duty to explain the health consequences.

Vaccines that are not mandatory are not publicly funded, so the cost for those must be borne by parents or employers, she adds. Funded vaccinations include tuberculosis, diphtheria, measles, hepatitis B, human papilloma virus for 12-year-old girls, and tick-borne encephalitis until age 18 in endemic areas and for orphans.

MalaysiaEdit

In Malaysia, mass vaccination is practised in public schools. The vaccines may be administered by a school nurse or a team of other medical staff from outside the school. All the children in a given school year are vaccinated as a cohort. For example, children may receive the oral polio vaccine in Year One of primary school (about six or seven years of age), the BCG in Year Six, and the MMR in Form Three of secondary school. Therefore, most people have received their core vaccines by the time they finish secondary school.[128]

New ZealandEdit

Vaccine Schedule
New Zealand Immunization Schedule: 1 July 2017[129]
Infection Gestation Months Years
1.5 3 5 15 4 11-12 45 65+
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria Tdap DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap Td Td
Tetanus
Pertussis
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PCV10 PCV10 PCV10 PCV10
Measles MMR MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV VV[a]
Human papillomavirus HPV9
Flu IIV IIV (yearly)
  1. ^ Only if the person has not previously received the varicella vaccine or had a varicella infection
New Zealand Immunization Schedule: 1 July 2017[130]
Infection Gestation Months Years
1.5 3 5 15 4 11-12 45 65+
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria Tdap DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap Td Td
Tetanus
Pertussis
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Pneumococcus PCV10 PCV10 PCV10 PCV10
Measles MMR MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV VV[a]
Human papillomavirus HPV9
Flu IIV IIV (yearly)
  1. ^ Only if the person has not previously received the varicella vaccine or had a varicella infection

NigeriaEdit

Vaccine Schedule
Nigerian National Vaccination Schedule:[131]
Infection Birth Months Years
2 3 4 6 9 18 4 5
Tuberculosis BCG
Leprosy
Hepatitis B HepB 5V 5V 5V
Diphtheria DTP
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae
Polio OPV OPV OPV OPV OPV OPV
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV PCV
Meningococcus MCV MCV
Yellow fever YF
Nigerian National Vaccination Schedule:[131]
Infection Birth Months Years
2 3 4 6 9 18 4 5
Tuberculosis BCG
Leprosy
Hepatitis B HepB 5V 5V 5V
Diphtheria DTP
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae
Polio OPV OPV OPV OPV OPV OPV
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV PCV
Meningococcus MCV MCV
Yellow fever YF

In Nigeria, the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), was introduced in 1978 to provide free immunization against polio, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis, and yellow fever to Nigerian children less than 2 years old. This free immunization can be obtained at any primary health centre in the country. The vaccines are usually administered by a government health care worker. They also conduct routine vaccination visits in schools where all the children in a given school are vaccinated.[3]

PakistanEdit

Facing numerous minor polio epidemics, the Pakistani government has now ruled that the polio vaccination as mandatory and indisputable. In a statement from Pakistani Police Commissioner Riaz Khan Mehsud "There is no mercy, we have decided to deal with the refusal cases with iron hands. Anyone who refuses [the vaccine] will be sent to jail".[citation needed]

RussiaEdit

Immunization is voluntary in Russia as of 2019.[132]

SloveniaEdit

According to a 2011 publication in CMAJ:[127] Slovenia has one of the world's most aggressive and comprehensive vaccination programs. Its program is mandatory for nine designated diseases. Within the first three months of life, infants must be vaccinated for tuberculosis, tetanus, polio, pertussis, and Haemophilus influenza type B. Within 18 months, vaccines are required for measles, mumps and rubella, and finally, before a child starts school, the child must be vaccinated for hepatitis B. While a medical exemption request can be submitted to a committee, such an application for reasons of religion or conscience would not be acceptable. Failure to comply results in a fine and compliance rates top 95%, Kraigher says, adding that for nonmandatory vaccines, such as the one for human papilloma virus, coverage is below 50%.

Mandatory vaccination against measles was introduced in 1968 and since 1978, all children receive two doses of vaccine with a compliance rate of more than 95%.[133] For TBE, the vaccination rate in 2007 was estimated to be 12.4% of the general population in 2007. For comparison, in neighboring Austria, 87% of the population is vaccinated against TBE.[134]

South AfricaEdit

In South Africa vaccination is voluntary.[72]

The South African Vaccination and Immunisation Centre began in 2003 as an alliance between the South African Department of Health, vaccine industry, academic institutions and other stakeholders.[135] SAIVC works with WHO and the South African National Department of Health to educate, do research, provide technical support, and advocate. They work to increase rates of vaccination in order to improve the nation's health.[citation needed]

SpainEdit

 
Vaccination Schedule 2015[105]

Spain's 19 autonomous communities, consisting of 17 Regions and 2 cities, follow health policies established by the Inter-Territorial Health Council that was formed by the National and Regional Ministries of Health.[136] This Inter-Territorial Council is composed of representatives from each region and meets to discuss health related issues spanning across Spain. The Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIIII) is a public research institute that manages biomedical research for the advancement of health sciences and disease preventions.[137] The ISCIII may suggest the introduction of new vaccines into Spain's Recommended Health Schedule and is under direct control of the Ministry of Health. Although the Ministry of Health is responsible for the oversight of health care services, the policy of devolution divides responsibilities among local agencies, including health planning and programing, fiscal duties, and direct management of health services. This decentralization proposes difficulties in collecting information at the national level.[113] The Inter-Territorial Council's Commission on Public Health works to establish health care policies according to recommendations by technical working groups via letters, meetings, and conferences. The Technical Working Group on Vaccines review data on vaccine preventable diseases and proposes recommendations for policies.[113] No additional groups outside the government propose recommendations. Recommendations must be approved by the Commission of Public Health and then by the Inter-Territorial Council, at which point they are incorporated into the National Immunization Schedule.[136]

The Spanish Association of Pediatrics, in conjunction with the Spanish Medicines Agency, outlines specifications for vaccination schedules and policies and provides a history of vaccination policies implemented in the past, as well as legislature pertaining to the public currently. Spain's Constitution does not mandate vaccination, so it is voluntary unless authorities require compulsory vaccination in the case of epidemics.[138] In 1921 vaccination became mandatory for smallpox, and in 1944 the Bases Health Act mandated compulsory vaccination for diphtheria and smallpox, but was suspended in 1979 after the elimination of the threat of an epidemic.[138] The first systematic immunization schedule for the provinces of Spain was established in 1975 and has continuously been updated by each autonomous community in regard to doses at certain ages and recommendation of additional vaccine not proposed in the schedule.[138] The 2015 schedule proposed the newest change with the inclusion of pneumococcal vaccine for children under 12 months. For 2016, the schedule plans to propose a vaccine against varicella in children at 12–15 months and 3–4 years. Furthermore, the General Health Law of 1986 echoes Article 40.2 from the Constitution guaranteeing the right to the protection of health, and states employers must provide vaccines to workers if they are at risk of exposure.[139] Due to vaccination coverage in each Community, there is little anti-vaccine activity or opposition to the current schedule, and no organized groups against vaccines.[136] The universal public health care provides coverage for all residents, while central and regional support programs extend coverage to immigrant populations. However, no national funds are granted to the Communities for vaccine purchases. Vaccines are financed from taxes, and paid in full by the Community government.[136] Law 21 in Article 2.6 establishes the need for proper clinical documentation and informed consent by the patient, although written informed consent is not mandated in the verbal request of a vaccine for a minor.[140] The autonomous regions collect data, from either electronic registries or written physician charts, to calculate immunization coverage.[136]

TanzaniaEdit

According to the World Health Organization vaccination coverage in Tanzania was more than 90% in 2012.[141] An Electronic Immunisation Register has been established, which permits online access to the medical records of mothers and infants, enabling vaccination teams in remote areas to operate more effectively, especially with nomadic people. It also helps to coordinate stock levels and order new supplies.[142]

United KingdomEdit

Vaccine Schedule
United Kingdom Vaccine Schedule: 2016
Infection Months Years
2 3 4 12 3-4 12-13 13-15 16–18
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Td
Tetanus
Pertussis
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Meningococcus MenB MenB MenB/C MenACWY
Rotavirus RV RV
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV
Measles MMR MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Human papillomavirus HPV x2
^1. HPV for Females only 2 vaccinations over 24nths
United Kingdom Vaccine Schedule: 2016
Infection Months Years
2 3 4 12 3-4 12-13 13-15 16–18
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Td
Tetanus
Pertussis
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV IPV
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB
Meningococcus MenB MenB MenB/C MenACWY
Rotavirus RV RV
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV
Measles MMR MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Human papillomavirus HPV x2
^1. HPV for Females only 2 vaccinations over 24nths

In the United Kingdom, the purchase and distribution of vaccines is managed centrally, and recommended vaccines are provided for free by the NHS.[143] In the UK, no laws require vaccination of schoolchildren.[143]

Children aged 16 and 17 can consent to immunizations without parental consent.[144] Under the Gillick test, children under 16 can consent to vaccination over parental objections if they demonstrate a mature understanding of the ramifications of the procedure.[145]

United StatesEdit

Vaccine Schedule
United States Vaccine Schedule: 2014[146][147]
Infection Birth Months Years
1 2 4 6 9 12 15 18 19-23 2-3 4-6 7-10 11-12 13-18 19-26 27-59 60-64 65+
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB HepB x3
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap Td (every 10 years)
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB HIB x1-3
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV PCV PPSV PPSV
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Flu IIV (yearly) IIV or LAIV (yearly)
Measles MMR MMR MMR x1-2 MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV VV VV
Hepatitis A HepA x2
Meningococcus MCV MCV MCV x1+
Human papillomavirus HPV x3 HPV x31
  Range of recommended ages for everyone. See references for more details.
  Range of recommended ages for certain high-risk groups. See references for more details.
  Range of recommended ages for catch-up immunization or for people who lack evidence of immunity (e.g., lack documentation of vaccination or have no evidence of prior infection). CDC provides more detailed information in catch-up immunizations.

^1. Note on HPV vaccine: Males who have not yet received 3 doses of HPV4 are generally recommended to have done so through age 21. HPV4 is recommended for men who have sex with men through age 26 years who did not get any or all doses when they were younger.

United States Vaccine Schedule: 2014[146][147]
Infection Birth Months Years
1 2 4 6 9 12 15 18 19-23 2-3 4-6 7-10 11-12 13-18 19-26 27-59 60-64 65+
Hepatitis B HepB HepB HepB HepB x3
Rotavirus RV RV
Diphtheria DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP DTaP Tdap Td (every 10 years)
Tetanus
Pertussis
Haemophilus influenzae HIB HIB HIB HIB HIB x1-3
Pneumococcus PCV PCV PCV PCV PPSV PPSV
Polio IPV IPV IPV IPV
Flu IIV (yearly) IIV or LAIV (yearly)
Measles MMR MMR MMR x1-2 MMR
Mumps
Rubella
Varicella VV VV VV
Hepatitis A HepA x2
Meningococcus MCV MCV MCV x1+
Human papillomavirus HPV x3 HPV x31
  Range of recommended ages for everyone. See references for more details.
  Range of recommended ages for certain high-risk groups. See references for more details.
  Range of recommended ages for catch-up immunization or for people who lack evidence of immunity (e.g., lack documentation of vaccination or have no evidence of prior infection). CDC provides more detailed information in catch-up immunizations.

^1. Note on HPV vaccine: Males who have not yet received 3 doses of HPV4 are generally recommended to have done so through age 21. HPV4 is recommended for men who have sex with men through age 26 years who did not get any or all doses when they were younger.

 
Vaccination Schedule 2015[148]

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices makes scientific recommendations which are generally followed by the federal government, state governments, and private health insurance companies.[149]

All 50 states in the U.S. mandate immunizations for children in order to enroll in public school, but various exemptions are available depending on the state. All states have exemptions for people who have medical contraindications to vaccines, and all states except for California, Maine, Mississippi, New York, and West Virginia allow religious exemptions,[150] while sixteen states allow parents to cite personal, conscientious, philosophical, or other objections.[151] An increasing number of parents are using religious and philosophical exemptions: researchers have cited this increased use of exemptions as contributing to loss of herd immunity within these communities, and hence an increasing number of disease outbreaks.[152][153][154]

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises physicians to respect the refusal of parents to vaccinate their child after adequate discussion, unless the child is put at significant risk of harm (e.g., during an epidemic, or after a deep and contaminated puncture wound). Under such circumstances, the AAP states that parental refusal of immunization constitutes a form of medical neglect and should be reported to state child protective services agencies.[155]

Several states allow minors to legally consent to vaccination over parental objections under the mature minor doctrine.

See Vaccination schedule for the vaccination schedule used in the United States.

Immunizations are often compulsory for military enlistment in the U.S.[156]

All vaccines recommended by the U.S. government for its citizens are required for green card applicants.[157] This requirement stirred controversy when it was applied to the HPV vaccine in July 2008 due to the cost of the vaccine. In addition, the other thirteen required vaccines prevent highly contagious diseases communicable through the respiratory route, while HPV is only spread through sexual contact.[158] In November 2009, this requirement was canceled.[159]

Though the federal guidelines do not require written consent in order to receive a vaccination, they do require doctors give the recipients or legal representatives a Vaccine Information Statement (VIS). Specific informed consent laws are made by the states.[21][160]

SchoolsEdit

The United States has a long history of school vaccination requirements. The first school vaccination requirement was enacted in the 1850s in Massachusetts to prevent the spread of smallpox.[161] The school vaccination requirement was put in place after the compulsory school attendance law caused a rapid increase in the number of children in public schools, increasing the risk of smallpox outbreaks. The early movement towards school vaccination laws began at the local level including counties, cities, and boards of education. By 1827, Boston had become the first city to mandate that all children entering public schools show proof of vaccination.[162] In addition, in 1855 the Commonwealth of Massachusetts had established its own statewide vaccination requirements for all students entering school, this influenced other states to implement similar statewide vaccination laws in schools as seen in New York in 1862, Connecticut in 1872, Pennsylvania in 1895, and later the Midwest, South and Western US. By 1963, 20 states had school vaccination laws.[162]

These vaccination laws resulted in political debates throughout the United States. An example of this political controversy occurred in 1893 in Chicago, where less than 10 percent of the children were vaccinated despite the twelve year old state law.[162] Resistance was seen at the local level of the school district as some local school boards and superintendents opposed the state vaccination laws, leading the state board health inspectors to examine vaccination policies in schools. Resistance proceeded during the mid-1900s and in 1977 a nationwide Childhood Immunization Initiative was developed with the goal of increasing vaccination rates among children to 90% by 1979.[163] During the two-year period of observation, the initiative reviewed the immunization records of more than 28 million children and vaccinated children who had not received the recommended vaccines.[citation needed]

In 1922, the constitutionality of childhood vaccination was examined in the Supreme Court case Zucht v. King. The court decided that a school could deny admission to children who failed to provide a certification of vaccination for the protection of the public health.[163] In 1987, a measles epidemic occurred in Maricopa County, Arizona and another court case, Maricopa County Health Department vs. Harmon, examined the arguments of an individual's right to education over the states need to protect against the spread of disease. The court decided that it is prudent to take action to combat the spread of disease by denying un-vaccinated children a place in school until the risk for the spread of measles had passed.[163]

Studies show that if a mandate is not presented then less citizens will get a vaccination, especially for those ages one to eighteen.[164] Midway through 2015-2016, the season had one of the highest vaccination rates being 96.5%. Due to the fact that they were presented with a mandate. While the normal vaccination rate before (without mandate) was 77.2%.[164] Getting vaccinated could be looked at as both good and bad, depending on the individuals beliefs.

Schools in the United States require an updated immunization record for all incoming and returning students. While all states require an immunization record, this does not mean that all students must get vaccinated. Exemptions are determined at a state level. In the United States, exemptions take one of three forms: medical, in which a vaccine is contraindicated due to a component ingredient allergy or existing medical condition; religious; and personal philosophical opposition. As of 2019, 45 states allow religious exemptions, with some states requiring proof of religious membership. Until 2019, only Mississippi, West Virginia and California did not permit religious exemptions.[165] However, the 2019 measles outbreak led to the repeal of religious exemptions in the state of New York and for the MMR vaccination in the state of Washington. Prior to 2019, 18 states allowed personal or philosophical opposition to vaccination, but the measles outbreak also led to the repeal of these exemptions in a number of states.[151]

Mandatory vaccinations for attending public schools have received criticism. Parents say that vaccine mandates in order to attend public schools prevent one's right to choose, especially if the vaccinations could be harmful.[166] Some people believe that being forced to get a vaccination could cause trauma, and may lead to not seeking out medical care/attention ever again.[167] In the constitutional law, some states have the liberty to withdraw to public health regulations, which includes mandatory vaccination laws that threaten fines. Certain laws are being looked at for immunization requirements, and are trying to be changed, but cannot succeed due to legal challenges.[168] After California removed non-medical exemptions for school entrance, lawsuits were filed arguing for the right for children to attend school regardless of their vaccination history, and to suspend the bill’s implementation altogether. [168] However, all such lawsuits ultimately failed.[169]

WarEdit

 
Judge's cartoon of Rudyard Kipling's famous poem "The White Man's Burden" published in 1899. The poem's philosophy quickly was utilized to explain/justify the United States response to annexation of the Philippines. The United States used the "white man's burden" as an argument for imperial control of the Philippines and Puerto Rico on the basis of moral necessity to ensure the spread of civility and modernity.

The United States has a very complex history with compulsory vaccination, particularly in enforcing compulsory vaccinations both domestically and abroad to protect American soldiers during times of war. Hundreds of thousands of soldiers died not from combat wounds, but from disease.[170] In the American Civil War, an estimated 620,000 soldiers died from disease. American soldiers in other countries have spread diseases that ultimately disrupted entire societies and healthcare systems with famine and poverty.[60]

Spanish–American WarEdit

The Spanish–American War began in April 1898 and ended in August 1898. During this time the United States gained control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines from Spain. As a military police power and as colonizers the United States took a very hands-on approach in administering healthcare particularly vaccinations to natives during the invasion and conquest of these countries.[170] Although the Spanish–American War occurred during the era of "bacteriological revolution" where knowledge of disease was bolstered by germ theory, more than half of the soldier casualties in this war were from disease.[170] Unknowingly, American soldiers acted as agents of disease transmission, fostering bacteria in their haphazardly made camps. These soldiers invaded Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines and connected parts of these countries that had never before been connected due to the countries sparse nature thereby beginning epidemics.[170] The mobility of American soldiers around these countries encouraged a newfound mobility of disease that quickly infected natives.

Military personnel used Rudyard's Kipling's poem "The White Man's Burden" to explain their imperialistic actions in Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico and the need for the United States to help the "dark-skinned Barbarians"[170] reach modern sanitary standards. American actions abroad before, during, and after the war emphasized a need for proper sanitation habits especially on behalf of the natives. Natives who refuse to oblige with American health standards and procedures risked fines or imprisonment.[170] One penalty in Puerto Rico included a $10 fine for a failure to vaccinate and an additional $5 fine for any day you continue to be unvaccinated, refusal to pay resulted in ten or more days of imprisonment. If entire villages refused the army's current sanitation policy at any given time they risked being burnt to the ground in order to preserve the health and safety of soldiers from endemic smallpox and yellow fever.[170] Vaccines were forcibly administered to the Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Filipinos. Military personnel in Puerto Rico provided Public Health services that culminated in military orders that mandated vaccinations for children before they were six months old, as well as a general vaccination order.[170] By the end of 1899 in Puerto Rico alone the U.S. military and other hired native vaccinators called practicantes, vaccinated an estimated 860,000 natives in a five-month period. This period began the United States' movement toward an expansion of medical practices that included "tropical medicine" in an attempt to protect the lives of soldiers abroad.[170]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Legislatures, National Conference of State. "Immunizations Policy Issues Overview". www.ncsl.org.
  2. ^ a b Hendrix, Kristin S.; Sturm, Lynne A.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Meslin, Eric M. (February 2016). "Ethics and Childhood Vaccination Policy in the United States". American Journal of Public Health. 106 (2): 273–278. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302952. PMC 4815604. PMID 26691123.
  3. ^ a b Obasi Chinedu (October 2018). Immunization in Nigeria (Report). Public Health Nigeria. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  4. ^ UNICEF (February 2014). Global Immunization Data (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  5. ^ "Frequently asked questions and answers on smallpox". World Health Organization.
  6. ^ Peltola, Heikki; Jokinen, Sari; Paunio, Mikko; Hovi, Tapani; Davidkin, Irja (December 2008). "Measles, mumps, and rubella in Finland: 25 years of a nationwide elimination programme". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 8 (12): 796–803. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(08)70282-2. PMID 19022194.
  7. ^ "GPEI-Strategy". polioeradication.org.
  8. ^ Damnjanović, Kaja; Graeber, Johanna; Ilić, Sandra; Lam, Wing Y.; Lep, Žan; Morales, Sara; Pulkkinen, Tero; Vingerhoets, Loes (13 June 2018). "Parental Decision-Making on Childhood Vaccination". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 735. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00735. PMC 600888. PMID 29951010.
  9. ^ Fine PE, Clarkson JA (December 1986). "Individual versus public priorities in the determination of optimal vaccination policies". American Journal of Epidemiology. 124 (6): 1012–20. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114471. PMID 3096132. 
  10. ^ Shim, Eunha; Chapman, Gretchen B.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Galvani, Alison P. (7 September 2012). "The influence of altruism on influenza vaccination decisions". Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 9 (74): 2234–2243. doi:10.1098/rsif.2012.0115. PMC 3405754. PMID 22496100.
  11. ^ Bauch CT, Galvani AP, Earn DJ (September 2003). "Group interest versus self-interest in smallpox vaccination policy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (18): 10564–7. Bibcode:2003PNAS..10010564B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1731324100. PMC 193525. PMID 12920181.
  12. ^ Vardavas R, Breban R, Blower S (May 2007). "Can influenza epidemics be prevented by voluntary vaccination?". PLoS Computational Biology. 3 (5): e85. Bibcode:2007PLSCB...3...85V. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030085. PMC 1864996. PMID 17480117.
  13. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (August 2014). "Parent's Guide to Childhood Immunizations" (PDF). Department of Health and Human Services. CS250472.
  14. ^ "WHO - Ethical considerations for vaccination programmes in acute humanitarian emergencies". www.who.int.
  15. ^ El Amin AN, Parra MT, Kim-Farley R, Fielding JE. "Ethical Issues Concerning Vaccination Requirements" (PDF). Public Health Rev. 34 (1): 1–20.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) 
  16. ^ Mariner WK, Annas GJ, Glantz LH (April 2005). "Jacobson v Massachusetts: it's not your great-great-grandfather's public health law". American Journal of Public Health. 95 (4): 581–90. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.055160. PMC 1449224. PMID 15798113.
  17. ^ Walkinshaw E (November 2011). "Mandatory vaccinations: The international landscape". CMAJ. 183 (16): E1167–8. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-3993. PMC 3216445. PMID 21989473.
  18. ^ "State Vaccination Exemptions for Children Entering Public Schools - Vaccines - ProCon.org". vaccines.procon.org.
  19. ^ Amin AN, Parra MT, Kim-Farley R, Fielding JE (2012). "Ethical Issues Concerning Vaccination Requirements". Public Health Reviews. 34. doi:10.1007/BF03391666.
  20. ^ a b c Wolfe RM, Sharp LK (August 2002). "Anti-vaccinationists past and present". BMJ. 325 (7361): 430–2. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7361.430. PMC 1123944. PMID 12193361.
  21. ^ a b "Ethical Issues and Vaccines | History of Vaccines". www.historyofvaccines.org. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
  22. ^ Lees, KA; Wortley, PM; Coughlin, SS (December 2005). "Comparison of racial/ethnic disparities in adult immunization and cancer screening". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 29 (5): 404–11. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.08.009. PMID 16376703.
  23. ^ Salmon DA, Teret SP, MacIntyre CR, Salisbury D, Burgess MA, Halsey NA (February 2006). "Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future". Lancet. 367 (9508): 436–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68144-0. PMID 16458770. 
  24. ^ Salmon DA, Teret SP, MacIntyre CR, Salisbury D, Burgess MA, Halsey NA (February 2006). "Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future". Lancet. 367 (9508): 436–42. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(06)68144-0. PMID 16458770.
  25. ^ Meade T (2009). "'Living Worse and Costing More': Resistance and Riot in Rio de Janeiro, 1890–1917". Journal of Latin American Studies. 21 (1–2): 241–266. doi:10.1017/S0022216X00014784.
  26. ^ Briss PA, Rodewald LE, Hinman AR, Shefer AM, Strikas RA, Bernier RR, Carande-Kulis VG, Yusuf HR, Ndiaye SM, Williams SM (January 2000). "Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to improve vaccination coverage in children, adolescents, and adults. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 18 (1 Suppl): 97–140. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(99)00118-X. PMID 10806982. 
  27. ^ Ndiaye SM, Hopkins DP, Shefer AM, Hinman AR, Briss PA, Rodewald L, Willis B (June 2005). "Interventions to improve influenza, pneumococcal polysaccharide, and hepatitis B vaccination coverage among high-risk adults: a systematic review". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 28 (5 Suppl): 248–79. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.02.016. PMID 15894160.
  28. ^ Abramson, Brian Dean (2019). Vaccine, Vaccination, and Immunization Law. Bloomberg Law. pp. 8–11.
  29. ^ Abramson, Brian Dean (2019). Vaccine, Vaccination, and Immunization Law. Bloomberg Law. pp. 9–44.
  30. ^ Caplan, Arthur L. "Do Children Have Vaccination Rights?". Medscape Business of Medicine.
  31. ^ "Anti-vaccine misinformation denies children's rights". 2018-04-18.
  32. ^ "Ethics of Vaccinations | High School Bioethics". med.nyu.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
  33. ^ "Should Pediatricians Refuse Unvaccinated Kids?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
  34. ^ Bachai, Sabrina (24 June 2014). "NYC Schools Are Now Allowed To Ban Unvaccinated Kids, Rules Federal Judge". Medical Daily. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
  35. ^ Halperin, Beth; Melnychuk, Ryan; Downie, Jocelyn; MacDonald, Noni (December 2007). "When is it permissible to dismiss a family who refuses vaccines? Legal, ethical and public health perspectives". Paediatrics & Child Health. 12 (10): 843–845. doi:10.1093/pch/12.10.843. PMC 2532570. PMID 19043497.
  36. ^ Rucoba, Ruben J. (August 29, 2016). "How to address vaccine hesitancy: New AAP report says dismissal a last resort". AAP News. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
  37. ^ a b c Ibuka Y, Li M, Vietri J, Chapman GB, Galvani AP (2014). "Free-riding behavior in vaccination decisions: an experimental study". PLOS ONE. 9 (1): e87164. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...987164I. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087164. PMC 3901764. PMID 24475246.
  38. ^ Stiglitz, Joseph (2000). Economics of the Public Sector. Territory Rights Worldwide. ISBN 978-0-393-96651-0.
  39. ^ Serpell L, Green J (May 2006). "Parental decision-making in childhood vaccination". Vaccine. 24 (19): 4041–6. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.02.037. PMID 16530892.
  40. ^ Francis PJ (1997). "Dynamic epidemiology and the market for vaccinations". Journal of Public Economics. 63 (3): 383–406. doi:10.1016/S0047-2727(96)01586-1.
  41. ^ Deogaonkar R, Hutubessy R, van der Putten I, Evers S, Jit M (October 2012). "Systematic review of studies evaluating the broader economic impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries". BMC Public Health. 12: 878. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-878. PMC 3532196. PMID 23072714.
  42. ^ Francis PJ (2004). "Optimal tax/subsidy combinations for the flu season". Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. 28 (10): 2037–2054. doi:10.1016/j.jedc.2003.08.001.
  43. ^ Oraby T, Thampi V, Bauch CT (April 2014). "The influence of social norms on the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour for paediatric infectious diseases". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 281 (1780): 20133172. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3172. PMC 4078885. PMID 24523276.
  44. ^ Meszaros JR, Asch DA, Baron J, Hershey JC, Kunreuther H, Schwartz-Buzaglo J (June 1996). "Cognitive processes and the decisions of some parents to forego pertussis vaccination for their children". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 49 (6): 697–703. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(96)00007-8. PMID 8656233.
  45. ^ "Vaccination and trust". World Health Organization. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  46. ^ Zhou F, Santoli J, Messonnier ML, Yusuf HR, Shefer A, Chu SY, Rodewald L, Harpaz R (December 2005). "Economic evaluation of the 7-vaccine routine childhood immunization schedule in the United States, 2001". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 159 (12): 1136–44. doi:10.1001/archpedi.159.12.1136. PMID 16330737.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Pneumokokkikonjugaattirokote eli PCV-rokote – Rokottaminen – THL". Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos (in Finnish). Retrieved 2019-11-14.
  48. ^ a b c d Zhou F, Shefer A, Wenger J, Messonnier M, Wang LY, Lopez A, Moore M, Murphy TV, Cortese M, Rodewald L (April 2014). "Economic evaluation of the routine childhood immunization program in the United States, 2009". Pediatrics. 133 (4): 577–85. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-0698. PMID 24590750.
  49. ^ Gargano LM, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Omer SB, Cookson ST (2015). "Comparison of impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus supplementary and routine immunization in a complex humanitarian emergency, Somali case study". Conflict and Health. 9: 5. doi:10.1186/s13031-015-0032-y. PMC 4331177. PMID 25691915.
  50. ^ van Hoek AJ, Campbell H, Amirthalingam G, Andrews N, Miller E (July 2016). "Cost-effectiveness and programmatic benefits of maternal vaccination against pertussis in England" (PDF). The Journal of Infection. 73 (1): 28–37. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2016.04.012. PMID 27108802.
  51. ^ Diop A, Atherly D, Faye A, Lamine Sall F, Clark AD, Nadiel L, Yade B, Ndiaye M, Fafa Cissé M, Ba M (May 2015). "Estimated impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Senegal: A country-led analysis". Vaccine. 33 Suppl 1: A119–25. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.065. PMID 25919151.
  52. ^ Ehreth J (January 2003). "The global value of vaccination". Vaccine. 21 (7–8): 596–600. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00623-0. PMID 12531324.
  53. ^ Doherty TM, Connolly MP, Del Giudice G, Flamaing J, Goronzy JJ, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Lambert PH, Maggi S, McElhaney JE, Nagai H, Schaffner W, Schmidt-Ott R, Walsh E, Di Pasquale A (2018). "Vaccination programs for older adults in an era of demographic change". European Geriatric Medicine. 9 (3): 289–300. doi:10.1007/s41999-018-0040-8. PMC 5972173. PMID 29887922.
  54. ^ Bonanni P, Picazo JJ, Rémy V (2015-08-12). "The intangible benefits of vaccination - what is the true economic value of vaccination?". Journal of Market Access & Health Policy. 3: 26964. doi:10.3402/jmahp.v3.26964. PMC 4802696. PMID 27123182.
  55. ^ Lipsitch M, Siber GR (June 2016). "How Can Vaccines Contribute to Solving the Antimicrobial Resistance Problem?". mBio. 7 (3). doi:10.1128/mBio.00428-16. PMC 4959668. PMID 27273824.
  56. ^ Ethgen O, Cornier M, Chriv E, Baron-Papillon F (August 2016). "The cost of vaccination throughout life: A western European overview". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 12 (8): 2029–2037. doi:10.1080/21645515.2016.1154649. PMC 4994732. PMID 27050111.
  57. ^ Preaud E, Durand L, Macabeo B, Farkas N, Sloesen B, Palache A, Shupo F, Samson SI (August 2014). "Annual public health and economic benefits of seasonal influenza vaccination: a European estimate". BMC Public Health. 14: 813. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-813. PMC 4141103. PMID 25103091.
  58. ^ "Global Immunization Vision and Strategy". Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. World Health Organization. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  59. ^ "Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011 - 2020". Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. World Health Organization. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah "Vaccine Scheduler | ECDC". vaccine-schedule.ecdc.europa.eu. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  61. ^ "France makes 11 child vaccines compulsory: no vaccines, no school". www.efe.com.
  62. ^ "Mandatory vaccinations: Italian parents will no longer need to provide doctor's note". www.thelocal.it. July 6, 2018.
  63. ^ Health, Australian Government Department of (2017-10-16). "National Immunisation Program Schedule". Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  64. ^ "NSW Legislation". www.legislation.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  65. ^ Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008, retrieved 2019-10-07
  66. ^ https://www.legislation.wa.gov.au/legislation/prod/filestore.nsf/FileURL/mrdoc_42222.pdf/$FILE/Public%20Health%20Amendment%20(Immunisation%20Requirements%20for%20Enrolment)%20Act%202019%20-%20%5B00-00-00%5D.pdf?OpenElement
  67. ^ "Vacinação: quais são as vacinas, para quê servem, por que vacinar, mitos". www.saude.gov.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  68. ^ "Obter Benefícios do Programa Bolsa Família — Português (Brasil)". www.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  69. ^ a b c "Measles outbreak: The loopholes in Canada's vaccination laws". CBC. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  70. ^ a b Reichert, Thomas A.; Sugaya, Norio; Fedson, David S.; Glezen, W. Paul; Simonsen, Lone; Tashiro, Masato (22 March 2001). "The Japanese Experience with Vaccinating Schoolchildren against Influenza". New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (12): 889–896. doi:10.1056/NEJM200103223441204.
  71. ^ Grigoryan, Astghik (2019-05-09). "Russia: Government Expanding Vaccination for Measles Amid Outbreak in Neighboring Countries | Global Legal Monitor". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  72. ^ a b Nel, Michelle. "The great vaccination debate". The M&G Online. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  73. ^ Ingrassia, Víctor (December 17, 2018). "Todo lo que hay que saber de la nueva ley de vacunación en Argentina" (in Spanish). Infobae.
  74. ^ Gentil, Andrea (December 21, 2018). "Cómo es la nueva ley de vacunas" (in Spanish). Noticias.
  75. ^ "National Immunisation Program Schedule". 2015-04-20. Retrieved 2016-04-06.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Immunisation Calculator". Government of South Australia. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h "Victorian immunisation catch-up tool for 10 to 19 year olds" (PDF). Western Victoria Primary Health Network. January 2016
  78. ^ "National Immunisation Program Schedule". 2015-04-20. Retrieved 2016-04-06.
  79. ^ Peatling S (13 April 2015). "Support for government push to withdraw welfare payments from anti vaccination parents". Federal Politics. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  80. ^ "About the Program". Immunise Australia Program. Australian Government, Department of Health. 4 September 2014. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  81. ^ "Free vaccine Victoria – Criteria for eligibility". Health. State Government of Victoria. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  82. ^ "Your child's immunisation schedule". Australian Childhood Immunisation Register for health professionals. Australian Government Department of Human Services. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  83. ^ "Age of Consent for Vaccinations". Queensland Health. Government of Queensland. 15 December 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  84. ^ a b c Choahan, Neelima (20 August 2018). "Children and consent for medical treatment". Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  85. ^ a b "Vaccination schedule tool". Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  86. ^ a b "Immunization schedule tool". Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved 2015-02-01.
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h "Immunization schedule tool". Public Health Agency of Canada. Retrieved 2015-02-01.
  88. ^ a b "Protocole d'immunisation du Québec (PIQ) / Calendrier régulier de vaccination". Gouvernement du Québec, 2019. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  89. ^ a b "Les garçons désormais vaccinés contre le VPH au Québec". ICI Quebec / Radio-Canada, 1 Sept. 2016. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  90. ^ Parry, J (1 September 2014). "China enters the global vaccine market". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 92 (9): 626–627. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.020914. PMC 4208573. PMID 25378751.
  91. ^ Zheng, Jingshan; Zhou, Yuqing; Wang, Huaqing; Liang, Xiaofeng (April 2010). "The role of the China Experts Advisory Committee on Immunization Program". Vaccine. 28: A84–A87. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.02.039. PMID 20413004.
  92. ^ Fang, Hai; Yang, Li; Zhang, Huyang; Li, Chenyang; Wen, Liankui; Sun, Li; Hanson, Kara; Meng, Qingyue (1 July 2017). "Strengthening health system to improve immunization for migrants in China". International Journal for Equity in Health. 16 (1): 19. doi:10.1186/s12939-016-0504-8. PMC 5493864. PMID 28666442.
  93. ^ Zheng, Yaming; Rodewald, Lance; Yang, Juan; Qin, Ying; Pang, Mingfan; Feng, Luzhao; Yu, Hongjie (4 October 2018). "The landscape of vaccines in China: history, classification, supply, and price". BMC Infectious Diseases. 18 (1): 502. doi:10.1186/s12879-018-3422-0. PMC 6172750. PMID 30286735.
  94. ^ Zhang, Xinyi; Syeda, Zerin Imam; Jing, Zhengyue; Xu, Qiongqiong; Sun, Long; Xu, Lingzhong; Zhou, Chengchao (22 June 2018). "Rural-urban disparity in category II vaccination among children under five years of age: evidence from a survey in Shandong, China". International Journal for Equity in Health. 17 (1): 87. doi:10.1186/s12939-018-0802-4. PMC 6013881. PMID 29929503.
  95. ^ "Over 650,000 faulty vaccine doses recalled in China". South China POst. 7 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  96. ^ "Changsheng Bio-tech, the vaccine maker behind China's latest public health scare". South China Morning Post. 23 July 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  97. ^ "Chinese President Xi Jinping orders crackdown over 'appalling' vaccine scandal". South China Morning Post. 23 July 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  98. ^ Zheng, William (24 December 2018). "China's lawmakers consider 'strictest' rules on vaccine industry after scandals". South China Morning Post.
  99. ^ "Vaccine Scheduler| ECDC". vaccine-schedule.ecdc.europa.eu. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  100. ^ "Rokotusohjelman historia – Rokottaminen – THL". Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos (in Finnish). Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  101. ^ "THL – HPV-rokotuskattavuusraportit 2016". www.thl.fi. Retrieved 2019-11-14.
  102. ^ "Vaccine Scheduler| ECDC". vaccine-schedule.ecdc.europa.eu. Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  103. ^ "Rokotusohjelman historia – Rokottaminen – THL". Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos (in Finnish). Retrieved 2019-11-07.
  104. ^ "THL – HPV-rokotuskattavuusraportit 2016". www.thl.fi. Retrieved 2019-11-14.
  105. ^ a b c d "Vaccine Schedule Quick Search". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Network. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  106. ^ Stahl JP, Cohen R, Denis F, Gaudelus J, Lery T, Lepetit H, Martinot A (February 2013). "Vaccination against meningococcus C. vaccinal coverage in the French target population". Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses. 43 (2): 75–80. doi:10.1016/j.medmal.2013.01.001. PMID 23428390.
  107. ^ Loulergue P, Floret D, Launay O (July 2015). "Strategies for decision-making on vaccine use: the French experience". Expert Review of Vaccines. 14 (7): 917–22. doi:10.1586/14760584.2015.1035650. PMID 25913015.
  108. ^ a b c Rouillon E (2014-10-10). "Charges Against French Parents Stir Mandatory Vaccination Debate". VICE NEWS. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
  109. ^ a b Greenhouse E. "How France Is Handling Its Own Vaccine Debate". Bloomberg.
  110. ^ ""The Fight against Poverty: "The Challenge Is to Preserve Our Social Model and Its Underlying Values""". General Assembly on Social Work.
  111. ^ a b c d "Germany" (PDF). Vaccination European New Integrated Collaboration Effort. Venice III.
  112. ^ "The German Standing Committee of Vaccination". Robert Koch Institut.
  113. ^ a b c d Ricciardi GW, Toumi M, Weil-Olivier C, Ruitenberg EJ, Dankó D, Duru G, Picazo J, Zöllner Y, Poland G, Drummond M (January 2015). "Comparison of NITAG policies and working processes in selected developed countries". Vaccine. 33 (1): 3–11. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.023. PMID 25258100.
  114. ^ "Vaccinations". G-BA. Bermeinsamer Bundesausschuss. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  115. ^ Kerwat, Klaus; Just, Martin; Wulf, Hinnerk (5 March 2009). "Krankenhaushygiene – Das Infektionsschutzgesetz" [The German Protection against Infection Act (Infektionsschutzgesetz (IfSG))]. AINS - Anästhesiologie · Intensivmedizin · Notfallmedizin · Schmerztherapie (in German). 44 (3): 182–183. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1215548. PMID 19266418.
  116. ^ a b c "Recommendations of the Standing Committee on Vaccinations STIKO at the Robert Koch Institute" (PDF). Epidemiologisches Bulletin. Robert Koch Institute.
  117. ^ Schulenburg, Dirk; Eibl, Katharina (27 November 2017). "Einwilligung in die ärztliche Behandlung von Kindern und Jugendlichen" [Consent in the medical treatment of children and youth]. Rheinisches Ärzteblatt (in German). Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  118. ^ Maronde B (10 July 2013). "Juristische Fallen beim Impfen: Aufklärung und Einwilligung" [Legal Pitfalls with Vaccination: Informing and Consenting]. Medical Tribune (in German). Süddeutscher Verlag.
  119. ^ "Immunisations for children and young people". Citizens Information. Citizens Information Board, Republic of Ireland. 16 September 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  120. ^ a b Webicine Journalists (2014-12-19). "Italy Embraces 'life-course Immunisation". Vaccines Today. EFPIA. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
  121. ^ a b c d e "Ministero Della Salute". Italian Ministry of Health. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
  122. ^ a b Haverkate, D’Ancona, Giambi, Johansen, Lopalco, Cozza, and Appelgren (2012). "Mandatory And Recommended Vaccination In The EU, Iceland And Norway: Results Of The Venice 2010 Survey On The Ways Of Implementing National Vaccination Programmes". Eurosurveillance. 17 (22). doi:10.2807/ese.17.22.20183-en. PMID 22687916.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  123. ^ a b Bonanni P, Ferro A, Guerra R, Iannazzo S, Odone A, Pompa MG, Rizzuto E, Signorelli C (July 2013). "Vaccine coverage in Italy and assessment of the 2012-2014 National Immunization Prevention Plan". Epidemiologia e Prevenzione. 39 (4 Suppl 1): 146–58. PMID 26499433.
  124. ^ a b c d e Margottini L (2015-12-07). "New Vaccination Strategy Stirs Controversy in Italy". Science Insider. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2016-03-10.
  125. ^ "Italy Senate overturns mandatory vaccination law". Financial Times. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  126. ^ "Italy's populist coalition renounces anti-vaccination stance amid measles 'emergency'". Telegraph. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  127. ^ a b Walkinshaw E (November 2011). "Mandatory vaccinations: The international landscape". CMAJ. 183 (16): E1167–8. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-3993. PMC 3216445. PMID 21989473.
  128. ^ Roesel S, Banerjee K. School Immunization Programme in Malaysia – 24 February to 4 March 2008 (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization.
  129. ^ "New Zealand Immunisation Schedule". Ministry of Health (New Zealand). Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  130. ^ "New Zealand Immunisation Schedule". Ministry of Health (New Zealand). Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  131. ^ a b "Immunization in Nigeria". Retrieved 2018-10-28.
  132. ^ Grigoryan, Astghik (9 May 2019). "Russia: Government Expanding Vaccination for Measles Amid Outbreak in Neighboring Countries | Global Legal Monitor". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  133. ^ Mrvic T, Petrovec M, Breskvar M, Zupanc TL, Logar M (31 March 2012). Mandatory measles vaccination – are healthcare workers really safe?. 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. London. Retrieved 24 April 2015.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  134. ^ Irena Grmek Kosnik (2012). "Success of the vaccination campaign in Slovenia" (PDF of slidedeck). International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis.
  135. ^ "South African Vaccination & Immunisation Centre (SAVIC)". web.archive.org. August 14, 2017.
  136. ^ a b c d e Delgado S. "Spain" (PDF). Instituto De Salud Carlos III. Centro Nacional De Epidemiologia. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  137. ^ "Functions". Instituto De Salud Carlos III. Gobierno de España, Minesterio de Economia y Competitividad. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  138. ^ a b c "Voluntary- Mandatory, Consent, and Waiver Vaccination". Vaccination ASP. Asociacíon Españada de Pediatría, Comité Asesor de Vacunas. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  139. ^ "Occupational Health Regulations". Ministry of Health, Social Services, and Equality. Ministry of Health. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  140. ^ "Immunisation Schedules in Spain". Vaccination ASP. Asociacíon Españada De Pediatría, Comité Asesor De Vacunas. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  141. ^ WHO. "Global Health Observatory Data Repository-Immunization". Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  142. ^ "Good data saves lives". Gavi. 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  143. ^ a b Freed GL (2005). "Vaccine policies across the pond: looking at the U.K. and U.S. systems". Health Affairs. 24 (3): 755–7. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.24.3.755. PMID 15886170.
  144. ^ "Children and young people: Consent to treatment". National Health Service. 3 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2019 – via nhs.uk.
  145. ^ Griffith, Richard (30 November 2015). "What is Gillick competence?". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 12 (1): 244–247. doi:10.1080/21645515.2015.1091548. PMC 4962726. PMID 26619366.
  146. ^ a b "FIGURE 1: Recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years" (PDF). CDC. Retrieved 2014-02-08.
  147. ^ a b "Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule — United States, 2014" (PDF). CDC. Retrieved 2014-02-08.
  148. ^ "Immunization Schedules". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  149. ^ Abramson, Brian Dean (2019). Vaccine, Vaccination, and Immunization Law. Bloomberg Law. pp. 5–13.
  150. ^ "Measles Outbreak: N.Y. Eliminates Religious Exemptions for Vaccinations". New York Times. June 13, 2019. Archived from the original on June 14, 2019.
  151. ^ a b "States with Religious and Philosophical Exemptions from School Immunization Requirements". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
  152. ^ Ciolli A (September 2008). "Mandatory school vaccinations: the role of tort law". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 81 (3): 129–37. PMC 2553651. PMID 18827888.
  153. ^ May T, Silverman RD (March 2003). "'Clustering of exemptions' as a collective action threat to herd immunity". Vaccine. 21 (11–12): 1048–51. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00627-8. hdl:1805/6156. PMID 12559778.
  154. ^ Faiola, Anthony; Srinivas, Preethi; Karanam, Yamini; Chartash, David; Doebbeling, Bradley (2014). "Viz Com". Proceedings of the extended abstracts of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI EA '14. pp. 1705–1710. doi:10.1145/2559206.2581332. hdl:1805/6156. ISBN 978-1-4503-2474-8.
  155. ^ Diekema DS (May 2005). "Responding to parental refusals of immunization of children". Pediatrics. 115 (5): 1428–31. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0316. PMID 15867060.
  156. ^ United States Department of Defense. "MilVax homepage". Retrieved 2007-07-25.
  157. ^ "Report of Medical Examination and Vaccination Record". USCIS.
  158. ^ Jordan M (2008-10-01). "Gardasil requirement for immigrants stirs backlash". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-01-18.
  159. ^ "HPV vaccine no longer required for green cards". nbcnews.com. 17 November 2009.
  160. ^ "Vaccine Information Statement | Facts About VISs | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2019-04-30.
  161. ^ McAllister-Grum K (2017). "Pigments and Vaccines: Evaluating the Constitutionality of Targeting Melanin Groups for Mandatory Vaccination". The Journal of Legal Medicine. 37 (1–2): 217–247. doi:10.1080/01947648.2017.1303288. PMID 28910223.
  162. ^ a b c Hodge JG, Gostin LO (2001). "School vaccination requirements: historical, social, and legal perspectives". Kentucky Law Journal. 90 (4): 831–90. PMID 15868682.
  163. ^ a b c Malone, Kevin M; Hinman, Alan R (2003). "The Public Health Imperative and Individual Rights". Law in Public Health Practice: 262–84.
  164. ^ a b Looper, Philip, et al. “Student and Faculty Perceptions about Mandatory Influenza Vaccinations on a Health Sciences Campus.” Journal of American College Health, vol. 65, no. 7, Oct. 2017, pp. 513–517. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/07448481.2017.1341899.
  165. ^ Horowitz, Julia (30 June 2015). "California governor signs strict school vaccine legislation". Associated Press. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  166. ^ "Is it bad policy?". NCSL. 17 January 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  167. ^ Cantor, Julie D. “Mandatory Measles Vaccination in New York City - Reflections on a Bold Experiment.” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 381, no. 2, July 2019, pp. 101–103. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1056/NEJMp1905941
  168. ^ a b Barraza, Leila, et al. “The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, vol. 45, Mar. 2017, pp. 16–19. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1177/1073110517703307.
  169. ^ "California's mandatory-vaccination law survives court test". SFChronicle.com. July 4, 2018.
  170. ^ a b c d e f g h i Willrich, Michael (2010). Pox: An American History. New York, New York: Penguin Group. pp. 117–165. ISBN 9781101476222.
  1. ^ a b c Loulergue P. "Survey of Vaccination Policies in French Healthcare Institutions" (PDF). Clinical Research Center for Vaccinology Cochin Hospital.
  2. ^ a b Reiss DR (2016-01-08). "Freedom To Ignore French Vaccination Program – A Court Case". Skeptical Raptor. Retrieved 2016-03-10.