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The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states. It is the world's highest health policy setting body and is composed of health ministers from member states.
|Type||Forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed.|
|Dr. Harsh Vardhan|
(Minister of Health and Family Welfare, India)
|World Health Organization|
The members of the WHA generally meet every year in May in Geneva at the Palace of Nations, the location of WHO Headquarters. The main tasks of the WHA are to decide major policy questions, as well as to approve the WHO work programme and budget and elect its Director-General (every fifth year) and annually to elect ten members to renew part of its executive board. Its main functions are to determine the policies of the Organization, supervise financial policies, and review and approve the proposed programme budget.
Members, observers and rulesEdit
The original membership of the WHA, at the first assembly held in 1948, numbered 55 member states. The WHA has, currently, 194 member states (all UN members without Liechtenstein, plus the Cook Islands and Niue). Also WHA uncludes two associate members, Puerto Rico and Tokelau.
In addition, seven agencies have observer status at the WHA – the Vatican, the Palestinian Authority, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the South Centre organization, and the Inter-Parliamentary Union.
The Assembly is governed by Rules of Procedure of the World Health Assembly; agenda items are set by the General Committee of the Assembly, a group of 25 individuals that includes the President and subcommittee chairs, and a number of delegates elected by the Assembly previous.
Each year, the WHA elects members from among its ranks to renew the executive board (EB). This body is governed in Chapter VI, Articles 24 through 29, of the Constitution of the WHO. The EB must have an equitable geographic distribution, and "shall be elected for three years and may be re-elected... The Board shall meet at least twice a year and shall determine the place of each meeting." This is invariably chosen (by consensus) to be Geneva. A current list of members on the executive board can be derived through consultation of the WHA #Annual Assemblies summaries which are posted below.
The main international policy frameworks adopted through WHA resolutions include:
- International Health Regulations
- International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, adopted in 1981
- Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, adopted in 2003
- Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel, adopted in 2010
In addition, the WHA has endorsed through resolutions a number of WHO action plans dealing with different areas to improve health around the world, such as:
- Worldwide eradication of smallpox, first endorsed in 1959, and then declared to have been won in 1980
- Worldwide eradication of polio, first endorsed in 1988, recently re-affirmed in 2011
- Control of human hookworm infection through regular deworming of at-risk school children, endorsed in 2001
- WHO global action plan for workers' health, endorsed in 2007
- Control of harmful use of alcohol, endorsed in 2010
- Enhanced global actions for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, endorsed in 2011
The WHA is also responsible for the endorsement of the WHO Family of International Classifications, a series of internationally standardized medical classifications, including the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
2008: Sixty-first WHAEdit
The focus of the 61st WHA was public health. Participants from 190 countries attended, with a record 2704 delegates. Important briefings and resolutions involved intellectual property barriers in research and development; combatting non-communicable diseases and female genital mutilation; campaigns to support breastfeeding and to decrease abuse of alcohol and tobacco; immunization practices, including adoption of the term "pharma fraud"; and health issues facing migrants.
2009: Sixty-second WHAEdit
In her role as global patron of The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood, and chair of the Maternal Mortality Campaign, Sarah Brown gave the keynote speech at the World Health Organization's 62nd WHA, alongside United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, asking "Where is the M in MCH?’ [maternal and child health]" in an echo of Allan Rosenfield's landmark Lancet article of 1985 – and highlighting that the numbers of women dying in pregnancy and childbirth were still the same 14 years later.
2012: Sixty-fifth WHAEdit
Among other actions, the 65th Assembly endorsed the Rio Political Declaration to address the social determinants of health, intended to spearhead support for all countries to adopt inclusive ‘Health For All’ approaches to health promotion. It also endorsed the first World Immunization Week.
2013: Sixty-sixth WHAEdit
In her address to the 66th WHA in May 2013, DGWHO Margaret Chan traced a brief history of revisions to the International Health Regulations following the SARS outbreak in 2002-3, the "first severe new disease of the 21st century." She observed that the two new diseases WHO is dealing with in 2013 are the novel coronavirus (MERS), from the same family as SARS, detected in 2012 in Saudi Arabia, and the first-ever human infections with the H7N9 avian influenza virus reported in China in 2013. She attributed the positive report by the World Health Statistics (May 2013) on dramatic improvement in health in the world's poorest countries from 1993 to 2013, to the emphasis placed on poverty alleviation by the Millennium Development Goals. She announced the emergence of global action plans for noncommunicable diseases, mental health, and the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment calling for a life course approach which includes "equity through universal health coverage," preventive strategies and "integrated service delivery."
Chan declared at the assembly that intellectual property, or patents on strains of new virus, should not impede nations from protecting their citizens by limiting scientific investigations. Following the 2012 MERS outbreak, Saudi Arabia Deputy Minister of Health Ziad Memish raised concerns that scientists who applied for a patent would not allow the MERS-Coronavirus to be used for investigations by other scientists and were, therefore, delaying the development of diagnostic tests. Ten of the 22 people who died and 22 of 44 cases reported were in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia–based microbiologist Ali Mohamed Zaki reported the first known case, a 60-year-old Saudi man who got sick in June, 2012 on ProMed-mail, a public health on-line forum then published more details including the virus’s genetic makeup and closest relatives. The Erasmus Medical Center "tested, sequenced and identified" a sample provided by Ali Mohamed Zaki. Erasmus MC and Dr. Zaki strongly refuted all allegations concerning a presumed lack of willingness to cooperate in research into the new MERS coronavirus, making diagnostic tests and virus specimens freely available to all research institutions around the globe.
2014: Sixty-seventh WHAEdit
The 67th WHA took place in Geneva on May 19–24, 2014. Among the more than 20 resolutions adopted by the Assembly included ones concerning strengthening of national drug management systems to address antimicrobial resistance; implementation of the Minamata Convention to protect human health and the environment from effects of exposure to mercury and mercury compounds; and improving access to essential medicines worldwide. Also endorsed was a global monitoring framework for maternal, infant and child nutrition.
Following the 67th WHA, DGWHO Chan was criticized by the Association of Correspondents Accredited to the United Nations (ACANU) for not having spoken directly to the media during the course of the Assembly.
2015: Sixty-eighth WHAEdit
During the assembly the WHA agreed to the Global Malaria Strategy and Programme Budget for 2016–2017, polio, International Health Regulations, strengthening surgical care, WHO's reform of its emergency and response programme, antimicrobial resistance, immunization gaps, malnutrition, air pollution, and epilepsy. Annual health awards were given by the DGWHO and the President of WHA.
2016: Sixty-ninth WHAEdit
The 69th World Health Assembly took place on May 23–28, 2016, and agreed to pursue the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through a comprehensive set of foundational steps, prioritizing universal health coverage, working with actors outside the health sector to address the social, economic and environmental root causes of antimicrobial resistance and other human health problems, to continue expanding efforts to address poor maternal and child health and infectious diseases in developing countries, and to focus upon equity within and between countries. Delegates decided to invite the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control’s (WHO FCTC) Conference of the Parties (COP) to provide information on outcomes of this biennial event to future World Health Assembly meetings.
2018: Seventy-first WHAEdit
The 71st World Health Assembly took place on May 21–26, 2018.
2019: Seventy-second WHAEdit
The 72nd World Health Assembly took place on May 20–28, 2019. Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Grenada, Guyana, Kenya, Singapore, Tajikistan, Tonga, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates were elected to the executive board. The President of WHA72 was Dr Bounkong Syhavong of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.
2020: Seventy-third WHAEdit
Keva Bain of The Bahamas was selected President of WHA73. Botswana, Colombia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, India, Madagascar, Oman, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland were elected to the executive board. Harsh Vardhan of India became the chairman of the executive board.
On May 25, delegates reached a consensus to hold a special session in November 2021 to consider the International Treaty for Pandemic Preparedness and Response.
2021: Seventy-fourth WHAEdit
The 74th World Health Assembly took place virtually on 24 May-1 June 2021, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The 2021 event focused on the theme, "Ending this pandemic, preventing the next: building together a healthier, safer and fairer world".
Taiwan was invited as an observer to the WHA for 8 years between 2008 and 2016, under the name "Chinese Taipei". However, since the 71st WHA in 2017, Chinese pressure has prevented Taiwan's participation in the WHA. Representatives from many countries, including the U.S. secretary of health and human services Alex Azar, have voiced support for Taiwan's inclusion in the Assembly in opposition to China's coercion and threats.
Notes and referencesEdit
- "World Health Assembly". Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- WHO. Working for health: an introduction to the World Health Organization. Geneva.
- "Countries". World Health Organization. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
- "RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY". Basic Documents (PDF) (47 ed.). World Health Organization.
- "1 - Constitution of the World Health Organization". Basic Documents (PDF) (49 ed.). World Health Organization. 2020.
- "Milestones in the eradication of smallpox". World Health Organization. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- WHO. Poliomyelitis. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Sixty-fourth World Health Assembly closes after passing multiple resolutions". Geneva: World Health Organization. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "Sixty-first World Health Assembly". Media centre. World Health Organization. n.d. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- "61st World Health Assembly: guidelines and information for media (WHA Media Advisory)". Media centre. World Health Organization. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
- Dalzell, Janet; Rogerson, Elizabeth; Martindale, Linda (2010). Breastfeeding: Contemporary Issues in Practice and Policy. Radcliffe Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-138-03117-3.
- "World Health Organization". 19 May 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Brown, Sarah (19 May 2009). "Keynote address to 62nd World Health Assembly by Sarah Brown, Patron of the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- "65th World Health Assembly closes with new global health measures". World Health Organization. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "World Immunization Week essentials". World Health Organization. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- Chan, Margaret (20 May 2013). WHO Director-General addresses the sixty-sixth World Health Assembly (Report). Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Saey, Tina Hesman (27 February 2013). "Scientists race to understand deadly new virus: SARS-like infection causes severe illness, but may not spread quickly". Science News. 183 (6). p. 5.
- Zaki, Ali Mohamed; et al. (8 November 2012). "Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia". New England Journal of Medicine. 367 (19): 1814–20. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1211721. PMID 23075143.
- Heilprin, John (23 May 2013). The Associated Press (AP) (ed.). "WHO: Probe into deadly coronavirus delayed by sample dispute". Geneva: CTV.
- "No restrictions for public health research into MERS coronavirus". Rotterdam: Erasmus MC. 24 May 2013.
- "World Health Assembly closes". Geneva: World Health Organization. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- World Health Organization, Informal consultation with Member States and UN Agencies on a proposed set of indicators for the Global Monitoring Framework for Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "World Health Assembly approves monitoring framework for maternal and child nutrition". Geneva: World Health Organization. 21 May 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- Das, Pamela; Sotomayor, Gabriela (21 June 2014). "WHO and the media: a major impediment to global health?". The Lancet. 383 (9935): 2102–2104. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60854-0. PMC 7134575. PMID 24928807.
- "WHO | Sixty-eighth World Health Assembly". Geneva: World Health Organization. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Horton, Chris (September 21, 2018). "As U.N. Gathers, Taiwan, Frozen Out, Struggles to Get Noticed". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- "WHA71 side events: Technical briefings, official side events and other meetings at the Palais des Nations and in town". Geneva Global Health Hub. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- "Election of Members entitled to designate a person to serve on the Executive Board" (PDF). World Health Organization.
- "Election of Members entitled to designate a person to serve on the Executive Board" (PDF). World Health Organization.
- "Election of officers of the Seventy-second World Health Assembly" (PDF). World Health Organization. 20 May 2019.
- "EB145/11. Future sessions of the Executive Board and the Health Assembly: Report by the Director-General" (PDF). World Health Organization. 1 April 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
- "Seventy-third World Health Assembly". World Health Organization. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
- "Opening of the virtual WHA73". World Health Organization. 18 May 2020.
- "Keva Bain Elected President Of World Health Assembly". The Tribune / Ellington. 18 May 2020.
- "WHA to hold pandemic treaty talks in November".
- "Seventy-fourth World Health Assembly".
- deLisle, Jacques (May 13, 2009). "Taiwan in the World Health Assembly: A Victory, With Limits". Brookings Institution. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- van der Wees, Gerrit (May 10, 2016). "Taiwan and the World Health Assembly". The Diplomat. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- Schlein, Lisa (May 20, 2019). "China Bars Taiwan From World Health Assembly". Voice of America. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- Aspinwall, Nick (May 10, 2019). "Taiwan Picks Up International Support After Being Barred from World Health Assembly". The Diplomat. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- "US backs calls for Taiwan to get role at UN health assembly". Associated Press. May 20, 2019. Retrieved December 27, 2020.
- Miles, Tom (May 20, 2017). "Shut out of U.N. forum, Taiwan slams China's 'coercion and threats'". Reuters. Retrieved December 27, 2020.