University of Allahabad
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The University of Allahabad (Hindi: इलाहाबाद विश्वविद्यालय), informally known as Allahabad University, is a public central university located in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Established on 23 September 1887, it is the fourth oldest University in India. Its origins lie in the Muir Central College, named after Lt. Governor of North-Western Provinces, Sir William Muir in 1876, who suggested the idea of a Central University at Allahabad, which later evolved to the present university. At one point it was called the "Oxford of the East". On 24 June 2005 its Central University status was restored through the University Allahabad Act 2005 of the Parliament of India.
Seal of the University of Allahabad
|Motto||Latin: "Quot Rami Tot Arbores"|
Motto in English
|"Every branch yields a Tree"|
|Chancellor||Prof. Goverdhan Mehta|
|Vice-Chancellor||Prof. Rattan Lal Hangloo|
|Location||Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India|
|Affiliations||UGC, NAAC, AIU|
The foundation stone of the Muir Central College was laid by Governor-General of India, Lord Northbrook on 9 December 1873. The college was named after Sir William Muir, Lt. Governor of United Province, who was instrumental in its foundation. The building was designed by William Emerson, who also designed Victoria Memorial in Kolkata and Crawford Market in Mumbai in a combination of Indo-Saracenic, Egyptian and Gothic styles.
Initially it functioned under the University of Calcutta and later, on 23 September 1887, the University of Allahabad was established, making it the fourth university established in India.
It began as an affiliating and examining body for graduate and postgraduate degrees with a classical orientation and the responsibility for secondary education as well. By 1904 the university established its own teaching departments and instituted doctoral research programs. The University Senate hall was opened by the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir John Hewett, in 1912. In 1921, with the promulgation of the 'Allahabad University Act of 1921', the Muir Central College merged with the university, which was reorganized as a unitary teaching and residential university. Over the next few years its affiliated colleges were transferred to Agra University and the task of conducting secondary-level examinations was relocated.
In 1951, the university (while maintaining its fundamental unitary character) recognized certain local institutions as Associated Colleges authorized to teach undergraduate courses under the faculties of Arts, Commerce, Science, and Law.
The university has had on its rolls a host of politicians and statesmen including one president and two vice-presidents of India, two former prime ministers, several union and state ministers, at least four chief justices of the Supreme Court, besides a large number of senior bureaucrats.
In view of these achievements, as well as its position among the universities of Uttar Pradesh, the state government accorded it formal recognition in July 1992 as a ‘Premier Institution’ (Vishesh Agrani Sanstha).
During the university's centenary celebrations in 1987 there were demands from students, faculty and employees for the granting of status as a Central University. The Government of India eventually acceded to this and the university gained both Central status and recognition as an "Institution of National Importance" in May 2005. At that time, the University of Allahabad Act stipulated the constituent colleges of the university to be:
- The five faculties of Arts, Commerce, Law, Medicine, and Science,
- Three university institutes — the Institute of Inter-Disciplinary Studies, the Institute of Professional Studies, and the National Centre of Experimental Mineralogy and Petrology) and one independent university Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences,
- One university college: the Motilal Nehru Medical College and Swarup Rani Nehru Hospital, Allahabad,
- Three constituent institutes: the Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute, Allahabad, the Harish Chandra Research Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Allahabad and the Kamla Nehru Post-graduate Medical Institute, Allahabad,
- Eleven local institutions.
Two of its departments — Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, and Psychology — are recognized as UGC Centres of Advanced Study, and five more are (or have been) UGC Departments of Special Assistance. Several departments in the Faculty of Science are covered by the COSIST and FIST Programs. Several major research projects awarded by national R&D agencies have been successfully completed, and Departmental or Inter-Departmental Research Groups and individual faculty members are carrying out projects.
These projects (as well as earlier and current collaborative academic programs with agencies such as the CSIR, the DST, the DBT, the DOD, the DoS, the DRDO, ICSSR, ICHR, UGC, NCERT, Planning Commission, etc.) have helped augment and expand research facilities and infrastructure. The CSIR has granted a ‘Chair’ to the university on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), and the university has already prepared a Plan of Action in the IPR field. The UGC has established the M. N. Saha Chair, the Munshi Prem Chand Chair and the Nirala Chair in the Physics, Urdu and Hindi departments respectively.
The university has professional programs in Business Management, Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, Law, Medicine, Educational Training, Human Resource Development and Management, Journalism and Mass Communication among others. In accordance with the UGC Scheme for vocational courses, vocational options have been provided in the graduate degree programs.
The university has developed post-graduate professional courses, and such courses are being offered by the Institute of Professional Studies (IPS). The Centre of Food Technology and Centre of Computer Education are two activities which offer diploma certificate courses.
The university established the Institute of Inter-disciplinary Studies (IIDS) in 2000, designed as a loose collective of centres. The centres of IIDS are the K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, M N Saha Centre of Space Studies, Biotechnology, Bioinformatics Mobile Communication for Developing Countries (CMCDC), Bio-medical NMR, and Consciousness Studies have started. Other planned centres will cover inter-disciplinary areas such as Environmental Science, Genetic Engineering, Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Human Resource Development, and Globalisation and its Effects. It is conducting a post-graduate program and several high-end research projects.
The activities of the IIDS are funded by project and other grants from national agencies and institutes by the faculty members of the iversity. The IIDS is seeking special grants for infrastructure and research faculty and staff to enlarge the scope of its activities. The UGC has sanctioned teaching positions for several centres of IIDS.
The university has instituted an inter-disciplinary undergraduate science program (Applied Sciences) with the objective of inculcating a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Physical Sciences and Biology streams, to give grounding for higher post-graduate studies in such subjects as Biophysics, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Bio informatics, Environmental Science, NanoScience, Nano Technology, and Medical Physics.
Many university departments in the modular pattern, by themselves or in co-operation with other departments, have initiated or worked out self-financing diploma and proficiency courses. The Department of Psychology, for instance, had instituted a professional inter-disciplinary M. Psy. (Master of Psychology) program in Human Resource Development and Management in the Ninth Plan period. This program is, however, not being offered at the moment because of the shortage of faculty. It is also proposed to rename the program, in view of the recommendation of the UGC, as Master in Human Resource Development and Management. The Department has implemented the concept of ‘Cafeteria choice’ courses/modules, credit courses in other departments and obligatory field studies in their Post-graduate program. The Regional Learning Resource and Documentation Centre, which was set up by the Department in the Ninth Plan period, is to be further strengthened in the Eleventh Plan period.
The university has established an independent Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences under the University Grants Commission scheme of UPE during the Tenth Plan. Specialists from Cognitive Psychology, Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuro- Science, Philosophy, and Psychology work together in the Centre to offer Masters and D. Phil courses in Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences.
The Geography Department has created a modern Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (RS/GIS) unit (as a Central facility) during the Ninth Plan, for research, database development and the conduct of a Post-graduate Diploma course in RS/GIS.
The Department of Economics has been given a ‘Chair’ by the Planning Commission to promote research in the field of planning and development. The syllabi incorporate teaching and research in Environmental Economics and the economic and societal impact of globalisation on India, with particular emphasis on projects/studies on its social, political, legal, and cultural aspects. The research base is being further strengthened by the upgrade of the Statistics Laboratory. The department has introduced a one-year Post-graduate Diploma Course in Foreign Trade.
The university has proposed to institute web-based education programs, initially through modular professional courses for graduates and then with specially designed courses on Indian Culture, Archaeology and other areas involving several Departments.
The university emphasises ‘outreach’ programs. Such programs envisage the integration of extension with research proposals and teaching curricula. The purpose is to involve the University departments in serving the developmental and other needs of the community. The university co-operates with government agencies and NGOS in extension initiatives. Efforts are also underway to establish linkages with the corporate world and impart training to the students in areas of mutual interest.
Affiliation: acceptance and revocationEdit
There was much controversy related to the merger of the Motilal Nehru Medical College with the university. This has been resolved. The Honorable High Court of Allahabad passed an order directing that integration of the medical college with the university be completed by 1 October 2006. The affiliation of the S. P. Mukherjee Government Degree College with the University has yet to be finalised because of the objections raised by the Government of Uttar Pradesh.
Harish Chandra Research Institute of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, Allahabad and Kamla Nehru Post-Graduate Medical Institute, Allahabad have sought to revoke their affiliation from the university. The same has been endorsed by the Executive Council of the University. (Further action in this matter would be taken once the president of India, the visitor of the university, gives his consent to the recommendation of the University's Executive Council.)
The campus is spread around the city of Allahabad. It has numerous residential hostels for students.
The following colleges are constituent to Allahabad University:
- Ewing Christian College (an autonomous college)
- Allahabad Degree College
- Arya Kanya Degree College
- C.M.P Degree College, the oldest affiliated college of Allahabad University
- Jagat Taran Girls Degree College
- Iswar Saran Degree College
- S.S Khanna Girls Degree College
- S.P.M Govt. Degree College
- Hamidia Girls Degree College, constituent minority college
- Viswam Degree College
- Rajarshi Tandon Girls Degree College
- Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute
|General – international|
According to National Institutional Ranking Framework developed by Ministry of Human Resource Development, GoI, University of Allahabad was ranked 68th in 2016 and further slipped to 95th position in 2017.
Throughout its history a sizable number of alumni have become notable in various fields ranging from Motilal Nehru; Govind Ballabh Pant; Shankar Dayal Sharma, former President of India; Gopal Swarup Pathak, former Vice President of India; Gulzari Lal Nanda, former Prime Minister of India; Vishwanath Pratap Singh, 10th Prime Minister of India; Chandra Shekhar, former Prime Minister of India; Madan Mohan Malaviya; Surya Bahadur Thapa, former Prime Minister of Nepal; Narayan Dutt Tiwari, former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand and former Governor of Andhra Pradesh; Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna, former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh; Satyendra Narayan Sinha, former Chief Minister of Bihar; Murli Manohar Joshi, former Union Human Resources Development, DOD and DST minister; Arjun Singh, former Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh; Madan Lal Khurana, former Chief Minister of Delhi; Vijay Bahuguna, Chief Minister of Uttarakhand; Nikhil Kumar, former IPS, Governor of Nagaland; Saiyid Nurul Hasan, Governor of West Bengal and Odisha; Sir Syed Wazir Hasan, Chief Justice of Awadh Chief Court; Mohan Singh, National General secretary, Samajwadi Party; Shanti Bhushan, senior lawyer, law minister in government of Morarji Desai; Ram Niwas Mirdha, former cabinet minister; Rajendra Kumari Bajpai (1925–1999), former cabinet minister
Writer and academicsEdit
Rafiq Hussain, Urdu writer, poet, academic, author, head of Urdu Department Allahabad University; Mahadevi Varma, poet and writer; Firaq Gorakhpuri, Urdu and English writer; Harivansh Rai Bachchan, poet; Dharamvir Bharati, writer; Kamleshwar, writer; Mrinal Pande, writer; Neelum Saran Gour, author and academic; Gopinath Kaviraj (1887–1976) Sanskrit scholar, philosopher, Principal Government Sanskrit College, Varanasi (1923–1937), Padma Vibhushan (1964); Govind Mishra, Hindi writer and former chairman of CBDT; Bhagwati Charan Verma (1903–1981), Hindi writer; Ravindra Khattree, statistician, academic, author; Acharya Narendra Dev; Chandradhar Sharma Guleri, writer; Krishna Kumar Sharma, Quit India Movement activist, poet and literary figure; Ram Chandra Shukla, painter; Surya Bahadur Thapa; Prabhu Lal Bhatnagar, mathematician; Daulat Singh Kothari, physicist; Dr Neelam Srivastava, Sanskrit Scholar & Former Reader; Harish Chandra, mathematician; Pankaj Mishra, author; Lakshmi Raj Sharma, author and academician; K. Banerjee, physicist and ex-Director of Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science; Prem Chand Pandey, scientist (SAC/ISRO) and founder director of National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research; U.P. Arora, historian and writer, author, poet and columnist Leema Dhar; Dr Sudha Srivastava, Hindi Poetess & Member of Assam Women's Commission;Jamuna Sharan Singh, ecologist, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize recipient, Nibir Mandal, structural geologist, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar laureate, Sangam Lal Pandey, philosopher, Krityunjai Prasad Sinha, theoretical physicist, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar laureate, Dr. S. R. Sinha, Mathematician, Deepak Dhar – theoretical physicist, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar laureate
Krishnaswamy Sundarji Chief of Army Staff; Aditya Srivastava, actor and voice actor; Uttar Kumar, film actor; Maharishi Mahesh Yogi; Shyam Bihari Pandey, District & Sessions Judge, Hamirpur; N. C. Saxena, IAS Officer, member of Planning Commission of India;Alok Kumar, IPS Officer; M. A. Ansari, pre-partition Royal Indian Navy Education Officer; Mohammad Hidayatullah, former Chief Justice of India; Kamal Narain Singh, former Chief Justice of India; Rajendra Kumar Acharya, jurist of Law of tort in Nepal; Udit Raj, social activist; V. N. Khare, former Chief Justice of India; J. S. Verma (1933–2013), former Chief Justice of India; Badruddin Ahmad, Director General of Civil Aviation for the Government of Pakistan and Chief of Administration at the Pakistan Meteorological Department (1960-c1980); Prriya Raj, businessperson and cartoonist; Rammohana Rao Yamalapalli, Business Executive; Rajendra Singh, environmentalist, Magsaysay Award, 2001.; Vivek Sahai, Former Chairman Railway Board; Sudhir Dar (b. 1934), cartoonist; Rashmi Sinha, CEO and co-founder of SlideShare; Prashant Bhushan, Supreme Court Layer; Kaustubhanand Bhatt, Former Additional Director General of Army Education Corp; Dhruva Harsh , Filmmaker ; Vivek Srivastava a noted advertising professional MD of Innocean Worldwide India; Commodore Salim Masud Anwer, VSM, Indian navy; Brijesh Kumar Singh, Ircon International Limited, PSU Under Ministry of Railways
- Handbook of Universities, Volume 1. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. 1 January 2006. p. 17. ISBN 81-269-0607-3. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Muir, Sir William". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. "In 1885 he was elected principal of Edinburgh University"
- History Allahabad University website.
- Allahabad Varsity to become a central university The Times of India, 11 May 2005.
- Central University status restored for Allahabad University Ministry of Human Resource Development, Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 24 June 2005.
- Muir College The Hindu, 9 June 2006.
- "Genesis & Brief History of Allahabad University on AU’s official web page". Stated that the realms of inter-disciplinarity are being explored by the Institute of Inter-Disciplinary Studies (established in 2000) through its Centres of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies (KBCAOS) (named after K. Banerji), Space Studies (named after Megh Nad Saha), Bio-Technology…….|
- Act. University of Allahabad Act, 2005. Government of India. pp. Section 31 of the First Statute.
- "QS World University Rankings 2018". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
- "QS Asian University Rankings 2016". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- This campus had its Bharadwaj years ago, Indian Express, 17 November 1998. "Leaders of the stature of Madan Mohan Malaviya, Purshottam Das Tandon, Acharya Narendra Dev and scholars like Amar Nath Jha and M N Saha are among its alumni."
- "9th Lok Sabha: Members Bioprofile". Lok Sabha Official website.
- "Sri Sri Anandamayi Ma's Devotees". Anandamayi Ma. Retrieved 2014-09-26.
- "Judges Biography:Jagdish Sharan Verma". Supreme Court of India. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Biography of Rajendra Singh" (PDF). Magsaysay Award website. 2001.
- Horn, Maurice (1999). The World Encyclopedia of Cartoons. Chelsea House. p. 218. ISBN 0-7910-5185-4.
- The Muir Central College, Allahabad: its origin, foundation, and completion, by William Henry Wright, published in 1985, Govt. Press, North-Western Provinces and Oudh (Allahabad).
- Materials and Motifs of the Philosophical Traditions of Allahabad University, by Sangam Lal Pandey. Published by Ram Nath Kaul Library of Philosophy, University of Allahabad, 1981.
- Hundred years of Allahabad University, by Moti Lal Bhargava. Published by Ashish Pub. House, 1987. ISBN 81-7024-162-6.