The kingdom of Tushara according to Ancient Indian literature, such as the epic Mahabharata was a land located beyond north-west India. In the Mahabharata, its inhabitants, known as the Tusharas, are depicted as mlechchas ("barbarians") and fierce warriors.
Modern scholars generally see Tushara as synonymous with the historical "Tukhara", also known as Tokhara or Tokharistan – another name for Bactria. This area was the stronghold of the Kushan Empire, which dominated India between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE.
Its inhabitants were known later to Ancient Greek scholars as the Tokharoi and to the Ancient Romans as Tochari. Modern scholars appear to have conflated the Tukhara with the so-called Tocharians – an Indo-European people who lived in the Tarim Basin, in present-day Xinjiang, China, until the 1st millennium. When the Tocharian languages of the Tarim were rediscovered in the early 20th century, most scholars accepted a hypothesis that they were linked to the Tukhara (who were known to have migrated to Central Asia from China, with the other founding Kushan peoples ). However, the subjects of the Tarim kingdoms appear to have referred to themselves by names such as Agni, Kuči and Krorän. These peoples are also known to have spoken centum languages, whereas the Tukhara of Bactria spoke a satem language.
The Tukhara were among Indo-European tribes that conquered Central Asia during the 2nd century BCE, according to both Chinese and Greek sources. Ancient Chinese sources refer to these tribes collectively as the Da Yuezhi ("Greater Yuezhi"). In subsequent centuries the Tukhara and other tribes founded the Kushan Empire, which dominated Central and South Asia.
The account in Mahabharata (Mbh) 1:85 depicts the Tusharas as mlechchas ("barbarians") and descendants of Anu, one of the cursed sons of King Yayati. Yayati's eldest son Yadu, gave rise to the Yadavas and his youngest son Puru to the Pauravas that includes the Kurus and Panchalas. Only the fifth son of Puru's line was considered to be the successors of Yayati's throne, as he cursed the other four sons and denied them kingship. The Pauravas inherited the Yayati's original empire and stayed in the Gangetic plain who later created the Kuru and Panchala Kingdoms. They were followers of the Vedic culture. The Yadavas made central and western India their stronghold. The descendants of Anu, known as the Anavas, are said to have migrated to Iran.
Various regional terms and proper names may have originated with, or been derived from, the Tusharas including: Takhar Province in Afghanistan; the Pakistani village of Thakra; the surname Thakkar, found across India; the Marathi surname Thakere, sometimes anglicised as Thackeray; the Takhar Jat clan in Rajasthan, and; the Thakar tribe of Maharashtra. It is also possible that the Thakor (or Thakore) caste of Gujarat, the Thakar caste of Maharashtra and; the title Thakur originated with names such as Tushara/Tukhara. The Sanskrit word thakkura "administrator" may be the source of some such names, or may itself be derived from one of them.
References in MahabharataEdit
The Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata associates the Tusharas with the Yavanas, Kiratas, Chinas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Kankas, Sabaras, Barbaras, Ramathas etc., and brands them all as barbaric tribes of Uttarapatha, leading lives of Dasyus.
The Tusharas along with numerous other tribes from the north-west, including the Bahlikas, Kiratas, Pahlavas, Paradas, Daradas, Kambojas, Shakas, Kankas, Romakas, Yavanas, Trigartas, Kshudrakas, Malavas, Angas, and Vangas had joined Yudhishtra at his Rajasuya ceremony and brought him numerous gifts such as camels, horses, cows, elephants and gold
Later the Tusharas, Sakas and Yavanas had joined the military division of the Kambojas and participated in the Mahabharata war on the side of the Kauravas. Karna Parva of Mahabharata describes the Tusharas as very ferocious and wrathful warriors.
At one place in the Mahabharata, the Tusharas are mentioned along with the Shakas and the Kankas. At another place they are in a list with the Shakas, Kankas and Pahlavas. And at other places are mentioned along with the Shakas, Yavanas and the Kambojas etc.
The Tushara kingdom is mentioned in the traves of Pandavas in the northern regions beyond the Himalayas:- Crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukhara, Darada and all the climes of Kulinda, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu (3:176).
The Mahabharata makes clear that Vedic Hindus did not know the origins of the Mlechcha tribes, who were highly skilled in weapons, warfare and material sciences, but never followed the Vedic rites properly. That the Vedic people were dealing with foreign tribes is evident in a passage from Mahabharata (12:35). It asks which duties that should be performed by the Yavanas, the Kiratas, the Gandharvas, the Chinas, the Savaras, the Barbaras, the Sakas, the Tusharas, the Kankas, the Pathavas, the Andhras, the Madrakas, the Paundras, the Pulindas, the Ramathas, the Kambojas, and several new castes of Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and the Shudras, that had sprung up in the dominions of the Arya kings.
The kings of the Pahlavas and the Daradas and the various tribes of the Kiratas and Yavanas and Sakras and the Harahunas and Chinas and Tukharas and the Sindhavas and the Jagudas and the Ramathas and the Mundas and the inhabitants of the kingdom of women and the Tanganas and the Kekayas and the Malavas and the inhabitants of Kasmira, were present in the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhishthira the king of the Pandavas (3:51). The Sakas and Tukhatas and Tukharas and Kankas and Romakas and men with horns bringing with them as tribute numerous large elephants and ten thousand horses, and hundreds and hundreds of millions of gold (2:50).
The Tusharas were very ferocious warriors. The Yavanas and the Sakas, along with the Chulikas, stood in the right wing of the Kaurava battle-array (6:75). The Tusharas, the Yavanas, the Khasas, the Darvabhisaras, the Daradas, the Sakas, the Kamathas, the Ramathas, the Tanganas the Andhrakas, the Pulindas, the Kiratas of fierce prowess, the Mlecchas, the Mountaineers, and the races hailing from the sea-side, all endued with great wrath and great might, delighting in battle and armed with maces, these all—united with the Kurus and fought wrathfully for Duryodhana’s sake (8:73). A number of Saka and Tukhara and Yavana horsemen, accompanied by some of the foremost combatants among the Kambojas, quickly rushed against Arjuna (8:88). F. E Pargiter writes that the Tusharas, along with the Yavanas, Shakas, Khasas and Daradas had collectively joined the Kamboja army of Sudakshina Kamboj and had fought in Kurukshetra war under latter's supreme command.
In the Puranas and other Indian textsEdit
Puranic texts like Vayu Purana, Brahmanda Purana and Vamana Purana, etc., associate the Tusharas with the Shakas, Barbaras, Kambojas, Daradas, Viprendras, Anglaukas, Yavanas, Pahlavas etc and refer to them all as the tribes of Udichya i.e. north or north-west. The Kambojas, Daradas, Barbaras, Harsavardhanas, Cinas and the Tusharas are described as the populous races of men outside.
Puranic literature further states that the Tusharas and other tribes like the Gandharas, Shakas, Pahlavas, Kambojas, Paradas, Yavanas, Barbaras, Khasa, and Lampakas, etc., would be invaded and annihilated by Lord Kalki at the end of Kali Yuga. And they were annihilated by king Pramiti at the end of Kali Yuga.
The Brihat-Katha-Manjari of Pt Kshemendra relates that around 400 CE, Gupta king Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) (r. 375-413/15 CE), had "unburdened the sacred earth by destroying the barbarians" like the Tusharas, Shakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Parasikas, Hunas etc.
The Rajatarangini of Kalhana records that king Laliditya Muktapida, the 8th-century ruler of Kashmir had invaded the tribes of the north and after defeating the Kambojas, he immediately faced the Tusharas. The Tusharas did not give a fight but fled to the mountain ranges leaving their horses in the battlefield. This shows that during the 8th century CE, a section of the Tusharas was living as neighbours of the Kambojas near the Oxus valley.
By the 6th century CE, the Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira also locates the Tusharas with Barukachcha (Bhroach) and Barbaricum (on the Indus Delta) near the sea in western India. The Romakas formed a colony of the Romans near the port of Barbaricum in Sindhu Delta. This shows that a section of the Tusharas had also moved to western India and was living there around Vrahamihira's time.
|Common languages||Sanskrit, Vedic Languages|
|Religion||Hinduism and Vedic folk Religion|
Early Chinese & Greek sourcesEdit
Little is known of the Tukhara before they conquered the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom in the 2nd century BCE. They are known, in subsequent centuries, to have spoken Bactrian, an Eastern Iranian language. The Yuezhi are generally believed to have had their ethnogenesis in Gansu, China. However, Ancient Chinese sources use the term Daxia (Tukhara) for a state in Central Asia, two centuries before the Yuezhi entered the area. Hence the Tukhara may have been recruited by the Yuezhi, from a people neighbouring or subject to the Greco-Bactrians.
Likewise the Atharvaveda also associates the Tusharas with the Bahlikas (Bactrians), Yavanas/Yonas (Greeks) and Sakas (Indo-Scythians), as following: "Saka.Yavana.Tushara.Bahlikashcha". It also places the Bahlikas as neighbors of the Kambojas. This may suggest suggests that the Tusharas were neighbours to these peoples, possibly in Transoxiana.
Later Chinese sourcesEdit
In the 7th century CE, the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang, by way of the "Iron Pass" entered Tukhara (覩貨羅 Pinyin Duhuoluo; W-G Tu-huo-luo). Xuanzang stated that it lay south of the Iron Pass, north of the "great snow mountains" (Hindukush), and east of Persia, with the Oxus "flowing westward through the middle of it."
References in association with the KambojasEdit
The Komedai of Ptolemy, the Kiumito or Kumituo of Xuanzang's accounts, Kiumizhi of Wu'kong, Kumi of the Tang Annals, Kumed or Kumadh of some Muslim writers, Cambothi, Kambuson and Komedon of the Greek writers (or the Kumijis of Al-Maqidisi, Al-Baihaki, Nasir Khusau etc.) who lived in Buttamen Mountains (now in Tajikistan) in the upper Oxus are believed by many scholars to be the Kambojas who were living neighbors to the Tukhara/Tusharas north of the Hindukush in the Oxus valley. The region was also known as Kumudadvipa of the Puranic texts, which the scholars identify with Sanskrit Kamboja.
Before its occupation by the Tukhara, Badakshan formed a part of ancient Kamboja (Parama Kamboja) but, after its occupation by the Tukhara in the 2nd century BCE, Badakshan and some other territories of the Kamboja became part of Tukhara.
Around the 4th to 5th century CE, when the fortunes of the Tukhara finally waned, the original population of Kambojas re-asserted itself, and the region again started to be called by its ancient name, i.e. "Kamboja", though northwestern parts still retained the name of Duhuoluo or Tukharistan in Chinese at least until the time of the Tang Dynasty.
There are several later references to Kamboja of the Pamirs/Badakshan. Raghuvamsha - a 5th-century Sanskrit play by Kalidasa, attests their presence on river Vamkshu (Oxus) as neighbors to the Hunas (Raghu: 4.68-70). As seen above, the 7th-century Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang mentions the Kiumito/Kumito living to the north of the Oxus, which may refer to Komedai of Ptolemy. which, as noted above, has been equated to Kamboja mentioned in Sanskrit texts.
The 8th-century king of Kashmir, King Lalitadiya, invaded the Kambojas of the "far-spreading northern region" (uttarāpatha) as mentioned in the Rajatarangini of Kalhana. After encountering the Kambojas, Lalitadiya's army approached the Tuhkhāras who "fled to the mountain ranges leaving behind their horses." According to D. C. Sircar, the Kambojas here are bracketed with the Tukharas and are shown as living in the eastern parts of the Oxus valley as neighbors of the Tukharas who were living in the western parts of that Valley.
The 10th century CE Kavyamimamsa of Rajshekhar lists the Tusharas with several other tribes of the Uttarapatha viz: the Shakas, Kekeyas, Vokkanas, Hunas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, Pahlavas, Limpakas, Kulutas, Tanganas, Turusakas, Barbaras, Ramathas etc. This mediaeval era evidence shows that the Tusharas were different from the Turushakas with whom they are often confused by some writers.
Possible connection to the RishikasEdit
Pompeius Trogus remarks that the Asii were lords of the Tochari. It is generally believed that they are same as the Rishikas of the Mahabharata which people are equivalent to Asii (in Prakrit). V. S. Aggarwala also equates the Rishikas with the Asii or Asioi. In 1870, George Rawlinson commented that "The Asii or Asiani were closely connected with the Tochari and the Sakarauli (Saracucse?) who are found connected with both the Tochari and the Asiani".
If the Rishikas of the Mahabharata were same as the Tukharas, then the observation from George Rawlinson is in line with the Mahabharata statement which also closely allies the Rishikas with the Parama Kambojas and places them both in the Sakadvipa. The Kambojas (i.e. the southern branch of the Parama Kambojas), are the same as the classical Assaceni/Assacani (Aspasio/Assakenoi of Arrian) and the Aśvayana and Aśvakayana of Panini. They are also mentioned by Megasthenes who refers to them as Osii (= Asii), Asoi, Aseni etc., all living on upper Indus in eastern Afghanistan. The names indicate their connection with horses and horse culture. These Osii, Asoi/Aseni clans represent earlier migration from the Parama Kamboja (furthest Kamboja) land, lying between Oxus and Jaxartes, which happened prior to Achamenid rule. Per epic evidence, Parama Kamboja was the land of the Loha-Kamboja-Rishikas.
The Rishikas are said by some scholars to be the same people as the Yuezhi. The Kushanas are also said by some to be the same people. Kalhana (c. 1148-1149 CE) claims that the three kings he calls Huṣka, Juṣka and Kaniṣka (commonly interpreted to refer to Huvishka, Vāsishka and Kanishka I) were "descended from the Turuṣka race". Aurel Stein says that the Tukharas (Tokharoi/Tokarai) were a branch of the Yuezhi. P. C. Bagchi holds that the Yuezhi, Tocharioi and Tushara were identical. If he is correct, the Rishikas, Tusharas/Tukharas (Tokharoi/Tokaroi), the Kushanas and the Yuezhi, were probably either a single people, or members of a confederacy.
Sabha Parva of Mahabharata states that the Parama Kambojas, Lohas and the Rishikas were allied tribes. Like the "Parama Kambojas", the Rishikas of the Transoxian region are similarly styled as "Parama Rishikas". Based on the syntactical construction of the Mahabharata verse 5.5.15 and verse 2.27.25, Ishwa Mishra believe that the Rishikas were a section of the Kambojas i.e. Parama Kambojas. V. S. Aggarwala too, relates the Parama Kambojas of the Trans-Pamirs to the Rishikas of the Mahabharata and also places them in the Sakadvipa (or Scythia). According to Dr B. N. Puri and some other scholars, the Kambojas were a branch of the Tukharas. Based on the above Rishika-Kamboja connections, some scholars also claim that the Kambojas were a branch of the Yuezhi themselves. Dr Moti Chander also sees a close ethnic relationship between the Kambojas and the Yuezhi .
According to the Nihon Shoki, the second-oldest book of classical Japanese history, in 1654 two men and two women of the Tushara Kingdom, along with one woman from Shravasti, were drive by a storm to take refuge at the former Hyūga Province in southern Kyushu. They remained for several years before setting off for home. That is the first recorded visit of people from India to Japan.
- MBH 12.65.13-15
- Mahabharata 2.51-2.53; 3.51 .
- MBH 6.66.17-21; MBH 8.88.17
- Shakas Tusharah Kankashch.Pahlavashcha
- Shaka.Tushara.Yavanashcha sadinah sahaiva.Kambojavaraijidhansavah OR Kritavarma tu sahitah Kambojarvarai.Bahlikaih...Tushara.Yavanashchaiva.Shakashcha saha Chulikaih
- The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, Dr F. E. Pargiter, (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland).
- Brahmanda Purana 27.46-48.
- Markandeya Purana, LVII.39, The Markandeya Purana, F. E. Pargiter, Trans. Varanasi Reprint, 1969, pp 307-44; A Sourcebook of Indian Civilization, 2000, p 39, Niharranjan Ray, Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya.
- Vayu I.58.78-83; cf: Matsya 144.51-58
- Vayu Purana I.58.78-83
- RT IV.165-166
- bharukaccha.samudra.romaka.tushrah.. :Brhatsamhita XVI.6
- See comments: M. R. Singh in The Geographical Data of Early Purana, 1972, p. 26
- Ed Bolling & Negelein, 41.3.3.
- AV-Par, 57.2.5; cf Persica-9, 1980, p. 106, Michael Witzel
- Li, Rongxi (translator). 1995. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions, p. 31. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8.
- On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D., Edition: 1904, pp. 102, 327. Thomas Watters - Buddhism; Publications, 1904. Oriental Translation Fund - Oriental literature.
- Li, Rongxi (translator). 1995. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions, p. 32. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8. See also: E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Edition 1935, p. 807; M. Th. Houtsma, E. van Donzel; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p. 174, M. R. Singh.
- Tho-gar yul dań yabana dań Kambodza dań Khasa dań Huna dań Darta dań...(See: Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang (1908), I.9, Sarat Chandra Das; Ancient Kamboja, 1971, p 66, H. W. Bailey.
- Ronca, Italo. (1971). Ptolemaios: Geographie 6,9-21 Ostiran und Zentalasien. Teil I. IsMEO, Rome p. 108.
- Lévi, Sylvain and Chavannes, Éd. (1895). "L'itinéraire d'Ou-k'ong. Journal Asiatique, Sept.-Oct. 1895, p. 362.
- Chavannes, Éd. (1900). Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. Paris, Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient. Reprint: Taipei. Reprint: Cheng Wen Publishing Co., pp. 164, 339.
- See: (Author?) Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1940, p 850, University of London School of Oriental and African Studies - Oriental philology Periodicals; Bagchi, P. C. India and Central Asia, p. 25; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 401, Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan); Turkestan Down to Mongol Invasion, 1968, pp. 293-6, Barthold; The Ghaznavids, p 108, C. E. Bosworth. In: History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco - Central Asia; The Cambridge History of Iran, 1975, pp 173, 192, Richard Nelson Frye - History; On the Kumijis see also article 26,10, Hudud Al'alam: The Regions of the World: a Persian Geography, 327 A.H.-982 A.D. See p 209.
- See: THE ETHNIC OF THE SAKAS (SCYTHIANS. See link: .
- The Cambridge History of Iran, 1975, p. 192, Richard Nelson Frye; cf. also: Li, Rongxi (translator). 1995. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions, p. 33. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8.
- Bagchi, P. C. India and Central Asia, p. 25; Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; cf: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 401, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan).
- Dr Buddha Prakash maintains that, based on the evidence of Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, Raghu defeated the Hunas on river Vamkshu (Raghu vamsha 4.68), and immediately after them he marched against the Kambojas (4.69-70). These Kambojas were of Iranian affinities who lived in Pamirs and Badakshan. Hiun Tsang calls this region Kiu.mi.to which is thought to be Komdei of Ptolemy and Kumadh or Kumedh of Muslim writers (See: Studies in Indian History and Civilization, Agra, p 351; India and the World, 1964, p 71, Dr Buddha Prakash; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 300, Dr J. L. Kamboj).
- Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 108, Dr J. C. Vidyalankara; Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p 534, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 129, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj;
- Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p. 534, J. C. Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp. 129, 300. J. L. Kamboj;
- See, for example, the references to Xuanzang's account above.
- Li, Rongxi (translator). 1995. The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions, p. 33. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8.
- Beal, Samuel. 1884. Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Translated by Samuel Beal. London. 1884. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969. vol. I, p. 41, n. 131.
- Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅgiṇī: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr. (1900). Translated and annotated by M. A. Stein. Reprint (1979): Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi. Vol. I, Bk. 4, 163-165, p. 136.
- Sircar, D. C. "The Land of the Kambojas", Purana, Vol V, No ?, July 1962, p. 250.
- These Kambojas, apparently were descendants of that section of the Kambojas who, instead of leaving their ancestral land during second century BCE under assault from the Da Yuezhi, had compromised with the invaders and decided to stay put in their ancestral land instead of moving to the Helmand or Kabul valley.
- There are other references which also equate Kamboja with Tokhara. A Buddhist Sanskrit Vinaya text translated by N. Dutt, Gilgit Manuscripts, III, 3, 136, (quoted in B.S.O.A.S. XIII, p. 404) has the expression satam Kambojikanam kanyanam i.e. 'a hundred maidens from Kamboja'. This has been rendered as Tho-gar yul-gyi bu-mo brgya in the Tibetan and as Togar ulus-un yagun ükin in Mongolian. Thus, Kamboja has been rendered as Tho-gar or Togar. And Tho-gar/Togar are Tibetan or Mongolian forms of Tokhar/Tukhar (See: H. W. Bailey, Irano-Indica III, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1950, pp. 389-409; see also: Ancient Kamboja, Iran and Islam, 1971, p. 66, H. W. Bailey.
- Kavyamimamsa, Chapter 17.
- Note - name of author and article needed here - Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p. 227 (v.30-31 1954-1955).
- Aggarwala, V. S. India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 68, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India; A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the ... - Page 68, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India.
- Rawlinson, George. The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 6. (of 7): Parthia.) .
- Mahabharata 2.27.25-26.
- The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva: Jarasandhta-badha Parva: Section XXVI
- Agrawala, Vasudeva Sharana India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 64: Agrawala, Vasudeva Sharana. India; A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the ..., 1953, p 62, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India.
- See: Ashtadhyayi Sutra IV.1.110 & Ganapatha, Nadadigana IV.1.99 respectively.
- FRAGM. LVI., Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11., List of the Indian Races "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-28. Retrieved 2011-02-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). .
- "In Aswa, we have ancient race peopled on both sides of Indus and probable etymon of Asia. The Assaceni, the Ari-aspii, the Aspasians and (the Asii) whom Strabo describes as Scythic race have same origin. Hence Asi-gurh (Hasi/Hansi) and Asii-gard, the first settlements of Scythic Asii in Scandinavia" (see: Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1826, p 318, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland - Great Britain; Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Reprint (2002), Vol I, p 64. Also see: pp 51-54, 87, 95; Vol-2, P 2, James Tod; The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia: Commercial ..., 1885, p 196, Edward Balfour - India.
- For Asii = Assi = Asvaka - a tribe connected with Asvas or horses, See also : The Racial History of India - 1944, pp 815, 122, Chandra Chakraberty. For Aspasii, Hipasii, see: Olaf Caroe, The Pathans, 1958, pp. 37, 55-56,
- Mahabharata 2.27.25-26.
- Aggarwala, V. S. India as Known to Panini, p. 64
- Vidyalnkara, J. C. (1941). Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha.
- But as noted above, tenth century CE Kavyamimamsa of Rajshekhar lists the Tusharas with several other tribes of the Uttarapatha viz: the Shakas, Kekeyas, Vokkanas, Hunas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, Pahlavas, Limpakas, Kulutas, Tanganas, Turusakas, Barbaras, Ramathas etc. (Kavyamimamsa, Chapter 17), which clearly differentiates the Tukharas from the Turusakas.
- Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅgiṇī: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr. (1900). Translated and annotated by M. A. Stein. Reprint (1979): Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi. Vol. I, Bk. I, 169-170, pp. 30-31.
- Bagchi, P. C. India and Central Asia, 1955, p 24.
- Mahabharata 2.26.25: See: The Mahabharata, Book 2: Sabha Parva, section XXVI, p 58, Kisari Mohan Ganguli, trans. [1883-1896] ; The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa: Translated Into English Prose, 1962, p 66, Pratap Chandra Roy; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 13, Moti Chandra - India.
- taraka maya sankashah Parama Rishika parthayoh || 26 ||.
- Shakanam Pahlavana.n cha Daradanam cha ye nripah |
- Kamboja Rishika ye cha pashchim.anupakash cha ye ||5.5.15||
- LohanParamaKambojanRishikanuttaran api ||v 2.27.25||
- The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala.
- India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 64, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala - India; A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the ..., 1953, p 62, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala, Surya Kanta, Jacob Wackernagel, Arthur Anthony Macdonell, Peggy Melcher - India.
- Buddhism in Central Asia, p. 90.
- The Journal of Central Asian Studies, 2003, p 33, University of Kashmir Centre of Central Asian Studies - Central Asia.
- Journal of Tamil Studies, 1969, pp 86, 87, International Institute of Tamil Studies - Tamil philology.
- Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 19, Dr Moti Chandra - India.
- The Cultural Heritage of India also sees a close ethnic relationship between the Kambojas, the Tukharas (=Rishikas = Yue-chis) and the modern Tajik race. It calls the modern Tajik race to be descendants of the Tukharas and Kambojas, thus assuming Kambojas as a component of the Tukharas or vice versa (The Cultural Heritage of India: Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Memorial, 1936, p 151). Cf: "The Kambojas indicate the people of Tajikistan speaking Ghalcha..." (See: Trade and Trade Routes in Ancient India, 1977, p 94, Dr Moti Chandra). For Kambojas as the ancestors of the Tajiks, Cf: Bhart Bhumi Aur Unke Nivasi, p 313-314, 226, Bhartya Itihaas Ki Mimansa, p 335 by Dr J. C. Vidyalanka; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, pp 164-65, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī.
- Mallory, J. P. and Mair, Victor H. (2000). The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, pp. 91-99. Thames & Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-05101-1.
- Lebedynsky, Iaroslav (2006). Les Saces: Les "Scythes" d'Asie, VIIIe siècle av, J.-C.— IVe siècle apr. J.-C., p. 63. Edition Errance. Paris. ISBN 2-87772-337-2.
- Waterhouse 1991, p. 75 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWaterhouse1991 (help)