Tiflis Governorate

The Tiflis Governorate (pre-reform Russian: Тифли́сская губе́рнія, tr. Tiflísskaya gubérniya; Georgian: ტფილისის გუბერნია) was a guberniya ("governorate") of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire with its centre in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia). In 1897 it constituted 44,607 sq. kilometres in area and had a population of 1,051,032 inhabitants.[1] The Tiflis Governorate bordered the Elizavetpol Governorate to the southeast, the Erivan Governorate to the south, the Kars Oblast to the southwest, the Batum Oblast to the west, the Kutaisi Governorate to the northwest, the Terek Oblast to the north, the Dagestan Oblast to the northeast, and the Zakatal Okrug to the east. The governorate covered areas of contemporary southeastern Georgia, most of the Lori Province of Armenia, small sections of northwestern Azerbaijan, and a minuscule southern part of the Republic of Ingushetia within the Russian Federation.

Tiflis Governorate
Тифлисская губернія
Coat of arms of Tiflis Governorate
Administrative map of the Tiflis Governorate
Administrative map of the Tiflis Governorate
CountryRussian Empire
ViceroyaltyCaucasus
Established1846
Abolished1917
CapitalTiflis (Tbilisi)
Area
 • Total40,861.03 km2 (15,776.53 sq mi)
Highest elevation5,034 m (16,516 ft)
Population
 (1916)
 • Total1,473,308
 • Density36/km2 (93/sq mi)
 • Urban
40.90%
 • Rural
59.10%

HistoryEdit

Tiflis Governorate was established in 1846 along with the Kutais Governorate, after the dissolution of the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate. It was initially formed from uezds of Tiflis, Gori, Telavi, Signakh, Elizavetpol, Erivan, Nakhichevan and Alexandropol and the okrugs of Zakatal, Ossetian and Tushino-Pshavo-Khevsurian. In 1849, uezds of Erivan, Nakhichevan and Alexandropol were attached to Erivan Governorate. In 1859 Ossetian okrug became part of Gori district and Tushino-Pshavo-Khevsurian okrug was renamed to Tionety okrug. In 1867, the northern part of Tiflis uezd was separated as Dusheti one, while Akhaltsikhe uezd which was created after ceding from Ottoman Empire to Russian Empire in 1829, was detached from Kutaisi Governorate and part of Tiflis one. In 1868 Elizavetpol uezd (in the same decree, the Kazakh uezd was formed from it) became a part of the Elizavetpol Governorate. In 1874, the southern part of Akhaltsikhe uezd became the Akhalkalaki uezd, and the Tionety okrug was elevated to an uezd. Finally, the southern part of Tiflis uezd was detached to become the Borchaly uezd.

The Tiflis Governorate lasted within these boundaries for some 50 years until the Russian Revolution and subsequent founding of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918.[2] The governorate and its counties were soon abolished after its incorporation into the Soviet Union and reorganised into the raions (counties) of the Georgian SSR by 1930.

Administrative divisionsEdit

The uezds ("counties") of the Tiflis Governorate in 1917 were as follows:[3][4]

District Russian name Capital Population Area
1897 1916 sq. vst. sq. km.
Akhalkalaki Ахалкалакскій уѣздъ Akhalkalaki 72,709 107,173 2,407.00 2,739.32
Akhaltsikhe Ахалцихскій уѣздъ Akhaltsikhe 68,837 96,947 2,331.88 2,653.82
Borchaly Борчалинскій уѣздъ Shulavery (Shaumiani) 128,587 169,351 6,046.96 6,881.82
Gori Горійскій уѣздъ Gori 191,091 241,016 6,007.56 6,836.98
Dusheti Душетскій уѣздъ Dushet (Dusheti) 67,719 66,430 3,411.80 3,882.84
Signakh Сигнахскій уѣздъ Signakh (Signagi) 102,313 153,864 5,291.79 6,022.39
Telavi Телавскій уѣздъ Telav (Telavi) 66,767 67,955 2,162.91 2,461.53
Tiflis Тифлисскій уѣздъ Tiflis (Tbilisi) 234,632 521,222 4,004.08 4,556.89
Tionety Тіонетскій уѣздъ Tioneti (Tianeti) 34,153 49,350 4,250.06 4,836.83
Zakatal Закатальскій округъ Zakataly (Zaqatala) 84,224 [a] 3,502.24 3,985.77

DemographicsEdit

Russian Empire census (1897)Edit

According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, the Tiflis Governorate had a population of 1,051,032, including 575,447 men and 475,585 women. The plurality of the population indicated Georgian to be their mother tongue, with significant Armenian, Tatar (later known as Azerbaijani), Russian, and Ossetian speaking minorities.[3]

Linguistic composition of the Tiflis Governorate in 1897[3]
Language Native speakers %
Georgian 465,537 44.29
Armenian 196,189 18.67
Tatar[b] 107,383 10.22
Russian 79,082 7.52
Ossetian 67,268 6.40
Avar-Andean 34,130 3.25
Greek 27,118 2.58
Turkish 24,722 2.35
German 8,340 0.79
Dargin 7,565 0.72
Ukrainian 6,443 0.61
Polish 6,282 0.60
Jewish 5,188 0.49
Kurdish 2,538 0.24
Chechen 2,207 0.21
Persian 1,991 0.19
Assyrian 1,570 0.15
Imeretian 1,546 0.15
Lithuanian 1,263 0.12
Kyurin 1,149 0.11
Mingrelian 498 0.05
French 356 0.03
Kist 296 0.03
Italian 259 0.02
Belarusian 247 0.02
Czech 229 0.02
Romanian 198 0.02
Kazi-Kumukh 197 0.02
Talysh 152 0.01
Chuvash 148 0.01
Latvian 123 0.01
Other 818 0.08
TOTAL 1,051,032 100.00
Religious composition of the Tiflis Governorate in 1897[5]
Faith Male Female Both
Number %
Eastern Orthodox 319,930 264,891 584,821 55.64
Armenian Apostolic 113,399 96,762 210,161 20.00
Muslim 104,500 84,528 189,028 17.98
Armenian Catholic 10,363 9,853 20,216 1.92
Old Believer 8,156 8,053 16,209 1.54
Roman Catholic 8,630 2,914 11,544 1.10
Judaism 5,642 4,068 9,710 0.92
Lutheran 4,221 4,257 8,478 0.81
Baptist 142 122 264 0.03
Reformed 44 31 75 0.01
Karaite 10 5 15 0.00
Anglican 2 7 9 0.00
Buddhist 3 2 5 0.00
Mennonite 2 3 5 0.00
Other Christian denomination 183 10 193 0.02
Other non-Christian denomination 220 79 299 0.03
TOTAL 575,447 475,585 1,051,032 100.00

Caucasian Calendar (1917)Edit

According to the 1917 publication of the Caucasian Calendar, the Tiflis Governorate had 1,473,308 residents in 1916, including 780,010 men and 693,298 women, 1,255,176 of whom were the permanent population, and 218,132 were temporary residents:[4]

Nationality Urban Rural TOTAL
Number % Number % Number %
Georgians 62,627 14.64 580,009 55.47 642,636 43.62
Armenians 197,916 46.28 213,831 20.45 411,747 27.95
Russians[c] 94,885 22.19 57,924 5.54 152,809 10.37
Sunni Muslims 6,353 1.49 61,164 5.85 67,517 4.58
Asiatic Christians 19,560 4.57 36,410 3.48 55,970 3.80
North Caucasians 2,714 0.63 45,037 4.31 47,751 3.24
Shia Muslims 9,434 2.21 29,548 2.83 38,982 2.65
Other Europeans 12,058 2.82 12,845 1.23 24,903 1.69
Jews 14,296 3.34 4,948 0.47 19,244 1.31
Kurds 2,279 0.53 3,653 0.35 5,932 0.40
Yazidis 4,697 1.10 0 0.00 4,697 0.32
Roma 851 0.20 269 0.03 1,120 0.08
TOTAL 427,670 100.00 1,045,638 100.00 1,473,308 100.00

GovernorsEdit

The administration tasks in the governorate were executed by a governor. Sometimes, a military governor was appointed as well. The governors of Tiflis Governorate were[6]

  • 1847–1849 Sergei Nikolayevich Yermolov, governor;
  • 1849–1855 Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (Andronikashvili), military governor;
  • 1855–1857 Nikolay Yevgenyevich Lukash, military governor;
  • 1858–1860 Alexander Khristianovich Kapger, military governor;
  • 1860–1876 Konstantin Ivanovich Orlovsky, governor;
  • 1876–1878 Maximilian von der Osten-Sacken, governor;
  • 1878–1883 Konstantin Dmitriyevich Gagarin, governor;
  • 1883–1887 Alexander Ignatyevich Grosman, governor;
  • 1887–1889 Karl Leo Sissermann, governor;
  • 1889–1897 Georgy Dmitriyevich Shervashidze (Giorgi Shervashidze), governor;
  • 1897–1899 Fyodor Alexandrovich Bykov, governor;
  • 1899–1905 Ivan Nikolayevich Svechin, governor;
  • 1905–1907 Paul Bernhard Demetrius Rausch von Traubenberg, governor;
  • 1907–1911 Mikhail Alexandrovich Lyubich-Yarmolovich-Lozina-Lozinsky, governor;
  • 1911–1914 Andrei Gavrilovich Chernyavsky, governor;
  • 1914–1916 Ivan Mikhaylovich Strakhovsky, governor;
  • 1916–1917 Alexander Nikolayevich Mandrika, acting governor.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Zakatal Okrug was detached from the Tiflis Governorate in 1905 to be administered separately. As a special administrative okrug, Zakatal's population in 1916 was 92,608.
  2. ^ Later known as Azerbaijani.
  3. ^ The Caucasian Calendar did not distinguish between Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopaedia: Tiflis Governorate (in Russian)
  2. ^ Coats of Arms of the Cities of the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate of the Russian Empire Archived 2008-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b c "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2022-06-30.
  4. ^ a b Кавказский календарь на 1917 год [Caucasian calendar for 1917] (in Russian) (72nd ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1917. pp. 206–213. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021.
  5. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2022-06-30.
  6. ^ Н. Ф. Самохвалов, ed. (2003). Губернии Российской Империи. История и руководители. 1708-1917. Moscow: Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Federation. pp. 372–376, 467–468.

Further readingEdit


Coordinates: 41°43′00″N 44°47′00″E / 41.7167°N 44.7833°E / 41.7167; 44.7833