Akhaltsikhe

Akhaltsikhe (Georgian: ახალციხე [ɑxɑltsʰixɛ], literally "new castle"; formerly known as Lomsia Georgian: ლომსია) is a small city in Georgia's southwestern region (mkhare) of Samtskhe–Javakheti. It is situated on the both banks of a small river Potskhovi, which separates the city to the old city in the north and new in the south.

Akhaltsikhe
ახალციხე
Akhaltsike, view from Rabati.jpg
Akhaltsikhe is located in Georgia
Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
Location of Akhaltsikhe in Georgia
Akhaltsikhe is located in Samtskhe-Javakheti
Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe (Samtskhe-Javakheti)
Coordinates: 41°38′20″N 42°59′10″E / 41.63889°N 42.98611°E / 41.63889; 42.98611Coordinates: 41°38′20″N 42°59′10″E / 41.63889°N 42.98611°E / 41.63889; 42.98611
Country Georgia
mkhareSamtskhe-Javakheti
DistrictAkhaltsikhe
Founded1200
Elevation
1,029 m (3,376 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total16,943
Time zoneUTC+4 (Georgian Time)
Postal code
0800
Websiteakhaltsikhe.gov.ge/en

In the old part of the city we can see Akhaltsikhe (Rabati) Castle, built in the 9th century, recently globally reconstructed. One of the main attractions of the Samtskhe-Javakheti region, along with Vardzia, Vale, Okrostsikhe and Zarzma.

HistoryEdit

 
Akhaltsikhe c. 1887

The city is first mentioned in the chronicles in the 12th century. In the 12th–13th centuries it was the seat of the House of Akhaltsikhe, dukes (atabegs) of Samtskhe Duchy (saatabago), whose two most illustrious representatives were Shalva and Ivane Akhaltsikheli. From the 13th up to the 17th century the city and Samtkhe were governed by the House of Jaqeli.

The city suffered numerous invasions by Mongols, Iranians and Turks. In 1576 the Ottomans took it and made it the residence of pasha. From 1628 the city became the centre of the Akhalzik Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire as "Ahıska".

In 1828, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829, Russian troops under the command of General Paskevich captured the city and, as a consequence of the 1829 Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne), it was ceded to the Russian Empire as part of first Kutais and then Tiflis Governorates.

In the late 1980s the city was host to the Soviet Army's 10th Guards Motor Rifle Division, which became a brigade of the Georgian land forces after the fall of the Soviet Union.

PopulationEdit

 
Cityscape of Akhaltsikhe
Population and ethnic composition of Akhaltsikhe from the late 19th century[1]
Year Georgians Armenians Russians Jews Others Total
1886 2,733 17% 10,417 64.6% 146 0.9% 2,545 15.8% 275 1.7% 16,116
1897[2][3] 3,578 23.3% 9,035 58.8% 1,172 7.3% 438 2.9% 1,134 3.4% 15,357
1926[4] 1,817 14.8% 6,516 52.9% 1.425 11.6% 94 0.8% % 12,310
1959[5] 6,801 25.7% 14,341 54.1% 3,509 13.2% 368 1.4% % 26,497
1979[6] 5,714 29.2% 10,278 52.5% 2,208 11.3% 337 1.7% 1,050 5.4% 19,587
1989 24,570
2014[7] 12,838 71.7% 4,781 26.7% 75 0.4% 11 0.06% 198 1.1% 17,903

ClimateEdit

 
View of Akhaltsikhe
Climate data for Akhaltsikhe (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
20.0
(68.0)
26.0
(78.8)
30.9
(87.6)
32.9
(91.2)
36.6
(97.9)
40.5
(104.9)
40.0
(104.0)
36.2
(97.2)
35.1
(95.2)
20.9
(69.6)
17.5
(63.5)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
5.0
(41.0)
11.0
(51.8)
17.6
(63.7)
21.9
(71.4)
25.5
(77.9)
28.9
(84.0)
29.4
(84.9)
25.2
(77.4)
18.6
(65.5)
10.9
(51.6)
4.8
(40.6)
16.8
(62.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.1
(26.4)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.3
(37.9)
9.1
(48.4)
13.4
(56.1)
17.1
(62.8)
20.5
(68.9)
20.5
(68.9)
16.1
(61.0)
10.3
(50.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−1.3
(29.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −7.4
(18.7)
−6.3
(20.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
2.6
(36.7)
6.9
(44.4)
10.8
(51.4)
14.2
(57.6)
13.7
(56.7)
9.1
(48.4)
4.3
(39.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
3.3
(37.9)
Record low °C (°F) −25.5
(−13.9)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−21.4
(−6.5)
−14.1
(6.6)
−2.8
(27.0)
−0.4
(31.3)
4.1
(39.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
−7.5
(18.5)
−12.1
(10.2)
−24.3
(−11.7)
−25.5
(−13.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24.3
(0.96)
26.7
(1.05)
35.9
(1.41)
49.3
(1.94)
67.0
(2.64)
77.7
(3.06)
61.0
(2.40)
49.8
(1.96)
34.3
(1.35)
40.5
(1.59)
35.3
(1.39)
26.2
(1.03)
527.9
(20.78)
Source: World Meteorological Organization[8]

ArchaeologyEdit

 
Streets of Akhaltsikhe

The highland environment between Akhaltsikhe and Aspindza presents a varied and complex array of archaeological features in different locations, elevations and topographies. This includes the alluvial flood-plain of the Kura River, and all the way to the high grasslands.

Human occupation is attested already in the Early Bronze Age (4th millennium BC) and later.

The Roman and medieval periods artifacts are also strongly represented in the area.

Amiranis GoraEdit

On the northeastern outskirts of Akhaltsikhe is an important archaeological site of Amiranis Gora.[9] It was excavated by Chubinishvili.[10] The earliest carbon date for Amiranis Gora is 3790-3373 cal BC. It was obtained from the charcoal of the metallurgical workshop which belonged to the earliest building horizon of Amiranis Gora[11] This indicates a division of the metallurgical production in the extractive and processing branches.[12]

Amiranis Gora is an important reference point for the study of the Early Bronze Age Kura-Araxes culture, also known as the Early Transcaucasian Culture. The many references include the architecture, burial practices, material culture and metallurgy.[13]

Amiranis Gora is one of the best sites with fixed stratigraphy of the Kura-Araxes culture. The carbon date for the Kura-Araxes material at Amiranis Gora is 3630-3048 cal B.C., which is very early.[14]

People associated with AkhaltsikheEdit

 
Rabati Castle in Akhaltsikhe

International relationsEdit

Twin towns and sister citiesEdit

Akhaltsikhe is twinned with:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "население грузии". Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  2. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  3. ^ "АХАЛЦИХСКИЙ УЕЗД (1897 г.)". Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  4. ^ "Ахалцихский уезд 1926".
  5. ^ "Ахалцихский район 1959".
  6. ^ "Ethnic composition: 1979 census". pop-stat.mashke.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2020.
  7. ^ "Ethnic composition, all places: 2014 census". pop-stat.mashke.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2020.
  8. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  9. ^ Archaeological Investigations at Chobareti in Southern Georgia, the Caucasus Author(s): KAKHIANI, Kakha , SAGONA, Antonio, SAGONA, Claudia, KVAVADZE, Eliso , BEDIANASHVILI, Giorgi , MASSAGER, Erwan , MARTIN, Lucie , HERRSCHER, Estelle , MARTKOPLISHVILI, Inga , BIRKETT-REES, Jessie , LONGFORD, Catherine Journal: Ancient Near Eastern Studies Volume: 50 Date: 2013 Pages: 1-138 doi:10.2143/ANES.50.0.2975510
  10. ^ Chubinishvili, T., 1963: Amiranis Gora, Tbilisi: Sabchota Saqartvelo
  11. ^ Kushnareva & Chubinishvili 1970: 114, Fig. 5.1
  12. ^ THE BEGINNINGS OF METALLURGY Proceedings of the International Conference, Bochum 1995
  13. ^ Palumbi 2008; Kiguradze and Sagona 2003; Burney and Lang 1971
  14. ^ THE BEGINNINGS OF METALLURGY Proceedings of the International Conference, Bochum 1995