Akhaltsikhe uezd

The Akhaltsikhe uezd[a] was a county (uezd) of the Tiflis Governorate of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, and then of Democratic Republic of Georgia, with its administrative center in Akhaltsikh (present-day Akhaltsikhe).[1][2] The uezd bordered the Gori uezd and the Kutaisi Governorate to the north, the Akhalkalaki uezd to the east, the Ardahan Okrug of the Kars Oblast to the south, and the Batum Okrug of the Batum Oblast to the west. The area of the uezd roughly corresponded to the contemporary Samtskhe-Javakheti region of Georgia.

Akhaltsikhe uezd
Ахалцихскій уѣздъ
Coat of arms of Akhaltsikhe uezd
Location in the Tiflis Governorate
Location in the Tiflis Governorate
CountryRussian Empire
ViceroyaltyCaucasus
GovernorateTiflis
Established1840
Abolished1930
CapitalAkhaltsikh
(present-day Akhaltsikhe)
Area
 • Total2,653.82 km2 (1,024.65 sq mi)
Population
 (1916)
 • Total96,947
 • Density37/km2 (95/sq mi)
 • Urban
26.27%
 • Rural
73.73%

HistoryEdit

The territory of the Akhaltsikhe uezd, entered into the Kutais Governorate of the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War of 1828. By 1840, the Аkhaltsikhe uezd was formed as a civilian district of the Tiflis Governorate. In 1874, the Akhalkalaki uezd was detached from it as a separate county.[2]

Following the Russian Revolution, the Akhaltsikhe uezd was incorporated into the short-lived Democratic Republic of Georgia.[2]

Lord Curzon during the Paris Peace Conference assessed the ethnographic situation in the southwestern uezds of the Tiflis Governorate:[3][4]

On the grounds of nationality, therefore, these districts ought to belong to Armenia, but they command the heart of Georgia strategically, and on the whole it would seem equitable to assign them to Georgia, and give their Armenian inhabitants the option of emigration into the wide territories assigned to the Armenians towards the south-west.

Administrative divisionsEdit

The subcounties (uchastoks) of the Akhaltsikhe uezd were as follows:[5]

Uchastok Russian name 1912 population Area
Atskhursky Ацхурскій участокъ 19,433 859.55 square versts (978.22 km2; 377.69 sq mi)
Kobliansky Кобліанскій участокъ 27,572 727.97 square versts (828.48 km2; 319.88 sq mi)
Uravelsky Уравельскій участокъ 20,230 744.46 square versts (847.24 km2; 327.12 sq mi)

DemographicsEdit

Russian Empire census (1897)Edit

According to the Russian Empire Census of 1897, the Akhaltsikhe uezd had a population of 68,837, including 36,807 men and 32,030 women. The plurality of the population indicated Turkish to be their mother tongue, with significant Armenian, Tatar (later known as Azerbaijani), and Georgian speaking minorities.[6]

Linguistic composition of the Akhaltsikhe uezd in 1897[6]
Language Native speakers %
Turkish 24,137 35.06
Armenian 15,144 22.00
Tatar[b] 12,370 17.97
Georgian 12,211 17.74
Russian 1,743 2.53
Kurdish 1,396 2.03
Ukrainian 490 0.71
Jewish 446 0.65
Polish 435 0.63
Greek 149 0.22
German 88 0.13
Lithuanian 88 0.13
Chechen 15 0.02
Ossetian 14 0.02
Persian 12 0.02
Romanian 12 0.02
Assyrian 10 0.01
Avar-Andean 6 0.01
Belarusian 5 0.01
Czech 5 0.01
Kazi-Kumukh 5 0.01
Latvian 3 0.00
Chuvash 2 0.00
French 2 0.00
Imeretian 2 0.00
Kyurin 1 0.00
Talysh 1 0.00
Other 45 0.07
TOTAL 68,837 100.00

Caucasian Calendar (1917)Edit

According to the 1917 publication of the Caucasian Calendar, the Akhaltsikhe uezd had 96,947 residents in 1916, including 51,549 men and 45,398 women, 93,847 of whom were the permanent population, and 3,100 were temporary residents:[7]

Nationality Urban Rural TOTAL
Number % Number % Number %
Georgians 2,783 10.93 42,709 59.75 45,492 46.92
Armenians 18,165 71.32 10,060 14.07 28,225 29.11
Sunni Muslims[c] 30 0.12 16,680 23.34 16,710 17.24
Jews 3,246 12.74 5 0.01 3,251 3.35
Kurds 0 0.00 1,801 2.52 1,801 1.86
Russians[d] 716 2.81 88 0.12 804 0.83
Roma 457 1.79 14 0.02 471 0.49
Asiatic Christians 0 0.00 89 0.12 89 0.09
Other Europeans 53 0.21 28 0.04 81 0.08
North Caucasians 16 0.06 3 0.00 19 0.02
Shia Muslims[e] 4 0.02 0 0.00 4 0.00
TOTAL 25,470 100.00 71,477 100.00 96,947 100.00

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^
  2. ^ Later known as Azerbaijani.
  3. ^ Primarily Turco-Tatars.[8]
  4. ^ The Caucasian Calendar did not distinguish between Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians.
  5. ^ Primarily Tatars,[8] later known as Azerbaijanis.[9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopaedia: Tiflis Governorate (in Russian)
  2. ^ a b c Tsutsiev, Arthur (2014), Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus, New Haven and London, p. 164, ISBN 978-0-300-15308-8, OCLC 884858065, retrieved 2021-12-25
  3. ^ Britain, Cab 27/37, E.C. 2525.
  4. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971–1996). The Republic of Armenia. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 267. ISBN 0-520-01805-2. OCLC 238471.
  5. ^ Кавказский календарь на 1913 год [Caucasian calendar for 1913] (in Russian) (68th ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1913. pp. 164–175. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2022-06-30.
  7. ^ Кавказский календарь на 1917 год [Caucasian calendar for 1917] (in Russian) (72nd ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1917. pp. 206–213. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021.
  8. ^ a b Hovannisian 1971, p. 67.
  9. ^ Bournoutian 2015, p. 35.

BibliographyEdit

  • Bournoutian, George (2015). "Demographic Changes in the Southwest Caucasus, 1604–1830: The Case of Historical Eastern Armenia". Forum of EthnoGeoPolitics. Amsterdam. 3 (2).
  • Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-01805-2.

Coordinates: 41°38′20″N 42°59′10″E / 41.63889°N 42.98611°E / 41.63889; 42.98611