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2004 Madrid train bombings
Air India Flight 182 bombing
City of Poros cruise ship attack
On land, in aviation, and in nautical transport the bombings of the Madrid train system in 2004 (l.; makeshift shrine), the bombing of Air India Flight 182 in 1985 (c.; memorial), and the City of Poros ship attack in 1988 (r.; City of Poros in 1988) constitute the deadliest attacks carried out in Europe, killing 192, 329, and 11 people, respectively.

There is a long history of terrorism in Europe. The first 'terrorism campaign' was in the 6th Century A.D. This 'terrorism campaign' was held by the Zealots (a jewish group of patriots). They launched this campaign against the Romans in attempt to end their rule in Palestine (Poland, 1988). This has often been linked to nationalist and separatist movements, while other acts have been related to political extremism (including anarchism, far-right and far-left extremism) or religious extremism.

Contents

PreventionEdit

Pre-World War IIEdit

European states were at the fore of plans for an international criminal court under the League of Nations in the 1930s, working through the Committee for the Repression of Terrorism (CRT). The CRT sought to define terrorism and get nation's domestic policies to support anti-terrorism activities. Opposition by Britain and tensions over fascism in Germany and Italy limited the final proposals.[1]

EuropolEdit

 
The seat of the European Police Office (Europol) in The Hague.

European cooperation in the field of counter-terrorism include the European Police Office (Europol), an EU agency, and Interpol. TREVI was an early example of EU cooperation in this field.

The main transnational activity to combat terrorism in recent years has been through Europol. They have categorised acts of terrorism that have either failed, been foiled or been successfully executed within the European Union (EU) as either pertaining to religious issues, right wing, left wing or separatist movements. The field is subject to considerable cooperation among national authorities.

Individual countriesEdit

In July 2014 the Government of France introduced legislation to combat terrorism by toughening surveillance, making it lawful to detain individuals linked to radical "Islamist" groups, and to block Internet sites that incite anti-Semitism, terrorism and hatred. The country's Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve revealed 600 French nationals were in Syria at the time or planned to go there. The bill includes a ban on foreign travel for up to six months for those believed to hold terrorist sympathies, provides for the confiscation and invalidation of passports, and prohibits airlines from allowing such individuals to fly.[2]

From 2005, the United Kingdom government introduced the CONTEST strategy, which seeks to improve co-operation between security services, and other public and private organisations.[3] This includes four strands, namely Pursue, (seeking to apprehend potential terrorists), Prevent, (seeking to reduce risks of 'radicalisation', deter potential terrorists and share information), Protect, (seeking to ensure the security of potential targets and organisations is optimised), and Prepare, (seeking to ensure an effective response in the immediate aftermath of any attack). Similar strategies have been adopted by other countries across the European Union, and there have been increases in co-operation between nations and security forces.

HistoryEdit

DefinitionsEdit

There is an overlap between terrorism and various other forms of conflict and violent action, including civil wars[4] or non-international armed conflicts. This is the case with several significant non-international conflicts in Europe, where there thus can be dispute as to what counts as terrorism: examples include the Irish War of Independence (1919–21), the breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent conflicts,[5] the First (1994-6) and Second Chechen Wars (1999-2009), and the War of Dagestan (1999).

TrendEdit

Terrorism in Europe around the beginning of the twentieth century was often associated with anarchism.[6][7]

Terrorism within the European Communities since 1951 has often been linked to separatist movements, including the Irish Republican Army within the United Kingdom, and Euskadi Ta Askatasuna within Spain. Other perpetrators have been linked to far-right and far-left extremism, environmental extremism and anarchism. Since 2001, there has been an increase in attacks linked to extremist Islamist groups, particularly in France. Many separatist terrorist activities also have a religious angle, as, for example, with Chechen separatism in Russia. The internationally co-ordinated element has seen increasing attempts by governments to seek to weaken extremist ideology, particularly Islamist extremism.

It remains the case that the majority of deaths from terrorism do not occur in the "West". When the Al Qaeda attacks against the United States in 2001 are excluded, only 0.5% of all deaths from terrorism have occurred in Western countries – European nations, United States, Canada and Australia – in the past fifteen years.[8] However, there have been recent increases in the number of high-fatality attacks. There had been a decrease in the number of overall fatalities from terrorist attacks between 1990 and 2015, compared to those between 1970 and 1990.[9] Prior to 1990, on average 150 people died each year from terrorist attacks; this figure would be even higher if the large number of people who died in 1988 from the Pan Am 2013 bombing were included. From 1990, an average of a little under 50 people died each year. However, this figure has begun to increase again from 2011, with the attacks by far-right extremist Anders Breivik in Norway, and Islamist extremist attacks in France in 2015 and 2016.

Europol has published an annual trend report on terrorist attacks (including failed, foiled, and completed attacks) and terrorist related arrests in the EU since 2006.[10] The reports identify that perpetrators' known or suspected affiliations have been disparate in nature. Europol break these down into five categories: jihadist terrorism (previously termed "religiously-inspired terrorism"); ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism; left-wing and anarchist terrorism; right-wing terrorism; and single-issue terrorism. Europol's reports do not provide a breakdown of the proportion of attacks that have been completed or the type of damage inflicted. According to these data the vast majority of terrorist attacks in the EU between 2006 and 2013 are affiliated with ethno-national or separatist motives, followed by left-wing attacks and those that are registered as 'unspecified'. A significant number of terror attacks are motivated religiously or associated with right-wing groups. However, among those arrested on terror-related crimes most are religiously motivated and form the largest group, followed by separatist related terror suspects.

In 2015, a total of 211 completed, failed, or foiled terrorist attacks were reported by EU states, resulting in 151 fatalities (of which 148 were in France, with 130 of them occurring during the November 2015 Paris attacks.) and over 360 people injured. As in previous years, separatist attacks accounted for the largest proportion (65), followed by jihadist attacks (17). The latter, however, caused the largest number of fatalities (150) and injuries (250). The United Kingdom reported the largest number of attacks (103), but did not provide statistics on suspected affiliation.[11] Tackling jihadist terrorism threats has become an over-riding priority for security services, although many commentators express concerns that the risk of far-right terrorism is currently being underestimated.[12]

Lists of incidentsEdit

Deadliest incidentsEdit

The following is a list of terrorist incidents in Europe which resulted in at least ten deaths. It lists attacks on civilians by non-state actors that are widely referred to as terrorism. It excludes transcontinental countries such as Turkey and Russia, which have most of their landmass in another continent. For incidents in Russia, see Terrorism in Russia and for incidents in Istanbul, see Terror attacks in Istanbul.

Key: motivation

  Nationalist/Separatist   Islamist   Right-wing   Left-wing   Other

Date Country/Region Incident Casualties Perpetrator
13 Dec 1867   UK (England) Clerkenwell explosion 12 killed, 120 injured[13] Irish Republican Brotherhood
7 Nov 1893   Spain Gran Teatre del Liceu bombing 20+ killed,[7] 40+ injured[14] Santiago Salvador Franch
7 Jun 1896   Spain Barcelona Corpus Christi procession bombing 12 killed, 44 injured[14] Anarchists (disputed)
28 Apr 1903   Ottoman Empire Thessaloniki bombings of 1903 16 killed (inc. 6 perp.), 16 injured[15] Boatmen of Thessaloniki
13 Dec 1921   Romania Bolgrad palace bombing 100 killed[16] Bessarabian Separatists
16 Apr 1925   Bulgaria St Nedelya Church bombing 150 killed, 500+ injured[17] Bulgarian Communist Party
1 May 1947   Italy Portella della Ginestra massacre 11 killed, 33 wounded[18] Salvatore Giuliano & band of Sicilian separatists
18 Jun 1961   France Vitry-Le-François train bombing 28 killed, 100+ injured[19] Organisation Armée Secrète
12 Oct 1967   Cyprus Cyprus Airways Flight 284 bombing 66 killed[20] Palestinian Nationalists (suspected)
12 Dec 1969   Italy Piazza Fontana bombing 17 killed, 88 injured[21] Ordine Nuovo
21 Feb 1970    Switzerland Swissair Flight 330 bombing 47 killed[22] PFLP-GC
4 Dec 1971   UK (Northern Ireland) McGurk's Bar bombing 15 killed, 17 injured[23] Ulster Volunteer Force
26 Jan 1972   Czechoslovakia JAT Flight 367 bombing 27 killed[24] Ustaše (alleged)
5 Sep 1972   Germany Munich massacre 17 killed[25] Black September
17 Dec 1973   Italy Rome airport attacks 34 killed, 22 injured[26] Black September
4 Feb 1974   UK (England) M62 coach bombing 12 killed, 38 injured[27] Provisional IRA
17 May 1974   Ireland Dublin and Monaghan bombings 34 killed, 300 injured[28] Ulster Volunteer Force
4 Aug 1974   Italy Italicus Express bombing 12 killed, 48 injured[29] Ordine Nero
8 Sep 1974   Greece TWA Flight 841 bombing 88 killed[30] Abu Nidal Organization
13 Sep 1974   Spain Cafetería Rolando bombing 13 killed, 71 injured[31] ETA
21 Nov 1974   UK (England) Birmingham pub bombings 21 killed, 182 injured[32] Provisional IRA
5 Jan 1976   UK (Northern Ireland) Kingsmill massacre 10 killed, 1 injured[33] South Armagh Republican Action Force
17 Feb 1978   UK (Northern Ireland) La Mon restaurant bombing 12 killed, 30 injured[34] Provisional IRA
12 Jul 1979   Spain Hotel Corona de Aragón fire 80+ killed[35] ETA (suspected)
2 Aug 1980   Italy Bologna massacre 85 killed, 200+ injured[36] Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari
26 Sep 1980   Germany Oktoberfest bombing 13 killed (inc. 1 perp.), 211 injured[37] Gundolf Köhler
20 Jul 1982   UK (England) Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings 11 killed, 50 injured[38] Provisional IRA
6 Dec 1982   UK (Northern Ireland) Droppin Well bombing 17 killed, 30 injured[39] Irish National Liberation Army
23 Dec 1984   Italy Train 904 bombing 16 killed, 267 injured[40] Sicilian Mafia
12 Apr 1985   Spain El Descanso bombing 18 killed, 82 injured[41] Islamic Jihad
23 Jun 1985   Atlantic Ocean in Irish airspace Air India Flight 182 bombing 329 killed[42] Babbar Khalsa
23 Nov 1985   Malta EgyptAir Flight 648 hijacking 60 killed (inc. 2 perps.)[43] Abu Nidal Organization
27 Dec 1985   Italy
  Austria
Rome and Vienna airport attacks 23 killed (inc. 4 perps.), 139 injured[44] Abu Nidal Organization
14 Jul 1986   Spain Plaza República Dominicana bombing 12 killed, 32 injured[45] ETA
19 Jun 1987   Spain Hipercor bombing 21 killed, 45 injured[46] ETA
8 Nov 1987   UK (Northern Ireland) Remembrance Day bombing 12 killed, 63 injured[47] Provisional IRA
11 Dec 1987   Spain Zaragoza Barracks bombing 11 killed, 88 injured[48] ETA
11 Jul 1988   Greece City of Poros ship attack 11 killed (inc. 1 perp.), 98 injured[49] Abu Nidal Organization
21 Dec 1988   UK (Scotland) Pan Am Flight 103 bombing 270 killed[50] Abdelbaset al-Megrahi
23 Oct 1993   UK (Northern Ireland) Shankill Road bombing 10 killed (inc. 1 perp.), 57 injured[51] Provisional IRA
15 Aug 1998   UK (Northern Ireland) Omagh bombing 29 killed, 300+ injured[52] Real IRA
16 Feb 2001   FR Yugoslavia Podujevo bus bombing 12 killed, 40 injured [53] Kosovo Albanian Militants (suspected)
11 Mar 2004   Spain Madrid train bombings 192 killed, 2,050 injured[54][55] Al-Qaeda
7 Jul 2005   UK (England) 2005 London bombings 56 killed, (inc. 4 perps.), 784 injured[56] Al-Qaeda
11 Apr 2011   Belarus Minsk Metro bombing 15 killed, 204 injured[57] Dzimitry Kanavalau and Vlad Kavalyou
22 Jul 2011   Norway Norway attacks 77 killed, 319 injured[58] Anders Behring Breivik
7 Jan 2015-9 Jan 2015   France January 2015 Île-de-France attacks 20 killed (inc. 3 perps.), 22 injured[59] Saïd and Chérif Kouachi
Amedy Coulibaly
9 May 2015   Republic of Macedonia Kumanovo clashes 22 killed (inc. 14 perps.), 37 injured[60] National Liberation Army
13 Nov 2015   France November 2015 Paris attacks 137 killed (inc. 7 perps.), 368 injured[61] Islamic State
22 Mar 2016   Belgium Brussels bombings 35 killed (inc. 3 perps.), 340 injured[62] Islamic State
14 Jul 2016   France Nice truck attack 87 killed (inc. 1 perp.), 434 injured[63] Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel
19 Dec 2016   Germany Berlin Christmas market attack 12 killed, 56 injured[64] Anis Amri
22 May 2017   UK (England) Manchester Arena bombing 23 killed (inc. 1 perp.), 250 injured[65] Salman Ramadan Abedi
3 Jun 2017   UK (England) June 2017 London Bridge attack 11 killed (inc. 3 perps.), 48 injured[66] Khuram Shazad Butt[67]
Rachid Redouane[68]
Youssef Zaghba[69]
17 Aug 2017-18 Aug 2017   Spain 2017 Barcelona attacks 24 killed (inc. 8 perps.), 152 injured[70][71] Islamic State (suspected)

Terrorism by country and regionEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "International Terrorism in the 1920s and '30s: The Response of European States through the League of Nations and the Attempt to Create an International Criminal Court – Oxford Scholarship". doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199660285.001.0001/acprof-9780199660285-chapter-6. 
  2. ^ "Legislation to crack down on jihadists planned by France". France News.Net. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "The United Kingdom's Strategy for Countering Terrorism: Annual Report 2015" (PDF). Her Majesty's Stationary Office. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  4. ^ "Defining Civil War by Examining Post-Soviet Conflicts" by Pavel K. Baev, Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(2), 247-268. doi:10.1080/09546550701246965
  5. ^ "Approaches to political violence and terrorism in former Yugoslavia 1" by Florian Bieber, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans 2003, 5(1): 39-51
  6. ^ The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda by Gérard Chaliand & Arnaud Blin
  7. ^ a b Richard Jensen, "Daggers, rifles and dynamite: Anarchist terrorism in nineteenth century Europe." Terrorism and Political Violence 2004, 16(1):116-53
  8. ^ "Global Terrorism Index: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism" (PDF). Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  9. ^ "Is Terrorism in Europe at a Historical High?". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 13 August 2016. 
  10. ^ Europol statistics, europol.europa.eu, retrieved 15 January 2015 
  11. ^ European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 2016, europol.europa.eu, retrieved 13 August 2016 
  12. ^ Focus on Islamist terror plots overlooks threat from far right – report, The Guardian, retrieved 13 August 2016 
  13. ^ The Making of Ireland: A History, James Lydon, p.308
  14. ^ a b "Terrorism in Barcelona and Its Impact on Spanish Politics 1904-1909", by J. Romero Maura, Past & Present 1968, 41:130-183
  15. ^ Megas G. The Boatmen of Thesalloniki. The Bulgarian anarchist group and the bomb attacks of 1903, Troxalia, 1994 ISBN 960-7022-47-5
  16. ^ "PALACE BOMBED, 100 KILLED; Bessarabian Conspirators Accused of Outrage at Bolgard". The New York Times. 14 December 1921. Retrieved 2011-10-15. 
  17. ^ "Sofia Church Terror Attack Vie for Bulgaria Top Event". The Free Library. 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  18. ^ (in Italian) Una strage con troppi misteri, La Sicilia, May 1, 2011
  19. ^ Pech, Marie-Estelle (7 January 2015). "L'attentat le plus meurtrier depuis Vitry-Le-François en 1961" [The deadliest attack since Vitry-Le-François in 1961]. Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2017.  ()
  20. ^ Flight International, 5 September 1968, p.361
  21. ^ Clutterbuck, Richard (1990). Terrorism, Drugs & Crime in Europe After 1992. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-415-61620-1. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  22. ^ "Criminal Occurrence description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  23. ^ Taylor, Peter (1999). Loyalists. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 88. ISBN 0-7475-4519-7. 
  24. ^ "Criminal Occurrence description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  25. ^ Cosgrove, Ben; Bhowmick, Nilanjana. "Terror at the Olympics: Munich, 1972". Time. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  26. ^ RAND Corporation (3 April 2001). "TKB Incident Page: Other Group attacked Airports & Airlines target (Dec. 17, 1973, Italy)". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  27. ^ Sutton, Malcolm. "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths". 
  28. ^ "1974 – Car bombs explode in Dublin and Monaghan, killing 34 people". Stair na hÉireann – History of Ireland. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  29. ^ Bocca, Giorgio. Gli anni del terrorismo (in Italian). pp. 291–293. 
  30. ^ "AAR 75-07 Boeing 707 Ionian Sea Crash" (PDF). Airdisaster.com. Retrieved January 14, 2017. 
  31. ^ Ediciones El País. "Atentado de la calle del Correo: un caso similar todavía no aclarado, El Pais, 27 May 1979". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  32. ^ The Birmingham Framework -Six Innocent Men Framed for the Birmingham Bombings; Fr. Denis Faul and Fr. Raymond Murray (1976)
  33. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY - 5 - 1976: Ten dead in Northern Ireland ambush". 
  34. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY - 18 - 1978: Belfast bomb suspects rounded up". 
  35. ^ "Civil Guard website listing the Civil Guard retired high rank member died in the fire as an ETA victim". 
  36. ^ "BBC ON THIS DAY - 2 - 1980: Bologna blast leaves dozens dead". 
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  54. ^ "elmundo.es. Documento: Auto del 11-M". 
  55. ^ ZoomNews (in spanish). The 192nd victim (Laura Vega) died in 2014, after a decade in coma in a hospital of Madrid. She was the last hospitalized injured person.
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  63. ^ "Nice killer visited Italy's 'Little Calais' as he was radicalised over a year before July 14 massacre". The Telegraph. 14 October 2016. 
  64. ^ Eddy, Melissa (21 December 2016). "Germany Seeks Tunisian Tied to Berlin Christmas Market Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  65. ^ Abbit, Beth (2017-06-22). "Number of people injured in Manchester terror attack rises to 250". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  66. ^ "London attack: 12 arrested in Barking after van and knife attack". BBC News. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  67. ^ "Attacker named as Khuram Butt". BBC. 5 June 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
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  69. ^ "Third London Bridge attacker named". BBC. 6 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
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BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

Further ReadingsEdit

Romagnoli, M. 2016, "The Effects of Terrorism on Tourism: (Inter)relations, Motives & Risks", Almatourism, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 125-133.