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Terrorism in Spain has been committed by various groups and people.

Contents

HistoryEdit

There have been several phases of terrorism in Spain.

Spain was notably affected by a broader wave of insurrectionary anarchism that occurred in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century.

The Spanish Civil War saw both a White Terror by the Nationalist faction, responsible for 58,000 to 400,000 deaths,[1][2] and a Red Terror by the leftist groups, responsible for 38,000[3] to ~172,344 deaths.[4] Individual events include the massacre of Badajoz in which Nationalist soliders killed 500[5] to 4,000[6] civilian and military supporters of the Second Spanish Republic. The Paracuellos massacres saw Republican troops and militiamen kill 1,000[7] to 12,000[8] civilians, soldiers and Catholic priests.

From 1961-2011, the Basque separatist group ETA carried out more than 3300 attacks[9] with total deaths estimated to be 829 to 952.[10] During a similar period, far right terrorist groups were active, opposed to the Spanish transition to democracy. They caused from 66 to 95 deaths.[11][12][13]

In recent years, Al-Qaeda and then Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have been responsible for significant attacks in the country. This includes the single deadliest peacetime incident, the 2004 Madrid train bombings that killed 192 people.

Deadliest attacksEdit

The following is a list of terrorist incidents in Spain that resulted in at least ten deaths. It lists attacks on civilians by non-state actors that are widely referred to as terrorism. It excludes the periods of the Red and White Terrors during and after the Civil War.

Key: Group

  ETA   Islamic State/Al-Qaeda   Anarchist   Other

Date Incident Casualties Perpetrator
7 Nov 1893 Gran Teatre del Liceu bombing 20+ killed, 40+ injured[14] Santiago Salvador Franch
7 Jun 1896 Barcelona Corpus Christi procession bombing 12 killed, 44 injured[14] Anarchists (suspected)
31 May 1906 Botched assassination of Alfonso XIII 30 killed, 100 injured[15] Mateo Morral Rocca
13 Sep 1974 Cafetería Rolando bombing 13 killed, 71 injured[16] ETA
12 Jul 1979 Hotel Corona de Aragón fire 80+ killed[17] ETA (suspected)
12 Apr 1985 El Descanso bombing 18 killed, 82 injured[18] Al-Qaeda (suspected)
14 Jul 1986 Plaza República Dominicana bombing 12 killed, 32 injured[19] ETA
19 Jun 1987 Hipercor bombing 21 killed, 45 injured[20] ETA
11 Dec 1987 Zaragoza Barracks bombing 11 killed, 88 injured[21] ETA
29 May 1991 Vic bombing 10 killed, 44 injured[22][23] ETA
11 Mar 2004 Madrid train bombings 192 killed, 2,050 injured[24][25] Al-Qaeda
17–18 Aug 2017 2017 Barcelona attacks 24 killed (inc. 8 perps.), 152 injured[26][27] Islamic State (suspected)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Julián Casanova, Francisco Espinosa, Conxita Mir, Francisco Moreno Gómez. Morir, matar, sobrevivir: La violencia en la dictadura de Franco. Editorial Crítica. Barcelona. 2002. p. 8.
  2. ^ Richards, Michael. A Time of Silence: Civil War and the Culture of Repression in Franco's Spain, 1936–1945 Cambridge University Press. 1998. p. 11.
  3. ^ Beevor, Antony. The Battle for Spain; The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. Penguin Books. 2006. London. p. 87
  4. ^ Zychowicz, Piotr (2015-03-20). "Francisco Franco - jedyny przywódca, który pokonał Stalina". Wp.Opinie/ Historia do Rzeczy. Komuniści i ich lewaccy sojusznicy wymordowali 72 344 ludzi i zagłodzili ponad 100 tys.
  5. ^ F. Pilo, M. Domínguez y F. de la Iglesia. La matanza de Badajoz. Madrid. Libros Libres. 2010. p. 254
  6. ^ Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, revolutions & revenge. Harper Perennial. 2006. London. p.121 and p.270
  7. ^ Jackson, Gabriel.(1967). The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1936-1939. Princeton University Press. Princeton. p.326
  8. ^ Vidal 2005: p 327-375
  9. ^ "Datos significativos del conflicto vasco, 1968-2003". Eusko News (in Spanish). Retrieved 2010-09-19.
  10. ^ Núñez, Javier (21 February 2010). "Verdad eclipsada ('Eclipsed truth')" (in Spanish). Deia. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
  11. ^ Transición y represión política. Juan Manuel Olarieta Alberdi, Revista de estudios políticos, ISSN 0048-7694, Nº 70, 1990, pages 225-262
  12. ^ País, Ediciones El (21 March 2010). "Reportaje - Las otras víctimas". Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  13. ^ Las otras víctimas de una transición nada pacífica. Gonzalo Wilhelmi. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.
  14. ^ a b "Terrorism in Barcelona and Its Impact on Spanish Politics 1904-1909", by J. Romero Maura, Past & Present 1968, 41:130-183
  15. ^ Chaliand, Gérard; Blin, Arnaud (August 2007). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520247093.
  16. ^ Ediciones El País. "Atentado de la calle del Correo: un caso similar todavía no aclarado, El Pais, 27 May 1979". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  17. ^ "Civil Guard website listing the Civil Guard retired high rank member died in the fire as an ETA victim". Archived from the original on 2008-06-07.
  18. ^ "Al-Qaeda suspect linked to 1985 Madrid bombing". Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  19. ^ 25 años del atentado de la plaza de la República Dominicana, El Diario Montanes, 14 January 2017
  20. ^ "Bomb explodes in Barcelona". Los Angeles Times. 19 June 1987. Retrieved 2017-01-14.
  21. ^ El País: Zaragoza: cinco ataúdes blancos 2 August 2009 accessed 14 January 2017
  22. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/story/2004/03/11/timeline-major-eta-attacks-in-spain.html
  23. ^ http://ecodiario.eleconomista.es/espana/noticias/1326181/06/09/Vic-Barcelona-recordara-hoy-a-las-victimas-del-atentado-de-ETA-en-su-casa-cuartel.html
  24. ^ "elmundo.es. Documento: Auto del 11-M".
  25. ^ ZoomNews (in spanish) Archived 2015-03-15 at the Wayback Machine. The 192nd victim (Laura Vega) died in 2014, after a decade in coma in a hospital of Madrid. She was the last hospitalized injured person.
  26. ^ "Barcelona attack: Suspected van driver shot dead by police". BBC. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  27. ^ Burgen, Stephen. "Spanish attacks death toll rises to 16 after woman dies in hospital". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2017.