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GSG9 team returning in 1977 after liberating the passengers of Lufthansa Flight 181

Germany has experienced significant terrorism in its history, particularly during the Weimar Republic and during the Cold War, carried out by far-left and far-right German groups as well as by foreign terrorist organisations.

In recent years, both far left, far right and Islamist violence has resurged and groups have been suspected of terrorism or terrorism plans.

Contents

Weimar RepublicEdit

Germany's loss in the First World War resulted in a chaotic situation, with multiple far-left and far-right organisations attempting to seize power. Both the far left and the far right organised their own militias, and carried out assassinations. For example, the Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau was assassinated in 1922 by a far-right group. Members of the Communist Party of Germany assassinated police captains Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck in Berlin in 1931.

Islamic terrorism in GermanyEdit

 
Aftermath of the 2016 Berlin truck attack

Turkish and Kurdish Islamist groups are also active in Germany, and Turkish and Kurdish Islamists have co-operated in Germany as in the case of the Sauerland terror cell[3]. Political scientist Guido Steinberg stated that many top leaders of Islamist organizations in Turkey fled to Germany in the 2000s, and that the Turkish (Kurdish) Hizbullah has also "left an imprint on Turkish Kurds in Germany."[3] Also many Kurds from Iraq (there are about 50,000 to 80,000 Iraqi Kurds in Germany) financially supported Kurdish-Islamist groups like Ansar al Islam.[3] Many Islamists in Germany are ethnic Kurds (Iraqi and Turkish Kurds) or Turks. Before 2006, the German Islamist scene was dominated by Iraqi Kurds and Palestinians, but since 2006 Kurds and Turks from Turkey are dominant.[3]

Since 2010, 15 people have died in Islamic terrorist attacks in Germany and an additional 74 have been injured. There is also a number of violent incidents which are disputed to either have been conducted by Lone-wolf Islamic terrorists or if they were conducted by psychologically sick people.[citation needed]

In 2015, 11 verdicts concerning jihadist terrorism related offences were issued by German courts.[4] In 2016, 28 verdicts for jihadist terrorism related offences were delivered.[5] In 2017 there were 27 verdicts.[6]

Almost all known terrorist networks and individuals in Germany have links to Salafism,[7] a conservative Islamic ideology.[8]

Terrorism in (or involving) West Germany and reunified GermanyEdit

During the Cold War, especially in the 1970s, West Germany experienced severe terrorism, mostly perpetrated by far-left terrorist groups and culminating in the German Autumn of 1977, the country's most serious national crisis in postwar history. Terrorist incidents also took place in the 1980s and 1990s. Some of the terrorist groups had connections to international terrorism, notably Palestinian militant groups, and were aided and abetted by the communist regime of East Germany.

Known terrorist groups in Germany (both active and in-active)
Right Wing Extremists Anarchists and Left Wing Extremists Islamists and Salafists Separatists and Nationalists
Atomwaffen Division since 2018 Red Army Faction 1970–1998 Al-Qaeda since 2006 Provisional Irish Republican Army
Freikorps Havelland 2003-2005 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 2015 Black September
Gruppe Freital 2015-2018 Revolutionary Cells 1973–1993
National Socialist Underground 1999-2011 Anti-Imperialist Cell 1992 – 1995
Deutsche Aktionsgruppen 1980 Movement 2 June 1972–1980
Wehrsportsgruppe Hoffman 1973-1980 Tupamaros West-Berlin (and Munchen) 1969-1970
Combat 18 since 1990's Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) 2009-2011 [9]
Action Front of National Socialists/National Activists 1977-1983 Rote Zora 1974 – 1995
Revolution Chemnitz 2018-2019 [10] Militante gruppe 2001-2009


List of significant terrorist incidents in GermanyEdit

Germany
Date Sub Location Deaths Injuries Type Perpetrator or motives Description
2 April 1968   Frankfurt 0- 0- Arson Attack Red Army Faction -- Shopping Mall
Two founding fathers of the RAF, Andreas Baader and Gudrun Ensslin, set fire to a shopping mall in Frankfurt as a political statement against capitalism.[11]
10 February 1970   Munich 01 023 Grenade & Small arms fire PDFLP (Palestinian nationalists) -- Airports & airlines
Three terrorists attack El Al passengers in a bus at the Munich-Riem Airport with guns and grenades; one passenger is killed and 23 injured.[12] All three terrorists were captured by airport police. The Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine and the Action Organization for the Liberation of Palestine claim responsibility for the attack.[13]
2 February 1972   Berlin 01 0- Improvised Explosive Device 2 June Movement -- British Military Vehicles and a British yacht-club (British Armed Forces)
As a reaction to the Bloody Sunday, an event during The Troubles, the 2nd June Movement bombed two vehicles of the British Armed Forces as well as a British yacht-club.
11 May 1972   Frankfurt 01 013 Improvised Explosive Device Red Army Faction -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
A bomb explodes at the Headquarters, V Corps (US Army) in the Abrams Building (IG Farben Building) in Frankfurt, killing US Army officer Paul A. Bloomquist and injuring a further 13.[14][15]
24 May 1972   Heidelberg 03 005 Car bomb Red Army Faction -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
Two large car bombs are detonated at the US Army Supreme European Command within the Campbell Barracks in Heidelberg, killing three. The dead are identified as Ronald A. Woodward, Charles L. Peck and Captain Clyde R. Bonner[14][15][16][17]
5 September 1972   Munich 17
(5 perps.)
- Hostage taking

(2 days)

Black September (Palestinian nationalists) -- Olympic Games
Eight armed terrorists stage an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany on 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team, who were taken hostage and eventually killed, along with a German police officer. Five of the attackers also died in the raid to free the hostages.[18][19][20][21]
7 April 1977   Karlsruhe 03 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Government institutions
Shortly after 9:00 CET, a motorcycle pulls up next to the car of Germany's chief federal prosecutor, Siegfried Buback, a stoplight on the outskirts of Karlsruhe in western Germany. The motorcycle passenger proceedes to fire at least 15 bullets into the car. Buback and his 30-year-old driver Wolfgang Göbel die at the scene; the head of the chauffeur service Georg Wurster, 33, succumbs to his injuries six days later.[22]
30 July 1977   Oberursel 01 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Business
Jürgen Ponto, the head of Dresdner Bank, is shot and killed in his house in Oberursel. It is thought that three assailants attempted to kidnap Ponto, and after he resisted they shot him. He was shot five times and later died of his serious wounds. Susanne Albrecht, the daughter of a good friend of the Pontos, was later identified as one of the attackers.[23]
5 September 1977   Cologne 05 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Business
A group of armed terrorists attack the chauffeured car carrying Hanns Martin Schleyer, then president of the German employers' association, in Cologne. Four masked RAF members sprayed bullets into the two vehicles, killing Marcisz and a police officer, Roland Pieler. The driver of the police escort vehicle, Reinhold Brändle, and a third police officer, Helmut Ulmer, were also killed.
Schleyer was abducted and held prisoner in an apartment in a residential neighborhood near Cologne. He was forced to appeal to the West German government under Helmut Schmidt for several RAF members -- then imprisoned -- to be exchanged for him. On 18 October 1977, three of the imprisoned RAF members were found dead in their cells. In response, Schleyer was shot dead en route to Mulhouse, France, where his body was left in an Audi 100.[24]
22 August 1980   Hamburg 2
- Arson attack Deutsche Aktionsgruppen Right-wing terrorism -- Private citizens (Refugees) & property
An Arson attack perpetrated by the Right-Wing terrorist group Deutsche Aktionsgruppen targeted a Refugee home for Vietnamese.[25]
27 September 1980   Munich 12
(one perp.)
213 Suicide bombing Right-Wing Terrorism (perpetrator: Gundolf Köhler) -- Private citizens & property
A bomb detonates at the Oktoberfest fairgrounds in Theresienwiese, Munich, killing twelve and injuring over two hundred more. The dead include the alleged bomber Gundolf Kohler, a member of the neo-Nazi Military Sport Group Hoffman.[26][27]
11 May 1982   Seckbach (Frankfurt am Main) 01 - High Standard .22 Pistol Revolutionary Cells (German group) -- German Politician Heinz-Herbert Karry
German Politician and Ministry of the economy of Hesse was murdered in his house by the Revolutionary Cells for supporting further construction of Frankfurt's Airport as well as further construction of the nuclear power plant Biblis.[28][29]
15 January 1982   Berlin 01 046 Improvised Explosive Device Palestinian Nationalists -- Private citizens & property
An explosion at the Mifgash-Israel, a Jewish owned restaurant in West Berlin, injures 46 people. An infant girl, who was in critical condition after the blast, later dies of her injuries.[30][31]
25 August 1983   Berlin 02 023 Improvised Explosive Device ASALA (Armenian nationalists) and Carlos the Jackal -- Diplomatic (French)
A bomb detonates on the fifth floor of the six-story French consulate building in West Berlin, causing extensive damage on the floor below, in which the consulate offices and a visitor's lounge were situated. The 11:20am explosion collapsed sections of the front facade and attic and catapulted parts of interior walls to the street below, although all dead and injured had all been inside the building.[32]
1 February 1985   Munich 01 - Small arms fire Red Army Faction -- Business
Head of the Federal Union of German Aerospace and Heavy Industries (BDLI), Ernst Zimmermann, is shot once in the head by a man with a sub-machine gun. The assailant forced his way into the industrialist's home in suburban Munich after his wife opened the door for a woman allegedly claiming to have a letter for Mr. Zimmermann.[33]
19 June 1985   Frankfurt 03 074 Improvised Explosive Device Abu Nidal Organization -- Airports & airlines
A powerful bomb rips through an international departure lounge of the Frankfurt Airport, killing three people and wounding 42. The dead include a man and two children, and of the many injured, 18 were hospitalized. The explosive device, which the police said appeared to have been placed among seated passengers waiting for their flights, blasted a large hole in the cement floor of the airport terminal, then one of the busiest in Europe.[34][35] German investigators concluded the perpetrator to be the Abu Nidal Organization.[36]
8 August 1985   Rhein-Main Air Base 02 020 Car bomb Red Army Faction & Action Directe -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
A car bomb explodes outside the headquarters building at the Rhein-Main Air Base, where members of the United States Armed Forces are stationed, killing two Americans and wounding about 20 people.
The dead were Airman Frank H. Scarton, 19, who was serving with the 437th Military Airlift Wing, and Becky Jo Bristol, the wife of Senior Airman John Bristol, who wss with the Medical Airlift Squadron at the base.[14][37]
4 April 1986   Berlin 03 231 Improvised Explosive Device Libyan agents -- Private Citizens & Property
A bomb placed on the dance-floor of the La Belle Discotheque, popular with United States military personnel, explodes, killing 3 and injuring hundreds more. Two of the dead were members of the United States military.[38]
9 July 1986   Munich 02 - Improvised Explosive Device Red Army Faction -- Business
The physicist Karl-Heinz Beckurts, director of research and technology at the Siemens electronic company, and a driver are killed by a remote controlled bomb planted in his car in a Munich suburb.[39][40]
23 March 1987   Rheindahlen - 031 Car bomb Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) -- British military base
19 June 1989   Osnabrück - - Improvised Explosive Device Provisional Irish Republican Army -- Government institutions (Foreign: British Army)
A PIRA terror cell around Donna Maguire planted five explosive devices at the Quebec Barracks in Osnabrück. Of the five devices, only one exploded causing damage to a building. No casualties.[41][42][43]
30 November 1989   Bad Homburg vor der Höhe 01 001 Improvised Explosive Device Red Army Faction -- Business
Banker Alfred Herrhausen dies instantly and his driver is seriously wounded in a blast caused by a remote controlled bomb under his vehicle. Mr. Herrhausen, who headed Deutsche Bank A.G., was described as the most powerful person in the West German economy and a dominant figure in European banking.[44]
13 February 1991   Bonn 00 000 Sniper Red Army Faction -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States)
RAF members fire sniper bullets at the American embassy.
16 June 1991   Friedrichshafen 1 - Stabbing attack Neo Nazi -- Angolan migrant
A neonazi stabbed the 36 years old, Angolan man Agostinho C. to death out of racial hatred. He was called the hero of Friedrichshafen by neo nazis after the incident.[45]
24 August 1992   Koblenz 1 7 Shooting attack Neo-Nazi Andy Johann H. --Civilians
Andy Johann H. shot an entire magazine of a semi-automatic weapon into a crowd of homeless people and punks at the central plazza in Koblenz. He was charged with 1 count of murder and seven counts of attempted murder.[46]
23 November 1992   Mölln 03 - Incendiary device - -- Private Citizens & Property
A molotov cocktail is thrown into the house of a Turkish migrant family, destroying the property and killing three occupants. Two known neo-Nazis were convicted of murder a year later.[47][48]
29 May 1993   Solingen 05 014 Incendiary device - -- Private Citizens & Property
Four young German men (aged between 16 and 23) belonging to the far right skinhead scene, the oldest with known neo-Nazi ties, set fire to the house of a large Turkish family in Solingen in North Rhine-Westphalia. Three girls and two women died; fourteen other family members, including several children, were injured, some of them severely.[49][50]
17 November 1993   Cologne - - Firearm attack Anti-Imperialist Cell -- Property
Multiple shots were fired at the employers Association Gesammtmetall.[51]
27 October 1994   Bad Freienwalde - - Arson attack Das K.O.M.I.T.E.E. -- Bundeswehr Building & Property
A Bundeswehr building of the Verteidigungskreiskommandos 852 was completely destroyed.[52]
28 June 1996   Osnabrück - - Mortar attack Provisional Irish Republican Army -- Government institutions (Foreign: British Army)
23 October 1996   Leipzig 1 - Stabbing Neo-Nazis --Syrian migrant
After verbally attacking and threatening multiple people with a knife, two Neo-Nazis stabbed to death a Syrian refugee.[53]
23 February 1997   Roseburg 1 1 Shooting attack Kay D. Neo-Nazi --Police officers
Kay Diesner, a prominent figure in Berlin's Neo-Nazi scnene, opened fire at two policemen at a highway pull-in in Rosenburg. In the attack, one policemen was killed, the other wounded.[54]
9 June 2004   Cologne - 022 Pipe bomb National Socialist Underground -- Private Citizens & Property
9 September 2000 to 25 April 2007   Heilbronn

Munich

Nuremberg

Heilbronn

Dortmund

Rostock

Kassel

010 001 Serial Killing, Small arms fire National Socialist Underground -- Government institutions, Private Citizens & Property
26 February 2009   Burg bei Magdeburg - - Arson Militante gruppe left-wing extremists --Bundeswehr vehicle
The left-wing extremist group militante gruppe (mg) firebombed a Bundeswehr vehicle. The arson attack was officially their last attack out of atleast 25.[55]
30 December 2009   Berlin - - Bomb attack Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) left-wing terrorists --Employmeent agency
The left-wing extremist group Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) bombed an employment agency building in Berlin.[56]
4 February 2010   Berlin - - Bomb attack Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) left-wing terrorists --House of economy
The left-wing extremist group Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) bombed the house of economy in Berlin.[57]
19 November 2010   Berlin - - Firebombing Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) left-wing terrorists --German Federal Administrative Office Berlin
The left-wing extremist group Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) firebombed the German Federal Administrative Office Berlin.[58]
2 March 2011   Frankfurt 02 002 Small arms fire Arid Uka -- Government institutions (Foreign: United States Army)
An immigrant from Kosovo fires upon a United States Air Force bus, killing two and wounding two. At the time of the attack the vehicle is parked outside the terminal building waiting to transport 15 U.S. airmen to Ramstein Air Base. The attacker first shoots an airman outside the vehicle, and then enters the bus, shooting and killing the driver and firing three shots at two other airmen, wounding them.[59] Perpetrator had done it to avenge U.S. military operations in Afghanistan[60]
3 December 2011   Göttingen - - Firebombing Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) left-wing terrorists --County Court
The left-wing extremist group Revolutionäre Aktionszellen (RAZ) bombed the Courthouse in Göttingen.The bombing was their fifth attack.[61]
17 October 2015   Berlin 01
(one perp.)
001 Knife attack Rafik Mohamad Yousef -- Ayad Allawi (Politician)

Plotted to assassinate the Prime Minister of Iraq during his visit to Germany .[62]

17 September 2015   Cologne - 005 Knife attack Right-wing extremist Frank S. -- Henriette Reker (Politician)
44 year old Frank S. seriously injured Henriette Reker with a knife in an assassination attempt. He then injured 4 additional people who tried to disarm him.[63]
1 November 2015   Freital - 1 Explosive attack Gruppe Freital (Right-wing extremists) -- Refugee accommodation
Members of the right-wing terrorist group Gruppe Freital detonate an illegal explosive in front of a window of an refugee housing. One refugee gets injured in the face.[64][65]
5 February 2016   Hanover - - Arson Attack Saleh S. (Islamist) -- Civilians
The at the time of the attack 17-year old Saleh S. threw two Molotov Cocktails at the entrance of a shopping-mall in Hanover. He was later charged with 7 counts of attempetd murder after admitting that he wanted to kill as many people as possible. Just 3 weeks later his sister Safia S. attacked a Police officer with a knife.[66][67]
26 February 2016   Hanover - 001 Knife attack to neck Safia S. (Islamist) -- Government institutions (Police)
A policeman was severely injured by a 15-year old girl, Safia S., who was acting "on behalf of the Islamic State"[68][69]
16 April 2016   Essen - 3 Improvised Explosive Device Yussuf T. and Mohammed B. Islamic Terrorism -- Sikh temple
Around 7 pm, the two radicalized youths threw an improvised explosive device onto the grounds of a Sikh-temple in Essen. Three people were injured by the bombing.[70]
19 July 2016   Würzburg 01
(one perp.)
005 Axe attack Riaz Khan Ahmadzai (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) -- Private Citizens & Property
24 July 2016   Ansbach 01
(one perp.)
012 Suicide bombing Mohammad Daleel (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) -- Private Citizens & Property
26 September 2016   Dresden - - Pipe bomb Nino K. Right-wing terrorism -- Mosque & International Congress Center Dresden
In the late evening of 26 September 2016, Nino K. set up two bombs in Dresden, one targeting a Mosque and the other targeting the International Congress Center Dresden. He pledged guilty in February 2018.[71]
19 December 2016   Berlin 12 480 Truck attack Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant -- Private Citizens & Property
28 July 2017   Hamburg 1 50 Knife attack Ahmad Alhaw (Lone wolf (terrorism)) -- Private Citizens
March 2018         Multiple cities - - Arson attacks Kurdish extremists and left-wing extremists --Turkish Mosques, stores and cultural centers
As part of a wave of attacks and acts of violence against Turks and Turkish organizations as a response to the Turkish-kurdish conflict , Kurdish and letf-wing extremists comitted numerous arson attacks and non-violent operations in all of Germany.[72][73][74][75]
26 March 2018   Berlin - - Arson Left-wing extremist group Vulkangruppe NetzHerrschaft zerreißen --Power supply system
After an arson attack on part of Berlins power supply system, roughly 6.500 households were left without electricity for numerous hours.A left-wing extremist group, calling itself Vulkangruppe NetzHerrschaft zerreißen claimed responsibility for the attack.[76]
24 December 2018   Hambach Forest - - Arson Green anarchist group Hambi Chaos Crew --Pumping station
As part of the demonstration- and occupation movement against the destruction of the Hambach Forest, a eco-anarchist group claimed responsibility for an Arson attack against a pumping station.[77]
22 January 2019   Bottrop

Essen

- 10 Vehicular attack Andreas N. (right-wing extremist). --Muslim civilians
Andreas N. intentionally drove his car into crowds of muslim pedestrians in three different locations.[78]
3 January 2019   Döbeln - - Bomb attack Left-wing extremists --Alternative for Germany office
After a bomb attack on the AfD office in Döbeln, three men were arrested and convicted.[79]
31 May 2019   Bremen - 1 Stabbing Right-wing extremists --Muslim civilian
A Muslim teenager was insulted islamophobic in a tram and stabbed with a knife in the neck.[80]
2 June 2019   Wolfhagen 1 - Assassination Attack right-wing extremist neo-Nazi Stephan Ernst --Walter Lübcke
Walter Lübcke, President of the district Kassel and member of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU) was shot dead outside his home in Wolfhagen. A political, right-wing motive has been confessed by the murderer Stephan Ernst who is a member of the terrorist group Combat 18 (C18) and the National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD).[81]
17 June 2019   Cologne - - Arson Left-wing extremists --Porsche vehicles
Four Porsche vehicles were burnt out at a car dealership in Cologne. A left-wing group later publicated a claim of responsibility for the Arson attack.[82]

Significant foiled terrorism plotsEdit

List of international terrorist incidents with significant German casualtiesEdit

Response to terrorismEdit

The terrorism of the 1970s has formed Germany's political culture and its policy of not negotiating with terrorists. It also led to the formation of the GSG9 counter-terrorism unit. In 1972, a law was passed, the Extremist Act (Radikalenerlass), which banned radicals or those with a 'questionable' political persuasion from public sector jobs.

In popular cultureEdit

 
Berlin citizens attending the funeral of assassinated police captains Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck in 1931

A number of books and films address this topic.

FilmsEdit

Further readingEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • German Jihad: On the Internationalisation of Islamist Terrorism by Guido Steinberg. Columbia University Press, 2013
  1. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2016). Global Terrorism Database (globalterrorismdb_0616dist.xlsx). Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd University of Maryland
  2. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2016). Global Terrorism Database (gtd1993_0616dist.xlsx). Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd University of Maryland
  3. ^ a b c d *German Jihad: On the Internationalisation of Islamist Terrorism by Guido Steinberg. Columbia University Press, 2013
  4. ^ "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2016". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 47. 2016. ISBN 978-92-95200-68-5.
  5. ^ "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2017". EU Terrorism Situation & Trend Report (Te-Sat). Europol: 52. 2017. ISBN 978-92-95200-79-1.
  6. ^ European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 2018 (TE SAT 2018) (PDF). Europol. 2018. p. 58. ISBN 978-92-95200-91-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  7. ^ "Salafistische Bestrebungen". Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (in German). 15 January 2018. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2019. Die Mehrzahl der Salafisten in Deutschland sind keine Terroristen, sondern politische Salafisten. Andererseits sind fast alle in Deutschland bisher identifizierten terroristischen Netzwerkstrukturen und Einzelpersonen salafistisch geprägt bzw. haben sich im salafistischen Milieu entwickelt. [The majority of Salafists in Germany are not terrorists, but political Salafists. On the other hand, almost all hitherto identified terrorist networks and individuals in Germany are influenced by Salafism, for instance having developed in a Salafist environment.]
  8. ^ Online, FOCUS. "Gewaltbereite Islamisten: Erstmals mehr als 10.000 Salafisten in Deutschland". FOCUS Online (in German). Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  9. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20151016064911/http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/download/vsbericht-2013.pdf
  10. ^ https://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/inland/zwei-mutmassliche-rechtsterroristen-in-u-haft-15815831.html
  11. ^ Nettelbeck, Uwe (23 February 2006). "Die Frankfurter Brandstifter" (in German). Zeit Online. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  12. ^ "West German Government Condemns Arab Terrorist Attack on El Al Airline". JTA. 12 February 1970.
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  14. ^ a b c "2 Americans killed by car bomb at USAF base in West Germany". Schenectady Gazette. 9 August 1985. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  15. ^ a b Varon, Jeremy (2004). Bringing the War Home: The Weather Underground, the Red Army Faction, and Revolutionary Violence in the Sixties and Seventies. University of California Press. p. 210. ISBN 9780520930957.
  16. ^ Desmond Butler; Mark Landler (9 September 2002). "THREATS AND RESPONSES: HEIDELBERG; One Terror Plot May Have Been Foiled, but a U.S. Base in Germany Is Still Vulnerable". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  17. ^ Moncourt, André. The Red Army Faction: A Documentary History. Projectiles for the people. PM Press. p. 178. ISBN 9781604861792.
  18. ^ Juan Sanchez (7 August 2007). Terrorism & Its Effects. Global Media. p. 144. ISBN 978-81-89940-93-5. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  19. ^ The new dimension of international ... Google Books. 11 September 2001. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of terrorism . Google Books. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  21. ^ The terrorist trap: America's ... Google Books. 18 July 1976. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  22. ^ "Who Assassinated Siegfried Buback? Germany Revisits RAF Terrorism Verdict". Der Spiegel. 23 April 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  23. ^ Heinrich August Winkler (2007). Germany: 1933-1990. Oxford University Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-19-926598-5. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  24. ^ Büchel, Helmar; Aust, Stefan (17 September 2007). "Dann gibt es Tote" (in German). Der Spiegel.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  25. ^ https://www.ndr.de/kultur/geschichte/chronologie/Deutsche-Aktion-Neonazi-Terror-1980,anschlag185.html
  26. ^ "Neo nazis Arrested in Octoberfest Bombing". Beaver County Times. Associated Press. 28 September 1980. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
  27. ^ Gerber, Larry (29 September 1980). "Neo Nazi group suspected in Munich Oktoberfest bomb". The Lewiston Daily Sun. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  28. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1981/05/27/world/germans-link-plo-to-domestic-terror.html
  29. ^ https://www.n-tv.de/politik/Der-Mord-an-Heinz-Herbert-Karry-article143362.html
  30. ^ "Terrorist Incidents against Jewish Communities and Israeli Citizens Abroad, 1968-2003". International Institute for Counter-Terrorism. 20 December 2003.
  31. ^ Rubin, Barry; Rubin, Judith Colp (2015). Chronologies of Modern Terrorism. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 9781317474654.
  32. ^ "FRENCH CONSULATE BOMBED IN BERLIN". The New York Times. 26 August 1983. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  33. ^ "Guerrillas Kill Top West German Arms Executive". The Glasgow Herald. 2 February 1985. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  34. ^ "BOMB AT FRANKFURT AIRPORT KILLS 3 AND WOUNDS 42". The New York Times. 20 June 1985. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  35. ^ "ARAB GROUP ASSERTS IT PLANTED BOMB IN FRANKFURT". The New York Times. 22 June 1985. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  36. ^ "Palestinian group blamed for airport bombing". United Press International. 28 July 1988.
  37. ^ Tagliabue, John (9 August 1985). "CAR BOMB KILLS 2 ON A U.S. AIR BASE IN WEST GERMANY". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  38. ^ Chalk, Peter (2012). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. pp. 401–402. ISBN 9780313308956.
  39. ^ "Germans Get 3 Suspects In an Ice Cream Parlor". The New York Times. 4 August 1986. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  40. ^ Tagliabue, John (26 July 1986). "CAR BOMB HITS A WEST GERMAN COMPANY INVOLVED IN 'STAR WARS'". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  41. ^ Westminster, Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons,. "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 22 Jun 1989". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  42. ^ "German court frees IRA bomber Maguire". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  43. ^ "Man jailed over IRA base bombing". 4 April 2006. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  44. ^ Protzman, Ferdinand (1 December 1989). "Head of Top West German Bank Is Killed in Bombing by Terrorists". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  45. ^ https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/interaktive-karte-todesopfer-rechter-gewalt-in-deutschland-seit-der-wiedervereinigung/23117414.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  46. ^ https://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/interaktive-karte-todesopfer-rechter-gewalt-in-deutschland-seit-der-wiedervereinigung/23117414.html
  47. ^ Charles Hawley; Daryl Lindsey (24 August 2012). "Twenty Years after Rostock: Racism and Xenophobia Still Prevalent in Germany". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  48. ^ "Mölln 1992: Neonazis ermorden drei Menschen" (in German). Norddeutscher Rundfunk. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  49. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (4 June 1993). "Thousands of Germans Rally for the Slain Turks". New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  50. ^ "Neo-Nazi Asks Forgiveness for Death of Turks". New York Times. 14 April 1994. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
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