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The Telugu Chodas or Telugu Cholas ruled parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh between the sixth and the thirteenth century.[1][2]

Velanati CholasEdit

Durjaya Chieftains of Velanadu
Gonka I 1076–1108
Rajendra Choda I 1108–1132
Gonka II 1132–1161
Rajendra Choda II 1161–1181
Gonka III 1181–1186
Prithviswara 1186–1207
Rajendra Choda III 1207–1216

Telugu Cholas of Velanadu (Velanati Choda) were one of the Telugu Chola families. Velanadu is located in the modern Guntur district. The chieftains who ruled over Velanadu came to be known as the Velanati Chodas. One of them, Rajendra Choda II had even assumed the title Durjayakulaprakara since Velanati Cholas belong to Durjaya clans. These Velanati chiefs were the subordinate allies of the Chalukya Cholas of the south. They were entrusted with the responsibility of the governance of the Andhra region, which formed a part of the Chola kingdom in the twelfth century. Their capital was Dhanadapura or Sanaduprolu, the modern Chandolu in the Guntur district initially then later they ruled from Vengi in West Godavari and Pithpuram in East Godavari Districts.

The Velanati Chiefs rose to prominence among the vassals of the Chalukyas of Vengi during the early days of Kulothunga Chola I and served as the Chalukya Chola viceroys faithfully as their trusted lieutenants and generals. Finding his dominion dwindling, due to the ascendency of the Kalyani Chalukyas in the Vengi country, Kulothunga Chola lent support to his loyal chieftains of Velanadu to bring the situation under control and rule over Vengi as his vassals. Evidence is available to the effect that five chieftains of Velanadu ruled over the country after which it was overrun by the Kakatiyas and became a part of their kingdom.[3][4]

Velanati Cholas:

  • Gonka I (1076–1108 )
  • Rajendra Chola 1 (1108–1132 )
  • Gonka II (1132–1161 )
  • Rajendra Chola II (1161–1181 )
  • Gonka III (1181–1186 )
  • Prithviswara (1186–1207 )

Renati CholasEdit

The Telugu Cholas of Renadu (also called as Renati Cholas) ruled over Renadu region, the present day Cuddapah district. They were originally independent, later forced to the suzerainty of the Eastern Chalukyas.[citation needed] They had the unique honour of using the Telugu language in their inscriptions belonging to the 6th and 8th centuries. The inscriptions at Gandikota at Jammulamadugu and Proddatur are proof of this fact.[citation needed]. The earliest of this family was Nandivarman (500 AD) who claimed descent from the family of Karikala[citation needed] and the Kasyapa gotra. He had three sons Simhavishnu, Sundarananda and Dhananjaya, all of whom were ruling different territories simultaneously.[5] The family seems to have had its origin in Erigal in the Tunmkur district, situated in the border between Pallava and Kadamba regions.[6] Dhananjaya is described as Erigal-mutturaju and as ruling Renadu.[7] In the first half of the seventh century, we find Punyakumara, a descendant of Nandivarman, ruling over Renadu and Hiranyarashtra. He too bears the title Erikal-mutturaju.[8]

Pottapi CholasEdit

Telugu Chodas of Pottapi ruled the Cuddapah region after the fall of the Renati Cholas. Their inscriptions from 11th century are found in this area. It is also believed that they ruled over Chittoor district, since Dhurjati of Kalahasti mentioned that he was from Pottapi region. Now Pottapi is a GramPanchayat of Nandalur mandal of Kadapa district. During the reign of Vikrama Chola, there was a feudatory called Madhurantaka Pottapi Chola who was the son of Siddharasa. The officer claimed descent from Karikala in epigraphs (carana saroruha etc.).[9]

Konidena CholasEdit

The Konidena Cholas were also a branch of the Renadu Cholas. Their capital was Konidena (also called as Kotyadona) near Narasaraopeta in the Guntur district. They ruled over parts of Palanadu in 11th and 12th centuries. Early kings Kannara Choda and Kama Choda were independent. Tribhuvana Malla Choda, son of Kama Choda, was a chieftain to Gonka II of Velanati Chodas. Nanni Choda, son of Tribhuvana Malla Choda declared independence again, but was soon was defeated and forced to be vassals again by Gonka II. After the fall of Velanadu Cholas, they were forced to suzerainty by Ganapatideva of Kakatiyas.

Nannuru CholasEdit

Nannuru Cholas were another branch of Telugu Cholas in the region of Pakanadu. The famous Telugu Poet Kaviraja Sikhamani Nanne Choda belonged to this family. Not much is known of this clan and it is believed to be a subordinate of Vikramaditya VI of Kalyani Chalukyas.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "CHOLAS of RENADU POTTAPI" (PDF). Chapter IV of CHOLAS of POTTAPI.
  2. ^ Dutta, Amaresh (1987). Encyclopedia of Indian literature. ISBN 8126018038.
  3. ^ Devi, Yashoda (1993). The History of Andhra Country, 1000 A.D.-1500 A.D. Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 9788121204385.
  4. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1991). South India and Her Muhammadan Invaders. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120605367.
  5. ^ Andhra Pradesh (India), Bh Sivasankaranarayana. Andhra Pradesh district gazetteers, Volume 1. Printed by the Director of Print. and Stationery at the Govt. Secretariat Press; [copies can be had from: Govt. Publication Bureau, Andhra Pradesh], 1976. p. 60.
  6. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen. Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International, 1999. p. 471.
  7. ^ Indian History Congress. A Comprehensive History of India: pt. 1. A.D. 300-985. People's Pub. House, 1981. p. 382.
  8. ^ C. A. Padmanabha Sastry. Administration in Andhra: From the Earliest Times to 13th Century A.D. B.R. Publishing Corporation, 1990. p. 126.
  9. ^ K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, Professor of Indian History and Archaeology, University of Madras. The Colas Volume II, Part II. p. 621.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

SourcesEdit

  • Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (1975). A history of south India : from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar (4 ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 9780195606867.
  • Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., P. G. PUBLISHERS, GUNTUR (1988)
  • K.R.Subramanian, Buddhist Remains in Andhra and The History of Andhra
  • Etukuri Balarama murthi, Andhrula Samkshiptha Charithra
  • Paula Richman, Questioning Ramayana: A South Asian Tradition