Tønsberg [²tœnsbær(ɡ)] (listen) is a city and municipality in Vestfold county, southern Norway, located around 102 kilometres (63 miles) south-southwest of Oslo on the western coast of the Oslofjord near its mouth onto the Skagerrak. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Tønsberg. The municipality has a population of 41,239 and covers an area of 107 square kilometres (41 square miles).
Tønsberg within Vestfold
|• Mayor (2009)||Petter Berg (H)|
|• Total||107 km2 (41 sq mi)|
|• Land||106 km2 (41 sq mi)|
|Area rank||#381 in Norway|
|• Rank||#21 in Norway|
|• Density||367/km2 (950/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||10.1%|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||NO-0704|
|Official language form||Bokmål|
Tønsberg is generally regarded as the oldest town in Norway, founded by Vikings in the 9th century. Tønsberg was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The rural municipality of Sem was merged into the municipality of Tønsberg on 1 January 1988. The neighboring municipality of Re will be merged into Tønsberg on or before 1 January 2020.
It is home to Tønsberg Fortress on Castle Mountain, which includes ruins from Castrum Tunsbergis, Norway's largest castle in the 13th century. An outdoor music festival is held at Tønsberg Fortress every July. Tønsberg is also home of Oseberg Mound, where the 9th-century Oseberg Ship was excavated.
The Old Norse form of the name was Túnsberg. The first element is the genitive case of tún (n), meaning fenced area or garden. The last element is berg (n), meaning mountain. The name originally referred to the fortifications on Slottsfjellet. The old spelling has been retained in the name of the diocese, Tunsberg bispedømme.
Coat of armsEdit
The coat of arms is an old city seal from as far back as 1349. The seal shows Tønsberg Fortress surrounded by a ring wall on a mountain with the sea in front. There is also a longship in the water in front of the fortress. Around the seal are the words (in Latin): This is the seal of Tunsberg.
Tønsberg is the oldest city in Norway, founded by Harald Fairhair in the 9th century. It was also an ancient capital of Norway. The first time the town was mentioned by a contemporary writer was in 1130. According to Snorri Sturluson, Tønsberg was founded before the Battle of Hafrsfjord, which, according to Snorri, took place in 871. What year the battle took place is disputed, however, and most current historians believe the battle took place closer to 900. However, if the battle did in fact take place in 871, this would make Tønsberg one of the oldest present Scandinavian city. It was based upon this that the city's 1000 years jubilee was celebrated in 1871, and 1100 years jubilee in 1971. The archaeological excavations conducted in 1987–88 underneath the monastery ruins revealed several Viking graves which have served to confirm the earlier age of the original settlement.
The king or his ombudsman resided in the old Royal Court at Sæheimr, today the Jarlsberg Manor (Jarlsberg Hovedgård), and on the farm Haugar, (from the Old Norse word haugr meaning hill or burial mound), which can be assumed to have been Tønsberg's birthplace. Haugar became the seat for the Haugating, the Thing for Vestfold and Norway's second most important place for the proclamation of kings. The site had probably been named after two Viking Era mounds, which tradition links to two sons of King Harald I, Olaf Haraldsson Geirstadalf, who was king in Vestfold, and his half-brother, Sigrød Haraldsson, king of Trondheim. Both are presumed to have fallen in battle at Haugar against their half-brother Eric Bloodaxe and to have been buried on the same spot.
Slottsfjellet (Castle Mountain), north of the city centre, made for a near impregnable natural fortress. During the civil war era of the 12th century, it was fortified by the Baglers. The Birkebeiners besieged it for 20 weeks in the winter of 1201 before the Baglers surrendered. In the 13th century, King Haakon Haakonson set up a castle in Tønsberg, Tønsberg Fortress. The town was destroyed by fire in 1536, but Tønsberg remained one of the most important harbour towns in Norway.
The center of the world's modern whaling industry was concentrated in Tønsberg and neighboring Sandefjord. Tønsberg along with neighboring Sandefjord and Larvik were dominant whaling towns in Norway. While whalers from Sandefjord established the first whaling station in the Faroe Islands, whalers from Tønsberg initiated whaling in Iceland and the Hebrides.
During the 1850s, Tønsberg turned into a base of operation and source of expertise for whalers in the Arctic- and Antarctic Oceans. Tønsberg has been called “the cradle of modern whaling. In the 1892 publication “Handbook for Travellers in Norway” by John Murray, Tønsberg is described as “the centre of the Norwegian whaling and sealing industries in the Arctic Ocean.”
The first whaling ventures to Antarctica was led by engineer Henrik Henriksen of Tønsberg. Henrik Johan Bull was another famous whaler from the district, famous for his expeditions to Antarctica. Bull traveled from Australia to Tønsberg in order to learn from local whaler Svend Foyn, who is recognized as the pioneer of the modern whaling industry.
One of the city's most prominent residents, Svend Foyn, was a pioneer who embarked on an 1847 expedition to the Arctic, which led to a catch of 6,000 seals. Soon Tønsberg Harbor was home to a large fleet of sealing vessels, and the sealing industry grew further after the 1849 repeal of Britain's Navigation Acts. The hunters turned the seals to near extinction in the Arctic Ocean, and therefore turned to Bottle-nosed whales during the 1870s. Norway maintained a monopoly on European whaling until 1883, first and foremost due to Svend Foyn's patent rights to whaling techniques and inventions. Over-hunting in the Arctic eventually drove the whalers to Antarctica. By the beginning of the 20th century, Tønsberg had lost its preeminence in the whaling industry to the neighboring city of Sandefjord. Sandefjord, which lies just south of Tønsberg, later became known as the world's whaling capital.
World War IIEdit
During the German occupation of Norway in World War II, the Berg concentration camp was constructed near Tønsberg. In 1948, Tønsberg became the cathedral city of the Diocese of Tunsberg (Tunsberg bispedømme), created when the counties of Buskerud and Vestfold were separated from the Diocese of Oslo.
Tønsberg is a city and municipality in Vestfold County, on the western shore of the Oslofjord. Tønsberg lies north of Færder, south of Horten, and north-east of Sandefjord. It is the ninth-largest city in Norway (by population). The city center lies just north from Nøtterøy Island. Besides Tønsberg proper, the municipality is also home to the villages of Barkåker and Sem. The village of Åsgårdstrand is partly in Tønsberg, although most of the village is in Horten municipality.
Tønsberg Station is 5–10 minutes walking from the main square in the city centre, known as Torvet. From the main square is a few hundred meters along Rådhusgaten to the waterfront Tønsberg Wharf ("Tønsberg Brygge"), where most cafes, bars and restaurants are located. Just south of Tønsberg are the islands of Nøtterøy and Tjøme, which are popular tourist destinations.
The highest point in Tønsberg is Undrumsåsen at 145 meters (476 ft.). The villages of Vear and Hognes/Bjelland were merged into Tønsberg on January 1, 2017. The neighboring municipality of Re will be merged into Tønsberg on or before January 1, 2020.
Tønsberg is home to five nature preserves:
- Akersvannet (wetland), shared with Sandefjord
- Bliksekilen (wetland)
- Gullkronene (deciduous forest)
- Ilene (wetland)
- Presterødkilen (wetland)
|Source: Statistics Norway. Note: The municipality of Sem, Norway was merged with Tønsberg 1 January 1988.|
Tønsberg proper plus the nearby urban area makes Tønsberg the 9th most populous city in Norway, and the second-most populous city in Vestold County (after Sandefjord). City of Tønsberg is home to 51,061 residents as of 2016, whereas 17,073 residents were living on the Nøtterøy side of the border. Smaller communities in the municipality includes the villages of Barkåker (2016 pop. 1,696) and Sem (2,392). Åsgårdstrand on the Horten border lies in-between Horten- and Tønsberg municipalities. The village of Åsgårdstrand therefore has 176 residents living on the Tønsberg side of the border, despite a large majority of village residents residing in nearby Horten municipality. The city experienced a 20.8% population growth between 2000–15, compared to 14.0% for Vestfold County as a whole. Furthermore, Tønsberg Municipality has the highest urbanization rate in Vestfold. While 94.6 percent of residents in Tønsberg Municipality are residing in cities, the equivalent number for Vestfold County is 84.8 percent.
As of 2018, the largest minority groups were Lithuanians (1.11%), Polish (1.68%), Iraqis (1.06%), Swedes (0.75%), and Syrians (0.64%).
On 1 January 2009, the population of Tønsberg municipality was 38,914. The population of the urban area, Norway's tenth most populous, was 46,091. 30,061 lived in Tønsberg municipality, while 16,030 lived in Nøtterøy municipality. The urban area extends from Eik in the north, to Tolvsrød, Vallø and Ringshaug in the east and Borgheim on Nøtterøy in the south. Tønsberg municipality contains four additional urban areas: Sem, with 2,147 inhabitants of which 2,100 live in Tønsberg and 47 live in Stokke; Barkåker, with 1,292 inhabitants; Åsgårdstrand, with 2,847 inhabitants of which 2,794 in Horten and 53 in Tønsberg; and Vear, with a population of 3,502 of which 2,263 live in Stokke and 1,239 live in Tønsberg.
Perhaps the most important landmark in the town is Slottsfjellet, the tower standing on the hill. It was erected in 1888 as a memorial to Tønsberg Fortress (Tunsberg festning), the old fortress, of which just fragmentary ruins remain today. Below the mountain there is a museum dedicated to "Slottsfjellet" and Tønsberg. There are several exhibitions here about whaling and the fortress, Tønsberg Fortress. Several streets in the town are named after old kings of Norway.
Other notable tourist sites include:
- Haugar Art Museum (Haugar Vestfold Kunstmuseum) – located in the former Seamen's School in the middle of Tønsberg, the brick building was built 1918–21. The museum was established in 1993 as a foundation created by Vestfold county and municipality of Tønsberg. The museum is a division of Vestfold Museum (Vestfoldmuseene). Haugar Vestfold Art Museum is located in the parkland between the site of the ancient assembly of Haugating and the two Viking era mounds.
- Foynegården – the city's best-preserved merchant's yard. Foynegården is the site of a patrician houses from the 1700s where Svend Foyn was born in 1809.
- Ruins of St. Olav's Church (Olavskirken) – Former monastery founded in 1191, located near the current Tønsberg Library.
- Ruins of St Michael's Church (Mikaelskirken) are still visible on top of Castle Mountain by Tønsberg Fortress. The church was mentioned among the royal chapels. It is believed to have been destroyed in 1503 when Swedish soldiers razed fortifications.
- Sem Church (Sem kirke) – Vestfold's oldest stone church built before 1100 in the Romanesque style, located near the Jarlsberg Estate
- Tønsberg Cathedral (Tønsberg domkirke) – Brick church from 1858 with pulpit from 1621 and an altarpiece from 1764.
- Slottsfjell festival, one of the biggest happenings in Tønsberg through the year. People all over the country come to Tønsberg to participate, this festival is one of Tønsberg newly landmarks.
Tønsberg is the site of Oseberg Mound, a Viking era burial mound. The Oseberg Ship was found in the Oseberg burial mound in 1904. This Viking era longship is now in the Viking Ship Museum in Oslo. Archaeological excavations in 1904 uncovered history's largest and richest example of craftsmanship from the Viking Age. In addition to the Oseberg Ship, Oseberghaugen contained the Oseberg carriage, five beautifully carved bed-posts shaped like animal heads, four sledges, beds, chests, weaving-frames, household utensils and much more. Scientific examinations in 1992 now date the burial to 834 AD, and indicate a probability that it was Queen Alvhild, the first wife of King Gudrød, who was buried here.
When unearthed, the ship was buried in blue clay and covered with stones beneath the 6-meter high Oseberg Mound.
Tønsberg is mostly a shopping town and an administrative centre. It is also noted especially for its silverware. The city is served by the railway line Vestfoldbanen, which runs in a loop through the city before reaching Tønsberg Station.
- Johan Henrik Dietrichs (1809-1886), merchant and mayor of the town
- Niels Johan Føyn (1860–1945), meteorologist
- Svend Foyn (1809–1894), a Norwegian shipping and whaling magnate
- Johan Sverdrup (1816–1892), liberal politician, prime minister of Norway from 1884 to 1889
- Wilhelm Wilhelmsen (1839–1910), a Norwegian shipping magnate, founder of the Wilh. Wilhelmsen Shipping Company
- Peter Christophersen (1845–1930), diplomat
- Søren Andreas Christophersen (1849–1933), diplomat
- Axel Thue (1863–1922), Norwegian American mathematician
- Ole O. Lian (1868–1925), politician, leader of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
- Halfdan M. Hanson (1884–1952), Norwegian American architect
- Hjalmar Andersen (1923–2013), three times European and World champion as well as 1952 Winter Olympics champion in speedskating
- Jahn Teigen (born 1949), singer, musician, and comedian
- Ronny Johnsen (born 1969), former professional footballer (Manchester United), lives in Tønsberg
- Anders Aukland (born 1972), the six-time winner of the world championship in cross-country skiing, born in Husvik/Tønsberg
- Lene Nystrøm (born 1973), lead vocalist of the Danish-Norwegian dance group Aqua
- Magnus Carlsen (born 1990), Norwegian chess grandmaster, World Chess Champion
- Adelén (born 1996), Norwegian singer
- Seigmen, a Norwegian alternative rock band, comes from Tønsberg.
- Hans Gottfried Wang, represented Tønsberg in the Norwegian parliament.
Tønsberg has been featured as a location in several films, most notably movies in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. In the 2010 film Iron Man 2, it is mentioned to be a location under surveillance by S.H.I.E.L.D. In the 2011 film Thor, it is established that centuries ago, Tønsberg was the invasion point of the Frost Giants of Jotunheim, who sought to conquer the Earth, before they were defeated by Odin and the forces of Asgard. Later in 2011, it is seen in Captain America: The First Avenger as the location of a church where a sect of Odin worshipppers served as the hiding place of a powerful artifact called the Tesseract, which is stolen during World War II by the Red Skull. In the 2019 film Avengers: Endgame the town is revealed to be where the Asgardians who survived the destruction of Asgard at the end of Thor: Ragnarok and Thanos' attack in the beginning of Avengers: Infinity War have made their new home, which they have named New Asgard.
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
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- History of the town (County Capital Tønsberg)
- Tønsberg History (GoNorway)
- Tunsberghus (Old Tønsberg)
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- Tønnessen, Johan Nicolay and Arne Odd Johnsen (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. University of California Press. Page 84. ISBN 9780520039735.
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- Tønnessen, Johan Nicolay and Arne Odd Johnsen (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. University of California Press. Page 60. ISBN 9780520039735.
- Ring, Trudy and Noelle Watson (2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. Page 729. ISBN 9781136639517.
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- "0704 Tønsberg og 0705 Tønsberg. Population 1 January and population changes during the year. 1951–" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- "Urban settlements. Population and area, by municipality. 1 January 2007" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- Slottsfjellet og Tunsberg (Utgitt av Stiftelsen Gamle Tønsberg) Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Haugar Vestfold Art Museum (Vestfoldmuseene IKS)
- Olavsklosteret i Tønsberg (Norges klostre i middelalderen)
- "Michaelkirken". De gamle kirkene i Tønsberg. Archived from the original on 2 September 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
- Sem kirke (Kirkebygning og kirkekunst) Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Tønsberg domkirke (Norsk Folkemuseum
- Oseberghaugen – Royal mound in Tønsberg (Attractions in Tønsberg)
- Evensberget, Snorre (2012). DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Norway. Penguin. Page 85. ISBN 9780756693305.
- Bacon, Thomas (May 5, 2019). "In Avengers: Endgame Pays Off Original Thor & Captain America Films". Screen Rant. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- Vestmo, Birger (11 August 2011). "Captain America: The First Avenger: Slik skal en superheltfilm være!" Filmpolitiet. (Norwegian). Retrieved June 10, 2019
- "Samarbeid og prosjekter" (in Norwegian). Tønsberg kommune. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2009.