Spoken word is a performance art that is word based. It is an oral art that focuses on the aesthetics of word play such as intonation and voice inflection. It is a 'catchall' term which includes any kind of poetry recited aloud, including poetry readings, poetry slams, jazz poetry, and hip hop, and can include comedy routines and 'prose monologues'. Although spoken word can include any kind of poetry read aloud, it is different from written poetry in that how it sounds is often one of the main components. Unlike written poetry it has less to do with physical on the page aesthetics and more to do with phonaesthetics, or the aesthetics of sound.
Spoken word has existed for many years. Long before writing, through a cycle of practicing, listening and memorizing, each language drew on its resources of sound structure for aural patterns that made spoken poetry very different from ordinary discourse and easier to commit to memory.
"There were poets long before there were printing presses, poetry is primarily oral utterance, to be said aloud, to be heard."
"Speak again, Speak like rain" was how Kikuyu, an East African people described her verse to author Isak Dinesen, confirming a comment by T. S. Eliot that "poetry remains one person talking to another".
The oral tradition is one that is conveyed primarily by speech as opposed to writing, in predominantly oral cultures proverbs (also known as maxims) are convenient vehicles for conveying simple beliefs and cultural attitudes.
"The hearing knowledge we bring to a line of poetry is a knowledge of a pattern of speech we have known since we were infants".
Performance poetry, which is kindred to performance art, is explicitly written to be performed aloud and consciously shuns the written form. 'Form', as Donald Hall records 'was never more than an extension of content'. Performance poetry in Africa dates to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry, while elegiac and panegyric court poetry were developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile, Niger and Volta river valleys.  One of the best known griot epic poems was created for the founder of the Mali Empire, the Epic of Sundiata. In African culture, performance poetry is a part of theatrics, which was present in all aspects of pre-colonial African life  and whose theatrical ceremonies had many different functions: political, educative, spiritual and entertainment. Poetics were an element of theatrical performances of local oral artists, linguists and historians, accompanied by local instruments of the people such as the kora, the xalam, the mbira and the djembe drum. Drumming for accompaniment is not to be confused with performances of the "talking drum", which is a literature of its own, since it is a distinct method of communication that depends on conveying meaning through non-musical grammatical, tonal and rhythmic rules imitating speech.  Although, they could be included in performances of the griots.
In ancient Greece, the spoken word was the most trusted repository for the best of their thought, and inducements would be offered to men (such as the rhapsodes) who set themselves the task of developing minds capable of retaining and voices capable of communicating the treasures of their culture. The Ancient Greeks included Greek lyric, which is similar to spoken-word poetry, in their Olympic Games.
Development in the United StatesEdit
Vachel Lindsay helped maintain the tradition of poetry as spoken art in the early twentieth century. Robert Frost also spoke well, his meter accommodating his natural sentences. Poet laureate Robert Pinsky said, "Poetry's proper culmination is to be read aloud by someone's voice, whoever reads a poem aloud becomes the proper medium for the poem." "Every speaker intuitively courses through manipulation of sounds, it is almost as though 'we sing to one another all day'." "Sound once imagined through the eye gradually gave body to poems through performance, and late in the 1950s reading aloud erupted in the United States."
Some American spoken-word poetry originated from the poetry of the Harlem Renaissance, blues, and the Beat Generation of 1960s. Spoken word in African American culture drew on a rich literary and musical heritage. Langston Hughes and writers of the Harlem Renaissance were inspired by the feelings of the blues and spirituals, hip-hop, and slam poetry artists were inspired by poets such as Hughes in their word stylings.
The Civil Rights Movement also influenced spoken word. Notable speeches such as Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream", Sojourner Truth's "Ain't I a Woman?", and Booker T. Washington's "Cast Down Your Buckets" incorporated elements of oration that influenced the spoken word movement within the African American community. The Last Poets was a poetry and political music group formed during the 1960s that was born out of the Civil Rights Movement and helped increase the popularity of spoken word within African American culture. Spoken word poetry entered into wider American culture following the release of Gil Scott-Heron's spoken-word poem The Revolution Will Not Be Televised on the album Small Talk at 125th and Lenox in 1970.
In the 1980s, spoken word poetry competitions, often with elimination rounds, emerged and were labelled 'poetry slams'. American poet Marc Smith is credited with starting the poetry slam in November 1984. In 1990, the first National Poetry Slam took place in Fort Mason, San Francisco. The poetry slam movement reached a wider audience following Russell Simmons' Def Poetry, which was aired on HBO between 2002 and 2007.
The poets associated with the Buffalo Readings were active early in the 21st century.
Outside of the United States, artists such as French singer-songwriters Léo Ferré and Serge Gainsbourg made personal use of spoken word over rock or symphonic music from the beginning of the 1970s in such albums as Amour Anarchie (1970), Histoire de Melody Nelson (1971), and Il n'y a plus rien (1973), and contributed to the popularization of spoken word within French culture.
in Zimbabwe the art of spoken word has been mostly active on stage through the House of Hunger Poetry slam in Harare, Mlomo Wakho Poetry Slam in Bulawayo as well as the Charles Austin theatre in Masvingo. Festivals such as Harare International Festival of the Arts, Intwa Arts Festival KoBulawayo and Shoko Festival have supported the genre for a number of years.
In Nigeria, there are poetry events like Wordup by i2x Media, The Rendezvous by FOS (Figures Of Speech movement), GrrrAttitude by Graciano Enwerem, SWPC which happens frequently, and Rhapsodist, a conference by J19 Poetry. Upcoming poets Amakason, ChidinmaR, oddFelix, Kormbat, MoJe, Godzboi, Nanyi, Beryl, Worden, Resame, EfePaul, Dike Chukwumerije, Graciano Enwerem, Donna, Kemistree and PoeThick Samurai are all based in Nigeria.
In Trinidad and Tobago, this art form is widely used as a form of social commentary and is displayed all throughout the nation at all times of the year. The main poetry events in Trinidad and Tobago are overseen by an organization called the 2 Cent Movement. They host an annual event in partnership with the Bocas Lit Fest and First Citizens Bank called "The First Citizens national Poetry Slam", formerly called 'Verses'. This organization also hosts poetry slams and workshops for primary and secondary schools. It is also involved in social work and issues.
In Ghana, the poetry group Ehalakasa led by Sir Black, holds monthly TalkParty events and special events like the Ehalakasa Slam Festival and end of year events. This group has produced spoken word poets such as Mutombo da Poet, Chief Moomen, Hondred Percent, Jewel King, Faiba Bernard, Akambo, Wordwrite, Natty Ogli, and Philipa.
In Kenya, there is an annual Poetry Slam.
Spoken-word poetry is often performed in a competitive setting.
In 1990, the first National Poetry Slam was held in San Francisco. It is the largest poetry slam competition event in the world, now held each year in different cities across the United States.
The popularity of slam poetry has resulted in slam poetry competitions being held across the world.
Spoken-word poetry is typically more than a hobby or expression of talent. This art form is often used to convey important or controversial messages to society. Such messages often include topics such as: racial inequality, sexual assault and/or rape culture, anti-bullying messages, body positive campaigns, and LGBTQ topics among other things. Slam poetry competitions often feature loud and radical poems that display both intense content and sound. Spoken-word poetry is also abundant on college campuses, YouTube, and through forums such as Button Poetry. Some spoken-word poems go viral and can then appear in articles, on TED talks, and on social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.
- Hirsch, Edward (April 8, 2014). A Poet's Glossary. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0151011957.
- Hollander, John (1996). Committed to Memory. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 9781573226462.
- Knight, Etheridge (1988). "On the Oral Nature of Poetry". The Black Scholar. Abingdon: Taylor and Francis. 19 (4–5): 92–96. doi:10.1080/00064246.1988.11412887.
- Kennedy, X. J.; Gioia, Dana (1998). An Introduction to Poetry. Longman. ISBN 9780321015563.
- Dinesen, Isak (1972). Out of Africa. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0679600213.
- Eliot, T. S. (1942). "The Music of Poetry" (lecture). Glasgow: Jackson.
- The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2005. ISBN 978-0618604999.
- Ong, Walter J. (1982). Orality and Literacy: Cultural Attitudes. Metheun.
- Pinsky, Robert (1999). The Sounds of Poetry: A Brief Guide. Farrar Straus & Giroux. ISBN 9780374526177.
- Hirsch, Edward (2014). A Poets Glossary. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780151011957.
- Parker, Sam (December 16, 2009). "Three-minute poetry? It's all the rage". The Times.
- Olson, Charles (1950). "'Projective Verse': Essay on Poetic Theory". Pamphlet.
- Oral Literature in Africa, Ruth Finnegan, Open Book Publishers, 2012
- African Traditional Drama and Issues in Theater and Performance Criticism, John Conteh-Morgan, Comparative Drama, 1994
- Oral Literature in Africa, p467-484, Ruth Finnegan, Open Book Publishers, 2012
- Drum and Whistle Languages: An Analysis of Speech Surrogates, Theodore Stern, University of Oregon, 1957
- Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L. (1970). A History of Oral Performance. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Burgess. p. 10.
- Glazner, Gary Mex (2000). Poetry Slam: The Competitive Art of Performance Poetry. San Francisco: Manic D.
- 'Reading list, Biography – Vachel Lindsay' Poetry Foundation.org Chicago 2015
- Hall, Donald (26 October 2012). "Thank You Thank You". The New Yorker. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
- Sleigh, Tom (Summer 1998). "Robert Pinsky". Bomb.
- O'Keefe Aptowicz, Cristin. Words in Your Face: A Guided Tour through Twenty Years of the New York City Poetry Slam. New York: Soft Skull Press. ISBN 1-933368-82-9.
- Neal, Mark Anthony (2003). The Songs in the Key of Black Life: A Rhythm and Blues Nation. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96571-3.
- "Say It Loud: African American Spoken Word". Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
- "The Last Poets". www.nsm.buffalo.edu. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
- Ben Sisario, "Gil Scott-Heron, Voice of Black Protest Culture, Dies at 62", New York Times, May 28, 2011.
- "The History of Nuyorican Poetry Slam" Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine., Verbs on Asphalt.
- "PSI FAQ: National Poetry Slam". Archived from the original on October 29, 2013.
- DeGroot, Joey (April 23, 2014). "7 Great songs with Spoken Word Lyrics". MusicTimes.com.
- "Grand Corps Malade - Biography | Billboard". www.billboard.com. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
- francetoday (2006-07-11). "Grand Corps Malade". France Today. Retrieved 2017-06-16.
- Muchuri, Tinashe. "Honour Eludes local witers". NewsDay. NewsDay. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- Poetry Slam, Inc. Web. 28 Nov. 2012.
- "5 Tips on Spoken Word". Power Poetry.org. 2015.