Demographics of Somalia

(Redirected from Somalian people)

The demographics of Somalis encompass the demographic features of Somalia's inhabitants, including ethnicity, language, population density, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Somalia is believed to be one of the most homogeneous countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Demographics of Somalia
Somalia single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Somalia in 2020
Population12,386,248 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.42% (2022 est.)
Birth rate37.98 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate11.62 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy55.72 years
 • male53.39 years
 • female58.12 years
Fertility rate5.31 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate86.53 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years42.38%
65 and over2.27%
Nationality
NationalitySomali
Major ethnicSomali (85%)

Ethnic groupsEdit

According to The Economist, at independence Somalia was "arguably in ethnic terms the most homogeneous country in sub-Saharan Africa", ahead of Botswana, which is four-fifths Tswana. However, the publication also notes that "its ethnic homogeneity is misleading. Despite also sharing a single language and religion, it is divided into more than 500 clans and sub-clans".[1]

SomalisEdit

 
Young Somali women at a community event in Hargeisa, Somalia.

Somalis constitute the largest ethnic group in Somalia, at approximately 85% of the nation's inhabitants.[2] They are organized into clan groupings, which are important social units; clan membership plays a central part in Somali culture and politics. Clans are patrilineal and are typically divided into sub-clans, sometimes with many sub-divisions. Through the xeer system (customary law), the advanced clan structure has served governmental roles in many rural Somali communities.[3]

Somali society is traditionally ethnically endogamous. So to extend ties of alliance, marriage is often to another ethnic Somali from a different clan. Thus, for example, a recent study observed that in 89 marriages contracted by men of the Dhulbahante clan, 55 (62%) were with women of Dhulbahante sub-clans other than those of their husbands; 30 (33.7%) were with women of surrounding clans of other clan families (Isaaq, 28; Gadabuursi, 3); and 3 (4.3%) were with women of other clans of the Darod clan family (Marehan 2, Ogaden 1).[4]

Clan structureEdit

Certain clans are traditionally classed as noble clans, referring to their nomadic lifestyle in contrast to the sedentary Sab who are either agropastoralists or artisanal castes.[5] The four

noble clans are the Raxaweyn  Hawiye, (clan)|Dir]], Darod and Isaaq.[6][7] Of these, the Dir and Hawiye are regarded as descended from Irir Samaale, the likely source of the ethnonym Somali (soomaali).[8] The Isaaq and Darod have separate agnatic (paternal) traditions of descent through Ishaak ibn Ahmed Al Hashimi (Sheikh Ishak) and Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti (Sheikh Darod) respectively.[9] Both Sheikh Ishak and Sheikh Darod are asserted to have married women from the Dir clan, thus establishing matrilateral ties with the Samaale main stem.[8]  "Sab" is the term used to refer to minor Somali clans in contrast to "Samaale".[10] Both Samaale and Sab are the children of their father "Hiil" whose the common ancestor of all Somali clans.[11]

A few clans in the southern part of Greater Somalia do not belong to the major clans, but came to be associated with them and were eventually adopted into one of their confederations: Gaalje'el in Hiran and elsewhere in central Somalia traces its paternal descent to Gardheere Samaale;[12][13] Garre in the Somali Region and North Eastern Province is divided into two branches: Tuuf claiming itself to be Garre Gardheere Samaale,[14][15][16] and Quranyow, who married Tuuf's daughter, is of Mahamed Hiniftir Mahe Dir lineage;[15][17][18] Degoodi in the Somali Region and North Eastern Province is related to Gaaje'el as Saransoor and traces its patrilineage to Gardheere Samaale;[12][13] Hawaadle in Hiran belongs to the Meyle Samaale;[12][13] Ajuraan in the North Eastern Province claim descent from Maqaarre Samaale[14] and Sheekhaal acknowledges descent from Sheikh Abadir Umar Ar-Rida, also known as Fiqi Umar.[19] Thus, the Gaalje'el, Garre, Degoodi Ajuraan and Hawaadle are said to have patrilateral ties with the Dir and Hawiye through Samaale to Aqil ibn Abi Talib (a cousin of the prophet Muhammad and brother of Ali), whereas the Sheekhaal traces descent to a different forefather than the Samaale progeny, but ultimately also to Aqil ibn Abi Talib. The Sheekhaal (var. Sheikhaal (Arabic: شيخال), also known as Fiqi Omar, is a Somali clan. A Group members of hawiye major clan (Martiile Hiraab) inhabit Somalia, Ethiopia Djibouti and with considerable numbers also found in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) in Kenya.

The Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) are agro-pastoral clans in the area between the Jubba and Shebelle rivers. Many do not follow a nomadic lifestyle, live further south, and speak Maay. Although in the past frequently classified as a Somali dialect, more recent research by the linguist Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi suggests that Maay constitutes a separate but closely related Afro-Asiatic language of the Cushitic branch.[20]

A third group, the occupational clans, are treated as outcasts. They can only marry among themselves.They live in their own settlements among the nomadic populations in the north and performed specialised occupations such as metalworking, tanning and hunting.[10] These minority Somali clans are the Gaboye, Tumaal, Yibir, Jaji and Yahar.

Clans and sub-clansEdit

 
An old map of Richard Burton's route to Harar features one of the earliest depictions of Somali clan settlements.[21]
 
Geographic location of Somali clans[22]

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures. The divisions and subdivisions as given here are partial and simplified. Many lineages are omitted.

Major clans

  • Hawiye (Irir son of Samaale)
    • Abgal, Mudulood clan (s), Gugundhabe, Xawaadle, Sheekhaal loobage, Baadi Cade, Jajeele, Geel-Jecel, Duduble, Habar Gidir (s), Murusade, Gorgate[24]
  • Digil
    • Digil (Non-Mirifle)
      • Dabarre, Iroole, Jiido, Garre, Tunni, Geledi, Shanta Aleemo
    • Mirifle
      • Sagaal: Geeladle, Jilible, Gasaargude, Gawaweeyn, Luwaay, Hadame, Yantaar, Hubeer
      • Siyeed: Elaay. Leysaan, Eemid, Diisow, Yalaale, Qoomaal, Maalin Wiing, Harin, Jiron, Reer Dumaal, Garwaale and Haraw
  • Saransor
  • Mayle
  • Gardheere samaali
Minor clans

Other ethnic groupsEdit

Non-Somali ethnic minority groups make up about 15% of the nation's population.[2] They include Cowrmale Bantus, Bajunis, Ethiopians, Indians, Pakistanis, Persians, Arabs, Italians, Swedes, and Britons.[26][27]

LanguagesEdit

Speech sample in Standard Somali.

Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalis. The Somali language is the mother tongue of the Somalis, the nation's most populous ethnic group.[28] It is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family.[29]

In addition to Somali, Arabic, which is also an Afroasiatic tongue,[30] is an official national language in Somalia. Many Somalis speak it due to centuries-old ties with the Arab world, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education.[30][31][32]

English is widely used and taught. Italian used to be a major language, but its influence significantly diminished following independence. It is now most frequently heard among older generations, government officials, and in educated circles.[30] Other minority languages include Bravanese, a variant of the Bantu Swahili language that is spoken along the coast by the Bravanese people, as well as Bajuni, another Swahili dialect that is the mother tongue of the Bajuni ethnic minority group.

PopulationEdit

 
Estimated Population 1950-2021; UN, World Population Prospects 2022

According to the 2022 revision of the World Population Prospects[33][34], the total population was 17,065,581 in 2021, compared to 2,264,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 44.9%, 52.3% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older.[35]

Vital statisticsEdit

 
Life expectancy in Somalia since 1950
 
Life expectancy in Somalia since 1960 by gender

Registration of vital events in Somalia is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates:[36]

Year Population Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy (years)
1950 2 213 000   112 000   50 000   62 000 50.5 22.4 28.1 7.25 152.1 41.40
1951   2 276 000   114 000   51 000   62 000 49.9 22.6 27.3 7.25 151.4 41.52
1952   2 339 000   116 000   53 000   63 000 49.4 22.5 26.8 7.25 150.1 41.74
1953   2 402 000   117 000   54 000   64 000 48.9 22.4 26.5 7.25 148.8 41.97
1954   2 466 000   119 000   55 000   65 000 48.5 22.3 26.2 7.25 147.6 42.19
1955   2 530 000   122 000   56 000   66 000 48.0 22.1 26.0 7.25 146.3 42.40
1956   2 595 000   124 000   57 000   67 000 47.7 21.9 25.8 7.25 145.1 42.62
1957   2 662 000   126 000   58 000   68 000 47.4 21.7 25.7 7.25 143.9 42.83
1958   2 729 000   129 000   59 000   70 000 47.1 21.5 25.6 7.25 142.7 43.04
1959   2 798 000   131 000   60 000   71 000 46.8 21.3 25.5 7.25 141.6 43.25
1960   2 871 000   134 000   61 000   73 000 46.6 21.1 25.5 7.25 140.4 43.45
1961   2 946 000   137 000   62 000   75 000 46.4 21.0 25.3 7.25 139.8 43.56
1962   3 023 000   140 000   63 000   77 000 46.2 20.7 25.4 7.26 138.1 43.88
1963   3 102 000   143 000   64 000   79 000 46.0 20.5 25.4 7.26 137.0 44.10
1964   3 184 000   146 000   65 000   81 000 45.8 20.4 25.4 7.26 135.9 44.30
1965   3 268 000   149 000   66 000   83 000 45.7 20.2 25.5 7.26 134.6 44.54
1966   3 354 000   153 000   67 000   86 000 45.5 20.0 25.6 7.26 133.5 44.76
1967   3 442 000   156 000   68 000   88 000 45.4 19.8 25.6 7.25 132.4 44.97
1968   3 532 000   160 000   69 000   91 000 45.3 19.6 25.7 7.23 131.4 45.17
1969   3 625 000   164 000   71 000   93 000 45.2 19.5 25.8 7.21 130.4 45.37
1970   3 721 000   168 000   72 000   96 000 45.2 19.3 25.9 7.18 129.4 45.56
1971   3 818 000   173 000   73 000   99 000 45.2 19.2 26.0 7.15 128.4 45.75
1972   3 918 000   177 000   75 000   103 000 45.2 19.0 26.2 7.12 127.5 45.94
1973   4 022 000   182 000   76 000   106 000 45.2 18.9 26.3 7.09 126.5 46.13
1974   4 126 000   187 000   86 000   101 000 45.3 20.7 24.6 7.06 137.8 43.82
1975   4 228 000   192 000   86 000   106 000 45.5 20.4 25.1 7.03 135.9 44.18
1976   4 334 000   198 000   87 000   111 000 45.7 20.1 25.5 7.02 134.0 44.57
1977   4 450 000   204 000   82 000   122 000 45.8 18.3 27.5 7.00 122.6 46.92
1978   4 778 000   214 000   84 000   130 000 46.8 18.4 28.4 7.13 121.7 46.95
1979   5 409 000   241 000   93 000   148 000 47.1 18.2 28.8 7.16 120.7 47.31
1980   5 892 000   277 000   106 000   171 000 47.3 18.1 29.2 7.18 119.8 47.49
1981   5 935 000   291 000   110 000   181 000 47.7 18.1 29.7 7.23 119.0 47.67
1982   5 952 000   286 000   107 000   179 000 48.0 18.0 30.0 7.25 118.2 47.83
1983   6 143 000   296 000   109 000   187 000 48.3 17.8 30.5 7.28 116.6 48.17
1984   6 369 000   307 000   112 000   196 000 48.5 17.6 30.9 7.30 115.2 48.46
1985   6 631 000   322 000   117 000   205 000 48.7 17.7 31.0 7.33 114.8 48.28
1986   6 909 000   336 000   121 000   215 000 48.9 17.6 31.2 7.35 114.1 48.37
1987   7 158 000   351 000   124 000   227 000 49.0 17.3 31.7 7.37 113.1 48.90
1988   7 160 000   362 000   151 000   211 000 49.1 20.5 28.6 7.40 115.8 43.84
1989   7 035 000   352 000   131 000   221 000 49.2 18.3 30.8 7.42 110.1 46.72
1990   6 999 000   349 000   128 000   221 000 49.0 18.0 31.0 7.44 108.3 47.11
1991   6 733 000   346 000   284 000   63 000 49.4 40.5 8.9 7.47 237.4 26.57
1992   6 428 000   327 000   251 000   76 000 50.2 38.6 11.7 7.50 236.3 27.31
1993   6 621 000   328 000   101 000   227 000 50.4 15.5 34.9 7.53 104.6 50.65
1994   6 960 000   351 000   111 000   240 000 50.3 15.9 34.4 7.54 105.1 50.33
1995   7 211 000   360 000   113 000   247 000 50.1 15.8 34.4 7.58 104.5 50.60
1996   7 472 000   376 000   119 000   257 000 50.1 15.9 34.2 7.62 104.8 50.45
1997   7 734 000   388 000   124 000   264 000 50.3 16.1 34.2 7.66 106.8 50.20
1998   8 057 000   403 000   127 000   276 000 50.2 15.8 34.4 7.65 104.6 50.66
1999   8 384 000   419 000   133 000   286 000 50.1 15.9 34.2 7.63 104.7 50.53
2000   8 721 000   434 000   137 000   297 000 49.9 15.8 34.1 7.61 104.6 50.66
2001   9 071 000   450 000   142 000   308 000 49.7 15.7 34.0 7.58 104.4 50.74
2002   9 411 000   467 000   148 000   320 000 49.7 15.7 34.0 7.58 104.4 50.73
2003   9 758 000   482 000   153 000   329 000 49.4 15.7 33.7 7.55 104.5 50.61
2004   10 117 000   498 000   159 000   339 000 49.2 15.7 33.5 7.52 104.6 50.54
2005   10 467 000   513 000   163 000   350 000 49.0 15.6 33.4 7.48 104.4 50.66
2006   10 785 000   527 000   168 000   359 000 48.7 15.6 33.2 7.46 104.1 50.60
2007   11 118 000   539 000   173 000   366 000 48.5 15.5 32.9 7.42 103.5 50.52
2008   11 445 000   555 000   174 000   381 000 48.2 15.1 33.1 7.39 101.3 51.12
2009   11 730 000   565 000   172 000   393 000 47.9 14.6 33.4 7.34 98.7 51.85
2010   12 027 000   576 000   185 000   390 000 47.7 15.4 32.3 7.30 102.5 50.56
2011   12 217 000   589 000   184 000   405 000 47.5 14.9 32.7 7.26 100.0 51.30
2012   12 440 000   590 000   169 000   420 000 47.3 13.6 33.7 7.20 91.4 53.16
2013   12 852 000   604 000   169 000   435 000 47.0 13.1 33.9 7.13 88.7 53.84
2014   13 309 000   622 000   170 000   452 000 46.7 12.8 33.9 7.06 86.1 54.28
2015   13 764 000   640 000   171 000   469 000 46.5 12.4 34.0 6.98 83.9 54.86
2016   14 293 000   657 000   175 000   482 000 46.2 12.3 33.9 6.89 82.0 55.04
2017   14 864 000   675 000   177 000   498 000 45.5 11.9 33.6 6.74 79.8 55.65
2018   15 411 000   693 000   176 000   516 000 45.0 11.4 33.5 6.63 77.2 56.38
2019   15 981 000   711 000   176 000   535 000 44.6 11.0 33.5 6.53 75.0 57.08
2020   16 537 000   728 000   188 000   540 000 44.0 11.4 32.6 6.42 72.9 55.97
2021   17 066 000   744 000   198 000   546 000 43.6 11.6 32.0 6.31 71.2 55.28
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Demographic statisticsEdit

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[37]

  • One birth every 46 seconds
  • One death every 3 minutes
  • One net migrant every 16 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 1 minutes

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[38] unless otherwise indicated.

PopulationEdit

12,386,248 (2022 est.)
11,259,029 (July 2018 est.)
10,428,043 (2014 est.)

ReligionsEdit

Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter)

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid of Somalia in 2020
0-14 years: 42.38% (male 2,488,604/female 2,493,527)
15-24 years: 19.81% (male 1,167,807/female 1,161,040)
25-54 years: 30.93% (male 1,881,094/female 1,755,166)
55-64 years: 4.61% (male 278,132/female 264,325)
65 years and over: 2.27% (2020 est.) (male 106,187/female 161,242)
0-14 years: 42.87% (male 2,410,215 /female 2,416,629)
15-24 years: 19.35% (male 1,097,358 /female 1,081,762)
25-54 years: 31.23% (male 1,821,823 /female 1,694,873)
55-64 years: 4.35% (male 245,744 /female 243,893)
65 years and over: 2.19% (male 95,845 /female 150,887) (2018 est.)

Birth rateEdit

37.98 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 8th
39.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 9th
40.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rateEdit

11.62 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 17th
12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
13.91 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Total fertility rateEdit

5.31 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 9th
5.7 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th

Population growth rateEdit

2.42% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 27th
2.08% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 45th
1.75% (2014 est.)

Median ageEdit

total: 18.5 years. Country comparison to the world: 210th
male: 18.7 years
female: 18.3 years (2020 est.)
Total: 18.2 years. Country comparison to the world: 211th
Male: 18.4 years
Female: 18 years (2018 est.)

Net migration rateEdit

-2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 171st
-5.6 migrants/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 199th
-9.51 migrants/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rateEdit

6.9% (2018/19)

Dependency ratiosEdit

Total dependency ratio: 97.4 (2015 est.)
Youth dependency ratio: 92.1 (2015 est.)
Elderly dependency ratio: 5.3 (2015 est.)
Potential support ratio: 18.8 (2015 est.)

UrbanizationEdit

urban population: 47.3% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Urban population: 45% of total population (2018)
Rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Urban population: 37.7% of total population (2011)
Rate of urbanization: 3.79 annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

At birth: 1.03 males/female
Under 15 years: 1 male/female
15–64 years: 1.07 males/female
65 years and over: 0.66 males/female
Total population: 1.01 males/female (2015 est. )

Infant mortality rateEdit

Total: 93 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 101.4 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 84.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 55.72 years. Country comparison to the world: 225th male: 53.39 years female: 58.12 years (2022 est.)

Total population: 53.2 years
Male: 51 years
Female: 55.4 years (2018 est.)
Total population: 51.58 years
Male: 49.58 years
Female: 53.65 years (2014 est.)

Major infectious diseasesEdit

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies

note: on 21 March 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Somalia is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

HIV/AIDSEdit

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

11,000 (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<1000 (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseasesEdit

Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vector-borne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
Water contact disease: schistosomiasis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

NationalityEdit

Noun: Somali (singular) or Somali (plural)
Adjective: Somali

Ethnic groupsEdit

LanguagesEdit

LiteracyEdit

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: N/A[40]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  This article incorporates public domain material from World Factbook. CIA.

  1. ^ "The centre holds, but only just". The Economist. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Somalia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009-05-14. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
  3. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 142. ISBN 0313313334.
  4. ^ Ioan M. Lewis, Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society, (Red Sea Press: 1994), p.51
  5. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. pp. 11–14. ISBN 0852552807. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  6. ^ Pham, J. Peter (2011). "State Collapse, Insurgency, and Famine in the Horn of Africa: Legitimacy and the Ongoing Somali Crisis". The Journal of the Middle East and Africa. 2 (2): 153–187. doi:10.1080/21520844.2011.617238. S2CID 154845182.
  7. ^ "Country Policy and Information Note Somalia: Majority clans and minority groups in south and central Somalia" (PDF). Home Office. January 2019. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
  8. ^ a b Lewis, I. M.; Said Samatar (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. pp. 11–13. ISBN 3-8258-3084-5.
  9. ^ I.M. Lewis, A Modern History of the Somali, fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 23
  10. ^ a b Laitin, David D. & Samatar, Said S. (1987). Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-86531-555-8
  11. ^ Adam, Hussein Mohamed (1997). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569020739. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Ford, Richard (1997-01-01). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781569020739.
  13. ^ a b c d Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780932415998.
  14. ^ a b Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780932415998.
  15. ^ a b c Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Voice and Power. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753.
  16. ^ The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf Archived 2018-05-17 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ a b "Dynamics and Trends of Conflict in Greater Mandera" (PDF). Amani Papers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  18. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 122. ISBN 9780932415998.
  19. ^ Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856; edited with an introduction and additional chapters by Gordon Waterfield (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 165
  20. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 9. ISBN 0313313334.
  21. ^ Burton, Richard (1856). First Footsteps in East Africa (1st ed.). Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
  22. ^ "Somalia Maps - Perry–Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online". www.lib.utexas.edu. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2009-12-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure], p. 43; and Worldbank Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, pp. 56–58
  24. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. ISBN 9780932415998.
  25. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 8–11. ISBN 0313313334.
  26. ^ Gale Research Inc, Worldmark encyclopedia of the nations, Volume 2, (Gale Research: 1984), p.278.
  27. ^ Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1, (Oxford University Press: 2010), p.402
  28. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  29. ^ I. M. Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somalis, Afar and Saho, (Red Sea Press: 1998), p. 11.
  30. ^ a b c Helena Dubnov, A grammatical sketch of Somali, (Kِppe: 2003), pp. 70–71.
  31. ^ Diana Briton Putman, Mohamood Cabdi Noor, The Somalis: their history and culture, (Center for Applied Linguistics: 1993), p. 15.: "Somalis speak Somali. Many people also speak Arabic, and educated Somalis usually speak either English or Italian as well. Swahili may also be spoken in coastal areas near Kenya."
  32. ^ Fiona MacDonald et al., Peoples of Africa, Volume 10, (Marshall Cavendish: 2000), p. 178.
  33. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  34. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  35. ^ Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2022). "World Population Prospects 2022 Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XLS (91MB)). United Nations Population Division. 27 (Online ed.). New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. rows 2741:2812, cols M,X,AE,S,AH,S,AA,AV,AI. Archived from the original on 2022-08-09.
  37. ^ "Somalia Population 2022", World Population Review
  38. ^ "The World FactBook - Somalia", The World Factbook, 2022  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  39. ^ a b "Africa - SOMALIA". CIA The World Factbook.
  40. ^ No reliable data on nationwide literacy rate. 2013 FSNAU survey indicates considerable differences per region, with the autonomous northeastern Puntland region having the highest registered literacy rate (72%). [1]

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