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Ethnic groupsEdit

SomalisEdit

 
Young Somali women at a community event in Hargeisa.

Somalis constitute the largest ethnic group in Somalia, at approximately 85% of the nation's inhabitants.[1] They are organized into clan groupings, which are important social units; clan membership plays a central part in Somali culture and politics. Clans are patrilineal and are typically divided into sub-clans, sometimes with many sub-divisions. Through the xeer system (customary law), the advanced clan structure has served governmental roles in many rural Somali communities.[2]

Somali society is traditionally ethnically endogamous. So to extend ties of alliance, marriage is often to another ethnic Somali from a different clan. Thus, for example, a recent study observed that in 89 marriages contracted by men of the Dhulbahante clan, 55 (62%) were with women of Dhulbahante sub-clans other than those of their husbands; 30 (33.7%) were with women of surrounding clans of other clan families (Isaaq, 28; Gedabursi, 3); and 3 (4.3%) were with women of other clans of the Darod clan family (Marehan 2, Ogaden 1).[3]

Clan structureEdit

Certain clans are traditionally classed as noble clans, referring to their nomadic lifestyle in contrast to the sedentary Sab who are either agropastoralists or artisanal castes.[4] The five noble clans are Darod, Dir, Hawiye, Isaaq and Rahanweyn. Of these, the Dir and Hawiye are regarded as descended from Irir Samaale, the likely source of the ethnonym Somali.[5] The Isaaq and Darod have separate agnatic (paternal) traditions of descent through Ishaak ibn Ahmed (Sheikh Ishak) and Abdirahman bin Isma'il al-Jabarti (Sheikh Darod) respectively.[6][6] Both Sheikh Ishak and Sheikh Darod are asserted to have married women from the Dir clan, thus establishing matrilateral ties with the Samaale main stem.[5] "Sab" is the term used to refer to minor Somali clans in contrast to "Samaale".[7] Both Samaale and Sab are the children of their father "Hiil" whose is the common ancestor all Somali clans.[8]

A few clans in the southern part of Greater Somalia do not belong to the major clans, but came to be associated with them and were eventually adopted into one of their confederations: Gaalje'el in Hiran and elsewhere in central Somalia traces its paternal descent to Gardheere Samaale;[9][10] Garre in the Somali Region and North Eastern Province is divided into two branches: Tuuf claiming itself to be Garre Gardheere Samaale,[11][12][13] and Quranyow, who married Tuuf's daughter, is of Mahamed Hiniftir Mahe Dir lineage;[12][14][15] Degoodi in the Somali Region and North Eastern Province is related to Gaaje'el as Saransoor and traces its patrilineage to Gardheere Samaale;[9][10] Hawaadle in Hiran belongs to the Meyle Samaale;[9][10] Ajuraan in the North Eastern Province claim descent from Maqaarre Samaale[11] and Sheekhaal acknowledges descent from Sheikh Abadir Umar Ar-Rida, also known as Fiqi Umar.[16] Thus, the Gaalje'el, Garre, Degoodi Ajuraan and Hawaadle are said to have patrilateral ties with the Dir and Hawiye through Samaale to Aqeel Abu Talib, whereas the Sheekhaal traces descent to a different forefather than the Samaale progeny, but also ultimately to Aqeel Abu Talib.

The Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn) are agro-pastoral clans in the area between the Jubba and Shebelle rivers. Many do not follow a nomadic lifestyle, live further south, and speak Maay. Although in the past frequently classified as a Somali dialect, more recent research by the linguist Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi suggests that Maay constitutes a separate but closely related Afro-Asiatic language of the Cushitic branch.[17]

A third group, the occupational clans, are treated as outcasts. They can only marry among themselves and other Somalis considered them to be ritually unclean. They lived in their own settlements among the nomadic populations in the north and performed specialised occupations such as metalworking, tanning and hunting.[7] These Minority Somali clans are the Gaboye, Tumaal, Yibir, Jaji and Yahar.

Clans and sub-clansEdit

 
Geographic location of Somali clans[18]

There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures. The divisions and subdivisions as given here are partial and simplified. Many lineages are omitted. Note that some sources state that the Rahanweyn group is made up of the Digil and Mirifle clans, whereas others list the Digil as a separate group from the Rahanweyn.[19]

Major clans
Minor clans

Other ethnic groupsEdit

Non-Somali ethnic minority groups make up about 15% of the nation's population.[1] They include Bantus, Bajunis, Eyle, Ethiopians, Indians, Pakistanis, Persians, Arabs, Italians and Britons.[25][26] Somalia has been described as the most ethnically homogenous nation in Sub-Saharan Africa, ahead of Botswana, which is four-fifths Tswana.[27]

LanguagesEdit

Speech sample in Standard Somali.

Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalia. The Somali language is the mother tongue of the Somalis, the nation's most populous ethnic group.[28] It is a member of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family.[29]

In addition to Somali, Arabic, which is also an Afroasiatic tongue,[30] is an official national language in Somalia. Many Somalis speak it due to centuries-old ties with the Arab world, the far-reaching influence of the Arabic media, and religious education.[30][31][32]

English is widely used and taught. Italian used to be a major language, but its influence significantly diminished following independence. It is now most frequently heard among older generations, government officials, and in educated circles.[30] Other minority languages include Bravanese, a variant of the Bantu Swahili language that is spoken along the coast by the Bravanese people, as well as Bajuni, another Swahili dialect that is the mother tongue of the Bajuni ethnic minority group.

PopulationEdit

According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects[33], the total population was 14,317,996 in 2016, compared to 2,264,000 in 1950. The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 44.9%, 52.3% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older.[34]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2 264 000 41.2 56.2 2.6
1955 2 522 000 42.6 54.7 2.7
1960 2 819 000 44.2 53.0 2.8
1965 3 171 000 45.3 51.8 2.9
1970 3 601 000 45.5 51.6 2.9
1975 4 118 000 45.8 51.2 3.0
1980 6 436 000 46.2 50.9 2.9
1985 6 364 000 45.1 52.0 2.9
1990 6 599 000 44.4 52.6 2.9
1995 6 525 000 43.2 53.9 2.8
2000 7 399 000 44.1 53.1 2.8
2005 8 360 000 44.6 52.6 2.8
2010 9 331 000 44.9 52.3 2.7

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events in Somalia is incomplete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates:[34][35]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 128 000 76 000 52 000 53.4 31.9 21.5 7.25 207
1955-1960 139 000 79 000 60 000 52.1 29.7 22.4 7.25 193
1960-1965 153 000 82 000 71 000 51.0 27.5 23.6 7.25 179
1965-1970 172 000 86 000 86 000 50.8 25.5 25.3 7.25 167
1970-1975 194 000 91 000 103 000 50.4 23.6 26.8 7.10 155
1975-1980 266 000 120 000 146 000 50.3 22.7 27.7 7.00 149
1980-1985 280 000 128 000 152 000 43.8 20.0 23.8 6.70 138
1985-1990 293 000 120 000 174 000 45.3 18.5 26.8 6.70 127
1990-1995 299 000 135 000 164 000 45.6 20.6 25.0 6.50 141
1995-2000 320 000 125 000 195 000 45.9 17.9 28.0 6.50 123
2000-2005 360 000 128 000 232 000 45.7 16.2 29.5 6.50 111
2005-2010 391 000 137 000 254 000 44.2 15.5 28.7 6.40 107
2018 5.70
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Life expectancyEdit

Period Life expectancy in
Years[36]
1950–1955 33.99
1955–1960   35.99
1960–1965   37.97
1965–1970   39.99
1970–1975   41.91
1975–1980   43.78
1980–1985   45.48
1985–1990   46.37
1990–1995   44.96
1995–2000   49.80
2000–2005   51.49
2005–2010   53.18
2010–2015   54.86

Demographic statisticsEdit

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[37]

  • One birth every 48 seconds
  • One death every 3 minutes
  • One net migrant every 14 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 1 minutes

The following demographic are from the CIA World Factbook[38] unless otherwise indicated.

PopulationEdit

11,259,029 (July 2018 est.)
10,428,043 (2014 est.)

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid of Somalia in 2017
0-14 years: 42.87% (male 2,410,215 /female 2,416,629)
15-24 years: 19.35% (male 1,097,358 /female 1,081,762)
25-54 years: 31.23% (male 1,821,823 /female 1,694,873)
55-64 years: 4.35% (male 245,744 /female 243,893)
65 years and over: 2.19% (male 95,845 /female 150,887) (2018 est.)

Median ageEdit

total: 18.2 years. Country comparison to the world: 211st
male: 18.4 years
female: 18 years (2018 est.)

Birth rateEdit

39.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 9th
40.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rateEdit

12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
13.91 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Total fertility rateEdit

5.7 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 6th

Population growth rateEdit

2.08% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 45th
1.75% (2014 est.)

Net migration rateEdit

-5.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 199th
-9.51 migrants/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Dependency ratiosEdit

total dependency ratio: 97.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 92.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.8 (2015 est.)

UrbanizationEdit

urban population: 45% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
urban population: 37.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.79 annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratioEdit

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rateEdit

total: 93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 101.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 84.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 53.2 years
male: 51 years
female: 55.4 years (2018 est.)
total population: 51.58 years
male: 49.58 years
female: 53.65 years (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDSEdit

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

11,000 (2017 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

<1000 (2017 est.)

Major infectious diseasesEdit

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

NationalityEdit

noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali

Ethnic groupsEdit

ReligionsEdit

LanguagesEdit

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: N/A[40]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.

  1. ^ a b "Somalia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 2009-05-14. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
  2. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 142. ISBN 0313313334.
  3. ^ Ioan M. Lewis, Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society, (Red Sea Press: 1994), p.51
  4. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. pp. 11–14. ISBN 0852552807. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  5. ^ a b Lewis, I. M.; Said Samatar (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. pp. 11–13. ISBN 3-8258-3084-5.
  6. ^ a b c I.M. Lewis, A Modern History of the Somali, fourth edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2002), p. 23
  7. ^ a b Laitin, David D. & Samatar, Said S. (1987). Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-86531-555-8
  8. ^ Adam, Hussein Mohamed (1997). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569020739. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Ford, Richard (1997-01-01). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781569020739.
  10. ^ a b c d Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780932415998.
  11. ^ a b Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780932415998.
  12. ^ a b c Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Voice and Power. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753.
  13. ^ The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Keyna http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  14. ^ a b "Dynamics and Trends of Conflict in Greater Mandera" (PDF). Amani Papers. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  15. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 122. ISBN 9780932415998.
  16. ^ Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856; edited with an introduction and additional chapters by Gordon Waterfield (New York: Praeger, 1966), p. 165
  17. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 9. ISBN 0313313334.
  18. ^ "Somalia Maps - Perry–Castañeda Map Collection - UT Library Online". www.lib.utexas.edu. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  19. ^ Worldbank, 2005, p. 56
  20. ^ Template:Cite. book
  21. ^ Protonotari, Francesco (1890-01-01). Nuova antologia (in Italian). Direzione della Nuova Antologia. p. 343.
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2009-12-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure], p. 43; and Worldbank Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, pp. 56–58
  23. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. ISBN 9780932415998.
  24. ^ Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 8–11. ISBN 0313313334.
  25. ^ Gale Research Inc, Worldmark encyclopedia of the nations, Volume 2, (Gale Research: 1984), p.278.
  26. ^ Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1, (Oxford University Press: 2010), p.402
  27. ^ https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/2013/05/11/the-centre-holds-but-only-just
  28. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  29. ^ I. M. Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar and Saho, (Red Sea Press: 1998), p. 11.
  30. ^ a b c Helena Dubnov, A grammatical sketch of Somali, (Kِppe: 2003), pp. 70–71.
  31. ^ Diana Briton Putman, Mohamood Cabdi Noor, The Somalis: their history and culture, (Center for Applied Linguistics: 1993), p. 15.: "Somalis speak Somali. Many people also speak Arabic, and educated Somalis usually speak either English or Italian as well. Swahili may also be spoken in coastal areas near Kenya."
  32. ^ Fiona MacDonald et al., Peoples of Africa, Volume 10, (Marshall Cavendish: 2000), p. 178.
  33. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  34. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ CIA (July 2010). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  36. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations". esa.un.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26.
  37. ^ "Somalia Population 2018", World Population Review
  38. ^ "The World FactBook - Somalia", The World Factbook, July 12, 2018  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  39. ^ a b c "Africa - SOMALIA". CIA The World Factbook.
  40. ^ No reliable data on nationwide literacy rate. 2013 FSNAU survey indicates considerable differences per region, with the autonomous northeastern Puntland region having the highest registered literacy rate (72%). [1]

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit