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Samaale (var. Samali or Samale Somali: Samaale, Beesha Samaale), was a proto-Somali who according to Somali tradition is considered the oldest common forefather of several major Somali clans and their respective sub-clans.[1] It constitutes the largest and most widespread Somali lineage. Two of the constituent Samaale sub-clans, the Dir and Hawiye, are regarded as major clans today.[2][3]

HistoryEdit

Samaale is generally regarded as the source of the ethnonym Somali. The name "Somali" is, in turn, held to be derived from the words soo and maal, which together mean "go and milk"—a reference to the ubiquitous pastoralism of the Somali people. Another etymology proposes that the term Somali is derived from the Arabic for "wealthy" (zāwamāl), again referring to Somali riches in livestock.[1]

In Somali tradition, received the name Samaale from his father Hiil who blessed him, after a miraculous raid which made the family wealthy overnight.

Samaale is believed to have been a pre-Islamic figure living roughly around the first century CE.[4] Some sources claim that Samaale is a mythological figure.[5][6]

According to traditions recorded in Shariif 'Aydaruus Shariif 'Ali's Bughyat al-amaal fii taariikh as-Soomaal (1955) and according to Ali Jimale Ahmed, Mukhtar Haji and I.M Lewis, who are all renown historians, the patriarch Samaale arrived in northern Somalia from Yemen during the 9th century and subsequently founded the eponymous Somali ethnic group.[1]

Some claim that Samaale traces its geneological traditions to Arabian Quraysh Banu Hashim origins through Aqiil the son of Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib who was cousin of the Prophet Muhammed and son of Ali.[7][8][9][10][11][12] According to the British anthropologist and Somali Studies veteran I.M. Lewis, the traditions of descent from noble Arab families related to the Prophet are most probably figurative expressions of the importance of Islam in Somali society.[13][14]

The paternal genetics of ethnic Somalis is inconsistent with a post-Islamic common TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) nor a post-Islamic paternal Arabian origin for the majority of the ethnicity.[15] The majority of Somalis have an TMRCA between 4,000-2,000 years before present in the Bronze Age.[15][16][17]

GenealogyEdit

Most Somalis trace their origins to Samaale:[1]

The eponymous ancestor of majority of Somalis today had 9 sons:

Although Quranyow is part of the Garre confederacy, the sub-clan actually claims descent from Dir, son of Irir, son of Samaale.[21][22] This example does indeed strengthen the Somali saying: "Tol waa tolane", which means "clan is something joined together"[21][22] The same could be said about Gaaljecel, Degodi and Hawadle who have allied themselves to the Hawiye section of Irir in the borders of Somalia,[23][24] the Dabarre and Irrole of Maqarre and the Garre who have allied themselves to the Digil Rahanweyn confederacy and 'Awrmale to the Harti Darood section.[19][20][25]

The Rahanweyn (Digil and Mirifle) clan traces descent from a separate patriarch called Sab. Both Samaale and Sab are said to have descended from a forefather named "Hiil", whose is held to be the common patrilineal ancestor of all the Somali clans.[1][26]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Lewis, I. M.; Said Samatar (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. pp. 11–13. ISBN 3-8258-3084-5.
  2. ^ a b Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995). The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-932415-98-1.
  3. ^ a b Lewis, Ioan. M. (1994). Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Lawrenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-932415-92-9.
  4. ^ Fox, Mary-Jane, author. The roots of Somali political culture. ISBN 9781626375413. OCLC 929952404.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Hesse, Brian (July 2010). "Introduction: The myth of 'Somalia'". Journal of Contemporary African Studies. 28 (3): 247–259. doi:10.1080/02589001.2010.499232. ISSN 0258-9001.
  6. ^ Ingiriis, Mohamed Haji (2018-07-03). "Somali Oral Poetry and the Failed She-Camel Nation State: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Deelley Poetry Debate (1979–1980), by Ali Mumin Ahad". African Historical Review. 50 (1–2): 189–191. doi:10.1080/17532523.2018.1513213. ISSN 1753-2523.
  7. ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 9780852552803.
  8. ^ Ahmed, Akbar (2013-02-27). The Thistle and the Drone: How America's War on Terror Became a Global War on Tribal Islam. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 9780815723790.
  9. ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866041.
  10. ^ Ng'ang'a, Wangũhũ (2006). Kenya's ethnic communities: foundation of the nation. Gatũndũ Publishers. ISBN 9789966975706.
  11. ^ Noyoo, Ndangwa (2010-01-30). Social Policy and Human Development in Zambia. Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. ISBN 9781912234936.
  12. ^ Lewis, I. M.; Samatar, Said S. (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783825830847.
  13. ^ I.M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), pp.128-129
  14. ^ Lewis, Ioan. M. (1994). Blood and Bone: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society. Larwenceville, NJ: The Red Sea Press Inc. pp. 104–105. ISBN 9780932415936. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  15. ^ a b Sanchez, Juan J; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Børsting, Claus; Hernandez, Alexis; Morling, Niels (2005-03-09). "High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males". European Journal of Human Genetics. 13 (7): 856–866. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201390. ISSN 1018-4813.
  16. ^ "E-Y18629 YTree". www.yfull.com. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  17. ^ "T-Y45591 YTree". www.yfull.com. Retrieved 2019-08-26.
  18. ^ a b Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 131. ISBN 9780932415998.
  19. ^ a b c Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 122. ISBN 9780932415998.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780932415998.
  21. ^ a b Hayward, R. J.; Lewis, I. M. (2005-08-17). Voice and Power. Routledge. p. 242. ISBN 9781135751753.
  22. ^ a b The Quranyo section of the Garre claim descent from Dirr, who are born of the Irrir Samal. UNDP Paper in Kenya http://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/Amani%20Papers/AP_Volume1_n2_May2010.pdf
  23. ^ Adam, Hussein Mohamed; Ford, Richard (1997-01-01). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. p. 127. ISBN 9781569020739.
  24. ^ Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995-01-01). The Invention of Somalia. The Red Sea Press. p. 121. ISBN 9780932415998.
  25. ^ Dabarre and Iroole Digil (Rahanweyn) groups in southern Somalia.http://dice.missouri.edu/docs/afro-asiatic/Dabarre.pdf
  26. ^ Adam, Hussein Mohamed (1997). Mending rips in the sky: options for Somali communities in the 21st century. Red Sea Press. ISBN 9781569020739. Retrieved 9 August 2016.