Solar eclipse of June 30, 1954

A total solar eclipse occurred at the Moon's descending node of the orbit on Wednesday, June 30, 1954. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide. Occurring only 3.1 days after perigee (Perigee on June 27, 1954), the Moon's apparent diameter was larger. Totality lasted 2 minutes and 34.93 seconds, but at sunrise 1 minute and 8.6 seconds and at sunset 1 minute and 5.3 seconds. The moon's apparent diameter was larger, 1930.2 arc-seconds.

Solar eclipse of June 30, 1954
Map
Type of eclipse
NatureTotal
Gamma0.6135
Magnitude1.0357
Maximum eclipse
Duration155 s (2 min 35 s)
Coordinates60°30′N 4°12′E / 60.5°N 4.2°E / 60.5; 4.2
Max. width of band153 km (95 mi)
Times (UTC)
Greatest eclipse12:32:38
References
Saros126 (44 of 72)
Catalog # (SE5000)9408

Visibility

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Totality began at sunrise over the United States over Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, and crossed into Canada, across southern Greenland, Iceland and Faroe Islands, then into Europe, across Norway, Sweden, and eastern Europe.[1] It ended before sunset over Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and ending in northwestern India. The southwestern part of Vilnius, northeastern part of Kyiv, and southwestern part of Baku were covered by the path of totality.

The northeastern part of Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain in Europe, also lay in the path of totality.

The eclipse was mostly seen on June 30, 1954, except for northeastern Soviet Union, where a partial eclipse started on June 30, passing midnight and ended on July 1 due to the midnight sun.

 

Observation

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Within the United Kingdom, the path of totality only covered Shetland Islands in northern Scotland. However, the area was mostly clouded out during the eclipse, and there was even light rain in some places, so observation was not successful. About 400 scientists from around the world traveled to Sweden to observe the total eclipse.[2] The Astronomy Department of Kiev State University, Soviet Union made observation in Kyiv and took ideal images of solar corona. The Sternberg Astronomical Institute made observation in Nevinnomyssk, Stavropol Krai.[3]

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Solar eclipses of 1953–1956

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This eclipse is a member of a semester series. An eclipse in a semester series of solar eclipses repeats approximately every 177 days and 4 hours (a semester) at alternating nodes of the Moon's orbit.[4]

Note: Partial solar eclipse of February 14, 1953 and August 9, 1953 belong to the last lunar year set.

Solar eclipse series sets from 1953 to 1956
Descending node   Ascending node
Saros Map Gamma Saros Map Gamma
116  
1953 July 11
Partial
1.43882 121  
1954 January 5
Annular
-0.92960
126  
1954 June 30
Total
0.61345 131  
1954 December 25
Annular
-0.25762
136  
1955 June 20
Total
-0.15278 141  
1955 December 14
Annular
0.42658
146  
1956 June 8
Total
-0.89341 151  
1956 December 2
Partial
1.09229

Saros 126

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It is a part of Saros cycle 126, repeating every 18 years, 11 days, containing 72 events. The series started with partial solar eclipse on March 10, 1179. It contains annular eclipses from June 4, 1323 through April 4, 1810, hybrid eclipses from April 14, 1828 through May 6, 1864 and total eclipses from May 17, 1882 through August 23, 2044. The series ends at member 72 as a partial eclipse on May 3, 2459. The longest duration of central eclipse (annular or total) was 6 minutes, 30 seconds of annularity on June 26, 1359. The longest duration of totality was 2 minutes, 36 seconds on July 10, 1972. All eclipses in this series occurs at the Moon’s descending node.

Series members 42–52 occur between 1901 and 2100
42 43 44
 
June 8, 1918
 
June 19, 1936
 
June 30, 1954
45 46 47
 
July 10, 1972
 
July 22, 1990
 
August 1, 2008
48 49 50
 
August 12, 2026
 
August 23, 2044
 
September 3, 2062
51 52
 
September 13, 2080
 
September 25, 2098

Metonic series

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The metonic series repeats eclipses every 19 years (6939.69 days), lasting about 5 cycles. Eclipses occur in nearly the same calendar date. In addition, the octon subseries repeats 1/5 of that or every 3.8 years (1387.94 days). All eclipses in this table occur at the Moon's descending node.

22 eclipse events between September 12, 1931 and July 1, 2011.
September 11-12 June 30-July 1 April 17-19 February 4-5 November 22-23
114 116 118 120 122
 
September 12, 1931
 
June 30, 1935
 
April 19, 1939
 
February 4, 1943
 
November 23, 1946
124 126 128 130 132
 
September 12, 1950
 
June 30, 1954
 
April 19, 1958
 
February 5, 1962
 
November 23, 1965
134 136 138 140 142
 
September 11, 1969
 
June 30, 1973
 
April 18, 1977
 
February 4, 1981
 
November 22, 1984
144 146 148 150 152
 
September 11, 1988
 
June 30, 1992
 
April 17, 1996
 
February 5, 2000
 
November 23, 2003
154 156
 
September 11, 2007
 
July 1, 2011

Inex series

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This eclipse is a part of the long period inex cycle, repeating at alternating nodes, every 358 synodic months (≈ 10,571.95 days, or 29 years minus 20 days). Their appearance and longitude are irregular due to a lack of synchronization with the anomalistic month (period of perigee). However, groupings of 3 inex cycles (≈ 87 years minus 2 months) comes close (≈ 1,151.02 anomalistic months), so eclipses are similar in these groupings.

See also

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Notes

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  1. ^ Geneslay E., Meeus J., Schock P., Hujer, K. : « L’éclipse totale de Soleil du 30 juin 1954 », l'Astronomie, vol. 68, p. 422
  2. ^ "1954: Three continents see eclipse of sun". On This Day. BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020.
  3. ^ "КОРОНА ЭПОХИ МИНИМУМА СОЛНЕЧНОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ" (in Russian). IZMIRAN. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016.
  4. ^ van Gent, R.H. "Solar- and Lunar-Eclipse Predictions from Antiquity to the Present". A Catalogue of Eclipse Cycles. Utrecht University. Retrieved 6 October 2018.

References

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