Chanyu

  (Redirected from Shanyu)

Chanyu (simplified Chinese: 单于; traditional Chinese: 單于; pinyin: Chányú) or Shanyu (Chinese: 善于), short for Chengli Gutu Chanyu (Chinese: 撐犁孤塗單于; pinyin: Chēnglí Gūtu Chányú; lit. 'Heaven's great son'), was the title used by the supreme rulers of Inner Asian nomads for eight centuries until superseded by the title "Khagan" in 402 CE.[1] The title was most famously used by the ruling Luandi clan of the Xiongnu during the Qin dynasty (221–206 BCE) and Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE). It was later also used infrequently by the Chinese as a reference to Gokturk leaders.

Xiongnu

EtymologyEdit

According to the Book of Han, "the Xiongnu called the Heaven (天) 'Chēnglí' (撐犁) and they called a child (子) gūtú (孤塗). As for Chányú (單于), it is a "vast [and] great countenance" (廣大之貌)."[2] The term "Chanyu" hence means "great Son of Heaven".

L. Rogers and Edwin G. Pulleyblank argue that the title chanyu may be equivalent to the later attested title tarkhan, suggesting that the Chinese pronunciation was originally dān-ĥwāĥ, an approximation for *darxan.[3] Linguist Alexander Vovin tentatively proposes a Yeniseian etymology for 撐犁孤塗單于, in Old Chinese pronunciation *treng-ri kwa-la dar-ɢwā, from four roots: *tɨŋgVr- "high", *kwala- "son, child", *tɨl "lower reaches of the Yenisei" or "north", and *qʌ̄j ~ *χʌ̄j "prince"; as a whole "Son of Heaven, Ruler of the North".[4][5]

List of Xiongnu ChanyusEdit

NB: Chanyu names do not always obey Chinese convention
Chinese name Pinyin / Wade-Giles Guangyun Personal Name Reign
Touman (頭曼單于/头曼单于) Tóumàn / t'ou-man 240–209 BC
Modu Chanyu (冒頓單于/冒顿单于) mòdú / mou-tun[a] Luandi Modu (攣鞮冒頓 / 挛鞮冒顿) 209–174 BC
Laoshang Chanyu (老上單于/老上单于) lǎoshàng / lao-shang 174–161 BC
Junchen Chanyu (軍臣單于/军臣单于) jūnchén / chün-ch'en 161–126 BC
Yizhixie Chanyu (伊稚斜單于/伊稚斜单于) yīzhìxié / i-chih-hsieh 126–114 BC
Wuwei Chanyu (烏維/乌维) 114–105 BC
Er Chanyu (兒[b]單于/儿单于) Wushilu (烏師廬/乌师庐) 105–102/101 BC
Xulihu Chanyu (呴犛湖/呴犁湖) 102/101–101/100 BC
Qiedihou (且鞮侯)[c] 101/100–96 BC
Hulugu Chanyu (狐鹿姑單于/狐鹿姑单于) húlùgū / hu-lu-ku 96–85 BC
Huyandi Chanyu (壺衍鞮單于/壺衍鞮单于) húyǎndī / hu-yen-ti 85–68 BC
Xulüquanqu Chanyu (虛閭權渠單于/虚闾权渠单于) xūlǘquánqú / hsü-lü-ch'üan-ch'ü 68–60 BC
Woyanqudi Chanyu (握衍朐鞮單于/握衍朐鞮单于) wòyǎnqúdī / wo-lu-ch'ü-ti Tuqitang (屠耆堂/ 屠耆堂) 60–58 BC
Huhanye Chanyu (呼韓邪單于/呼韩邪单于) hūhánxié / hu-han-hsieh Jihoushan[7]:59
( 稽侯狦)
58 – 31 BC
Tuqi 屠耆單于, 58–56 BC
Hujie 呼揭單于, 57 BC
Juli 車犂單于, 57–56 BC
Wuji 烏籍單于, 57 BC
Runzhen 閏振單于, 56–54 BC
Zhizhi Chanyu 郅支單于, 55 – 36 BC
Yilimu 伊利目單于, 49 BC
Fuzhulei Ruodi Chanyu[7]:86
(復株纍若鞮[d]單于/复株累若鞮单于)
fùzhūléiruòdī/fu-chu-lei-je-ti Diaotaomogao (彫陶莫皋/雕陶莫皋)[7]:86 31–20 BC
Souxie Chanyu[7]:86</ref>
(搜諧若鞮單于/搜谐若鞮单于)
Jumixu[7]:86</ref>
(且麋胥)
20–12 BC
Juya Chanyu[7]:87</ref>
(車牙若鞮單于/车牙若鞮单于)
Jumoju[7]:87
(且莫車/攣鞮且莫車)
12–8 BC
Wuzhuliu Chanyu[7]:p. 87 (烏珠留若鞮單于/乌珠留若鞮单于) Nangzhiyasi/Zhi [9][page needed]
(囊知牙斯)
8 BC – 13 AD
Wulei Chanyu[7]:105–107 (烏累若鞮單于/乌累若鞮单于) Xian (鹹/挛鞮咸) 13–18 AD
Huduershidaogao Chanyu[7]:108–109 (呼都而屍道皋若鞮單于/呼都而尸道皋若鞮单于) Yu (輿/挛鞮舆) 18–46 AD
Wudadihou (烏達鞮侯/乌达鞮侯)[9][page needed] Wudadi 46 AD

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a.k.a. Batur < Baγatur [6]
  2. ^ "underage"[7] p. 46</ref>
  3. ^ a.k.a. Quidi, Chedihou
  4. ^ 若鞮 (pinyin ruòdī), glossed as "respectful to parents;[7]:107 filial piety"[8] in Hànshū; Pulleyblank reconstructs 若鞮's Early Middle Chinese pronunciation as *njak-tei & instead compares this to Tocharian A ñäkci or Toch. B ñäkc(i)ye "godly, heavenly"

Northern Xiongnu (北匈奴)Edit

Chinese name Reign Note
Punu Chanyu (蒲奴) 46–? AD
Youliu[9][page needed] (優留) ?–87 AD
Northern Chanyu (北單于) 88–? AD
Yuchujian[9][page needed] (於除鞬單于) 91–93 AD
Feng-hou (逢侯) 94–118 AD

Southern Xiongnu (南匈奴)Edit

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign
Sutuhu/Bi (蘇屠胡/比)
Huhanxie the Second (呼韓邪第二)
Xiluo Shizhu Ti (醯落尸逐鞮)
brought the southern Xiongnu into tributary relations with Han China in AD 50 48–56/55 AD
Qiufu Youti/Mo
(丘浮尤提)
55/56–56/57 AD
Yifa Yulüti/Han
(伊伐於慮提)
56/57–59 AD
Xitong Shizhu Houti/Shi
(醯僮尸逐侯提)
59–63 AD
Qiuchu Julinti/Su
丘除車林提
63 AD
Huxie Shizhu Houti/Chang
(湖邪尸逐侯提)
63–85 AD
Yitu Yulüti/Xuan
(伊屠於閭提/宣)
85–88 AD
Tuntuhe[9][page needed] Shulan[7]:130–134
Xiulan Shizhu Houti (休蘭尸逐侯提)
88–93 AD
Anguo[9][page needed] (安國) started a large scale rebellion against
the Han
93–94 AD
Shizi[9][page needed] (師子)
Tingdu Shizhu Houti (亭獨尸逐侯提)
94–98 AD
Wanshishizhudi/Tan (萬氏尸逐侯提/檀) opposed by...
...Feng Shanyu
98-124AD
98–118 AD
Wujihoushizhudi/Ba
(烏稽尸逐侯提/拔)
??? 124–127/128 AD
Xiuli (休利)
Qute Ruoshi Zhujiu (去特若尸逐就)[9][page needed]
committed suicide under Chinese pressure 127/128–140/142?
Cheniu[9][page needed] Popularly elected 140–143 AD
Toulouchu (兜樓儲)[7]:144
Hulan Ruoshi Zhujiu(呼蘭若尸逐就)
appointed puppet at the Chinese court 143–147 AD
Jucheer (居車兒)[9][page needed]
Yiling Ruoshi Zhujiu (伊陵若尸逐就)
puppet Chinese appointee that escaped Chinese control; incarcerated by Chinese in 158 AD 147–158 AD (d. 172 AD)
Tute Ruoshi Zhujiu (屠特若尸逐就)[7]:145 (True name unknown; the Chinese moniker has negative connotation; confirmed by Chinese Court as Chanyu in 172 AD)</ref> 158–178 AD
Huzheng[7]:145 (呼徵) 178–179 AD
Qiangqu
(羌渠)
Jiangqu;[9][page needed] killed in Xiuchuge Xiongnu rebellion 179–188 AD
Yufuluo
(於扶羅)
a.k.a. Tezhi Shizhuhou (特至尸逐侯)[citation needed].
Homeless puppet Chanyu, overthrown in the Ordos by the unnamed Chanyu of Xiluo 醯落 and Tuge 屠各. Led dozens of refugee Xiongnu tribes to Pingyang (平阳) in Shanxi.
188–195 AD
Huchuquan (呼廚泉) Yufuluo's brother,[9][page needed] he ruled over the Pingyang Xiongnu
after Yufuluo died.
195–?

Da Chanyu (大單于)Edit

Chinese name Data Personal Name Reign
Liu Bao (劉豹) Yufuluo's son. He changed the Chanyu clan name from Luanti to Liu, the surname of Han emperors.
He bore the title 匈奴單于 but ruled only over the West partition in Jiuyuan (九原) of the
Pingyang Xiongnu newly partitioned into North, South, left (West), right (East), and Centre by Cao Cao
216–260AD
劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi Huchuquan's son. Cao Cao ordered him to rule
over the north partition of Pingyang Xiongnu as
Tiefu Right Virtuous King (鐵弗 右贤王).
260–272
劉誥升爰 Liú Gàoshēngyuán Son of 劉(刘)去卑 Liú Qùbēi. Bore the title 鐵弗 右贤王 272–309
Liu Yuan (劉淵) Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Guangwen (光文). Son of Liu Bao (劉豹). Bore the title Xiongnu 匈奴單于 of tribe Yuanhai, so Chinese annals use Yuanhai as his surname [10] 309–310
Liu He, ch. 劉和 py. liú hé Han Zhao state, personal name Xuantai 玄泰 7 days in 310
Liu Cong, ch. 劉聰 py. liú cōng Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Zhaowu, ch. 昭武, personal name Xuanmen 玄門, nickname Zai 載 310–318
Liu Can, ch. 劉粲 py. liú càn Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Yin, ch. 隱, personal name Shiguang 士光 a month and days in 318
Liu Yao ch. Liu Yao 劉曜 py. liú yaò Han Zhao state, a.k.a. Emperor Hou Zhu 後主, personal name Yongming 永明 318–329
Liu Xi ch. Liu Xi 劉熙 Last ruler of Han Zhao; statutory Chanyu, probably never raised to the throne 329
Liu Hu 劉虎 Liu Qubei's grandson. He was not allowed to call himself Chanyu 329–341
劉務恒 Liú Wùhéng ??? 341–356
劉閼陋頭 Liú èlòutóu ??? 356–358
劉悉勿祈 Liú Xīwùqí ??? 358–359
劉衛辰 Liú Wèichén Posthumously named "Emperor Huan" 359–391
劉勃勃 Liú Bóbó a.k.a. Wulie (武烈 Wǔliè) established Xiongnu Xia 407 and in 413 reverted surname to 赫連 Hèlián 391–425
赫連昌 Hèlián Chāng ??? 425–428
赫連定 Hèlián Dìng Last native ruler of Xiongnu in China 428–431

Chanyu family treesEdit

Chanyu Xiongnu rulers family trees
Southern Xiongnu 南匈奴
Northern Xiongnu 北匈奴
Touman
头曼单于
r.220–209BC
Modu Chanyu
冒顿单于
r.209–174BC
Laoshang
老上单于
r.174–161BC
Junchen
军臣单于
r.161-126BC
daughter
Wife of
Zhao Xin
赵信
Yizhixie
伊稚斜单于
r.126-114BC
涉安侯
於單
Wuwei Chanyu
烏維单于
r.114-105BC
Xulihu
呴犁湖单于
r.102/101–
101/100 BC
Qiedihou
且鞮侯
r.101-96/99?BC
Er
儿单于
r.104-102/101BC
Hulugu
狐鹿姑单于
r.96-85BC
daughter
Wife of
Li Ling 李陵
d.74 BC
左大将左大都尉右谷蠡王
Huyandi
壺衍鞮单于
r.85-68BC
左谷蠡王Xulüquanqu
虚闾权渠单于
r.68-60BC
daughter
Wife of
Li Guangli 李廣利
d.88BC
daughter
Wife of
乌禅幕
Cheli
車犂單于
r.57-56BC
先贤掸
Zhizhi
郅支单于
r.56-36BC
Huhanye
呼韩邪单于
r.58-31BC
右谷蠡王
驹于利受Fuzhulei Ruoti
搜谐若鞮单于
r.31–20BC
Souxie
搜谐若鞮单于
r.20-12BC
Juya
车牙若鞮单于
r.12-8BC
右贤王
卢浑
Wuzhuliu
乌珠留若鞮单于
r.8-13AD
右贤王
铢娄渠堂
右谷蠡王
伊屠智牙师
Wulei
乌累若鞮单于
r.13-18AD
左贤王
Huduershidaogao
呼都而尸道皋若鞮單于
r.18-46AD
醯諧屠奴侯须卜居次
须卜单于

r.18-21AD
当于居次左祝都韩王
朐留斯侯
右於塗仇撣王
乌夷当
左日逐王
右大且
左於駼仇掸王
稽留昆
斩将王Shun
顺单于 登
r.11–12
Shun
顺单于 助
r.11
Wudadihou
乌达鞮侯
r.46
Punu Chanyu
蒲奴
r.46-?
Sutuhu/Huhanxie
呼韓邪
r.48-56/55
右股奴王
乌鞮牙斯
Qiufu Youti
丘浮尤提
r.55/56-56/57
Yifa Yulüti 伊伐於慮提
r.56/57-59
Xitong Shizhu Houti
醢僮尸逐侯提
r.59–63
Huxie Shizhu Houti
湖邪尸逐侯提
r.63–85
Tuntuhe/ Siuan
休兰尸逐侯鞮单于
r.88–93
Qiuchu Julinti
丘除车林鞮单于

r.63
Yitu Yulüti
伊屠於閭鞮單于
r.85–88
Anguo
安国
r.93–94
Shizi
尸逐
r.94–98'
Wanshishizhudi
萬氏尸逐侯提
r.98–124
Wujihoushizhudi
烏稽尸逐侯提
r.124–128
Xiuli
去特若尸逐就
r.127/128–
140/142?
左贤王Feng-hou
逢侯
r.94–118


Tuqi Chanyu
屠耆單于
r.58–56BC
Yilimu Chanyu
伊利目單于
r.49BC
Runzhen Chanyu
閏振單于
r.56-54BC
Huyan Qudi
握衍朐鞮單于
r.60-58BC
Shengzhi
胜之
You Xian wáng
右贤王
都涂吾西姑瞀楼头Aojian wang
奥鞬王


Northern Chanyu
北單于
r.89–91AD?
Youliu 優留
r.?–87 AD
Yuchujian 於除鞬單于
r.91–93AD


Jucheer
伊陵尸逐就單于
r.147-158/172; d.172
Tute Ruoshi Zhujiu
屠特若尸逐就單于
r.158/172–178AD
Huzheng
呼徵
r.178–179


?
Qiangqu
羌渠
r.179–188CE
Liu Qubei
劉去卑
Panliuxi
潘六奚
Chizhi Shizhu Hou
持至尸逐侯单于
b.150–d.196; r.188–195
Huchuquan
呼厨泉
r.195–216
?
Tiefu/Xia
state
Liu Bao
刘豹
Liu Qubei 劉去卑 d.272
Tiefu chieftain
r.260–272
Han Zhao
state
Liu Yuan 劉淵 d.310
Guangwen of Han (Zhao)
漢(趙)光文帝 r.304–310
Tiefu/Xia state
rulers family tree
Han Zhao rulers
family tree

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Taskin V.S. "Materials on history of Dunhu group nomadic tribes", Moscow, 1984, p. 305,306, (Таскин В.С. "Mатериалы по истории древних кочевых народов группы Дунху") (in Russian)
  2. ^ Book of Han, Vol. 94-I, 匈奴謂天為「撐犁」,謂子為「孤塗」,單于者,廣大之貌也.
  3. ^ Universität Bonn. Seminar für Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft Zentralasiens: Zentralasiatische Studien, Vol. 24–26, p.21
  4. ^ "Once again on the Etymology of the title qaɣan", in Studia Etyologica Crocoviensia, (2007) vol. 12, p. 177-185
  5. ^ "Did the Xiongnu speak a Yeniseian language? Part 2: Vocabulary", in Altaica Budapestinensia MMII, Proceedings of the 45th Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Budapest, June 23–28, pp. 389–394.
  6. ^ Hirth F. Sinologische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Turk-Volker. Die Ahnentafel Attila's nach Johannes von Thurocz. Bull. Imp. Acad, series V, vol. XIII, 1900, No 2, pp. 221–261.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bichurin N.Ya. (1851). Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times". 1.
  8. ^ Pulleyblank, E. G. "Chinese and Indo-Europeans." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, no. 1/2 (1966): 9–39. www.jstor.org/stable/25202896.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l R. de Crespigny, "Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire", Australian National University Faculty of Asian Studies Monographs, New Series No.4, Canberra 1984, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-01. Retrieved 2010-12-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ [1] Archived 2011-11-30 at the Wayback Machine note 208

Further readingEdit

  • Yap, Joseph P. (2019). The Western Regions, Xiongnu and Han, from the Shiji, Hanshu and Hou Hanshu. ISBN 978-1792829154.