The Beta variant, (B.1.351),[a] was a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. One of several SARS-CoV-2 variants initially believed to be of particular importance, it was first detected in the Nelson Mandela Bay metropolitan area of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa in October 2020, which was reported by the country's health department on 18 December 2020. Phylogeographic analysis suggests this variant emerged in the Nelson Mandela Bay area in July or August 2020.
|First detected||Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa|
|Date reported||July 2020or August 2020|
|Status||Variant of concern|
The World Health Organization labelled the variant as Beta variant, not to replace the scientific name but as a name for the public to commonly refer to. The WHO considers it to be a variant of concern no longer in circulation.
The variant is also known as the South African variant.
Amino acid mutations of SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant plotted on a genome map of SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on Spike.
Footnote: 1Presented in parent lineage B.1.
Source: Tegally et al. (2020), supplementary Fig S8
There are three mutations of particular interest in the spike region of the lineage B.1.351 genome:
and a further five spike mutations which have so far generated less concern:
Away from the spike region, it also carries: K1655N, SGF 3675-3677 deletion, P71L, and T205I.
Scientists noted that the variant is able to attach more easily to human cells because of three mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike glycoprotein of the virus: N501Y (a change from asparagine (N) to tyrosine (Y) in amino-acid position 501), K417N, and E484K. Two of these mutations, E484K and N501Y, are within the receptor-binding motif (RBM) of the receptor-binding domain (RBD).
The N501Y mutation has also been detected in the United Kingdom. Two mutations found in the Beta variant, E484K and K417N, are not found in Alpha variant. Also, Beta does not have the 69-70del mutation found in the other variant.
Vaccine efficacy Edit
On 4 January 2021, UK newspaper The Telegraph reported that Oxford immunologist Sir John Bell believed there was "a big question mark" over the new South African variant's potential resistance to COVID-19 vaccines, raising fears that vaccines might not work as effectively on that variant strain. The same day Shabir Madhi, professor of vaccinology at the University of the Witwatersrand, commented to CBS News that "it's not a given" that the new Beta variant (501.V2 variant) would be able to evade the vaccines, but that it should be considered that they "might not have the full efficacy". The additional mutations to the spike protein in Beta were raised as a concerning factor by Simon Clarke, an associate professor in cellular microbiology at the University of Reading, in that they "may make the virus less susceptible to the immune response triggered by the vaccines". Lawrence Young, a virologist at Warwick University, also noted that the variant's multiple spike mutations "could lead to some escape from immune protection".
The E484K amino acid change, a receptor-binding-domain (RBD) mutation, was reported to be "associated with escape from neutralising antibodies" which could adversely affect the efficacy of spike protein-dependent COVID vaccines. The E484K spike mutation was linked to a case of reinfection with the Beta variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil, believed by researchers to be the first such case of reinfection involving this mutation. The possibility of an alteration in antigenicity was referred to as an "escape mutation" from a monoclonal antibody with the capability of neutralizing the spike protein variants of SARS-CoV-2. This suggests that existing vaccines can and should be updated to counter the new strains without recourse to phased trials.
In January, Johnson & Johnson, which held trials for its Janssen (Ad26.COV2.S) vaccine in South Africa, reported the level of protection against moderate to severe COVID-19 infection was 72% in the United States, but 64% in South Africa.
On 17 February 2021, Pfizer announced that neutralisation activity was reduced by two thirds for the Beta variant, whilst refraining from making claims about the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing illness as a result of this variant.
On 1 April 2021, an update on a South African vaccine trial stated that the vaccine was 100% effective so far (i.e., vaccinated participants saw no cases), with six of nine infections in the placebo control group being the Beta variant (lineage B.1.351). However, nine days later, an Israeli study found that the variant was present even in people who had received both shots of the vaccine, its prevalence a disproportionate, eight-fold increase amongst vaccinated individuals in comparison to wild strains.
On 5 May 2021, a letter summarizing results from the Qatar National Study Group for COVID-19 Vaccination showed 75% effectiveness against infection, with zero cases of severe disease.
On 6 February 2021, The Financial Times reported that provisional trial data from a study undertaken by South Africa's University of the Witwatersrand in conjunction with Oxford University demonstrated reduced efficacy of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against the Beta variant. The study found that in a sample size of 2,000 the AZD1222 vaccine afforded only "minimal protection" in all but the most severe cases of COVID-19.
On 7 February 2021, the South African government suspended the planned deployment of around 1 million doses of the vaccine whilst they examined the data and awaited advice on how to proceed. The South African government subsequently cancelled the use of the vaccine, selling its supply to other African countries, and switched its vaccination program to use the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.
In July 2021, following increased incidence of Beta in France, the United Kingdom - a major user of the AstraZeneca vaccine - placed additional restrictions on people travelling to the UK from France. However, the incidence in France is in its Indian Ocean territory of La Réunion, as pointed out by French politician and doctor Veronique Trillet-Lenoir.
Sinopharm BIBP Edit
Other African countries have begun the roll out the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine, with Morocco, Egypt, The Seychelles and Zimbabwe starting the mass rollout. So far, the vaccine has proven resistant to the Beta variant, as demonstrated in Zimbabwe. On 2 February 2021, a preprint paper announced that neutralisation activity was reduced by 1.6 fold for the Beta variant.
In February, Moderna reported that the current vaccine (mRNA-1273) produced only one sixth of the antibodies in response to the South African variant compared with the original virus. They have even launched a trial of a new vaccine to tackle the Beta variant.
Sputnik V Edit
Sputnik V (Gam-COVID-Vac) is one of three Covid vaccines worldwide with an efficacy higher than 90% in symptomatic cases. It was found to be slightly less effective however it worked better than its rivals. A three fold reduction in VNA was found against the beta variant.   A small study of 12 samples published in the nature communications journal showed that the neutralising antibody response was about 6.1 times less against the beta variant.
Covaxin has been found to be effective against the beta variant although with a three fold reduction in neutralization.
The BioVac Institute, a state-backed South African vaccine company, plans to use a deal it won to manufacture coronavirus vaccines. The contract with American based ImmunityBio Inc is currently conducting phase 1 vaccine trials with their hAd5 vaccine in the United States and South Africa.
Researchers and officials reported that the prevalence of the variant was higher among young people with no underlying health conditions, and more frequently causes serious illness in such cases than other variants. The South African health department also indicated that the variant may be driving the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the country, as the variant spreads faster than other earlier variants of the virus.
|Country||Confirmed cases (GISAID)
as of 21 July 2021
|Angola||401||22 April 2021|
|Argentina||1||24 April 2021|
|Aruba||4||10 April 2021|
|Australia||73||28 June 2021|
|Austria||260||8 June 2021|
|Bahrain||1||9 April 2021|
|Bangladesh||56||16 June 2021|
|Belgium||1,075||14 June 2021|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1||11 February 2021|
|Botswana||342||27 June 2021|
|Brazil||6||5 April 2021|
|Brunei||1||20 January 2021|
|Bulgaria||2||9 June 2021|
|Cambodia||1||31 May 2021|
|Cameroon||9||1 March 2021|
|Canada||860||21 June 2021|
|Chile||4||22 May 2021|
|China||89||4 June 2021|
|Colombia||1||13 April 2021|
|Costa Rica||12||4 May 2021|
|Cote d'Ivoire||1||6 March 2021|
|Czech Republic||71||10 June 2021|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||30||20 April 2021|
|Denmark||121||29 June 2021|
|Djibouti||22||9 April 2021|
|Equatorial Guinea||43||1 April 2021|
|Estonia||37||23 April 2021|
|Eswatini||26||23 March 2021|
|Finland||1,123||21 May 2021|
|France||2,149||23 June 2021|
|French Guiana||2||7 April 2021|
|Gabon||4||21 February 2021|
|Georgia||1||23 May 2021|
|Germany||2,231||19 June 2021|
|Ghana||17||8 April 2021|
|Greece||19||29 April 2021|
|Guadeloupe||4||25 May 2021|
|Guam||3||28 April 2021|
|Guinea Bissau||1||1 February 2021|
|India||208||14 June 2021|
|Indonesia||10||2 June 2021|
|Iran||2||3 April 2021|
|Iraq||1||26 February 2021|
|Ireland||69||19 April 2021|
|Israel||240||28 May 2021|
|Italy||69||1 June 2021|
|Japan||89||13 June 2021|
|Jordan||2||18 April 2021|
|Kenya||178||31 May 2021|
|Kuwait||1||21 June 2021|
|Latvia||9||13 May 2021|
|Lesotho||14||18 January 2021|
|Lithuania||11||9 April 2021|
|Luxembourg||744||22 May 2021|
|Malawi||312||16 April 2021|
|Malaysia||161||10 June 2021|
|Malta||3||1 June 2021|
|Martinique||2||28 April 2021|
|Mauritius||7||12 March 2021|
|Mayotte||32||31 January 2021|
|Mexico||20||16 May 2021|
|Mozambique||328||22 April 2021|
|Netherlands||693||27 May 2021|
|New Zealand||31||25 June 2021|
|North Macedonia||1||10 March 2021|
|Norway||362||11 June 2021|
|Pakistan||35||5 June 2021|
|Panama||2||12 January 2021|
|Philippines||1,213||8 April 2021|
|Poland||45||7 June 2021|
|Portugal||99||2 June 2021|
|Qatar||650||18 May 2021|
|Reunion||400||19 June 2021|
|Romania||7||26 May 2021|
|Russia||23||12 June 2021|
|Rwanda||39||15 June 2021|
|Saudi Arabia||3||15 April 2021|
|Singapore||100||25 June 2021|
|Sint Maarten||1||24 March 2021|
|Slovakia||31||27 May 2021|
|Slovenia||31||6 April 2021|
|South Africa||6,154||21 June 2021|
|South Korea||19||17 April 2021|
|South Sudan||3||24 April 2021|
|Spain||588||18 June 2021|
|Sri Lanka||4||26 March 2021|
|Suriname||5||31 March 2021|
|Sweden||2,322||17 June 2021|
|Switzerland||225||22 June 2021|
|Taiwan||3||26 April 2021|
|Thailand||40||25 May 2021|
|Togo||2||5 February 2021|
|Tunisia||1||24 April 2021|
|Turkey||912||24 May 2021|
|Uganda||13||2 April 2021|
|United Arab Emirates||6||27 April 2021|
|United Kingdom||812||24 June 2021|
|USA||2,454||28 June 2021|
|Zambia||161||28 April 2021|
|Zimbabwe||331||26 February 2021|
|World (103 countries)||Total: 28,380||Total as of 21 July 2021|
A genomics team led by the KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (KRISP) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal discovered the new variant. It was uncovered by whole genome sequencing. Several genomic sequences from this lineage were submitted to the GISAID sequence database.[better source needed]
On 23 December 2020, UK health minister Matt Hancock announced that two people who had travelled from South Africa to the UK were infected with the Beta variant (501.V2 variant). On 28 December, the variant had been detected in two people in Switzerland and in one in Finland. On 29 December, the strain had been detected in a visitor from South Africa to Japan, and in one overseas traveller to Queensland, Australia. On 30 December the variant was detected in Zambia. On 31 December, it was also detected in France, in a passenger returning from South Africa. On 2 January 2021, the first case of this variant was detected in South Korea. Austria reported their first case of this variant, along with four cases of the Alpha variant on 4 January. The Republic of Botswana also detected their first case on 4 January. The People's Republic of China reported the first case of this variant in southern Guangdong province on 6 January.
On 8 January 2021, the Republic of Ireland reported the detection of 3 cases, all linked to travel from South Africa. On the same day a case of reinfection with the new variant by a woman who had had COVID-19 was reported from Brazil, the first such reinfection reported in the world. Canada reported the first case of this variant in Alberta on 9 January, and Israel reported four cases, all of which were imported in people travelling from South Africa. New Zealand reported the first case of this variant on 10 January. On 12 January, Germany reported the detection of the mutation in six people from three different households. The same day, it was reported that the United Kingdom had a total of 29 cases, two of which were previously reported. The following day, Belgium reported the first case in a person from West Flanders with no travel history, Israel reported four further cases, and Taiwan reported the first case in a Swazi man in his 30s who had tested positive for COVID-19 on 1 January.
On 14 January, Germany detected a further case and the following day, Canada reported a second case of the mutation which was detected in the Canadian province of British Columbia. A further case was reported in Germany the same day. Denmark and Réunion reported their first cases on 16 January as Israel discovered a further four cases. On 17 January, Israel reported another four cases bringing their total number of cases of this variant to 20. Two further cases were reported in The Netherlands on 18 January bringing the country's total to three. Ghana reported its first case of the variant on 19 January. On 23 January, Panama detected its first case of the strain in a person from Zimbabwe, who had travelled from South Africa. Also on 23 January, Belgium reported at least 15 cases of the variant in Ostend, while 6 cases were confirmed in the Comoros. On 26 January, the Republic of Ireland reported the detection of 6 further cases. The United States reported its first cases of the variant on 28 January 2021, in the state of South Carolina. On 27 January, Israel reported 3 more cases which were the first cases of the variant from samples that were collected in the community randomly, without knowing the source of infection. Preliminary data reported by Africa CDC on 29 January indicated that the variant had reached Ghana. On 31 January, Israel reported its first case of reinfection with the new variant by a man who returned from Turkey.
On 1 February 2021, the United Kingdom Secretary of State for Health and Social Care reported the random detection of 11 cases of the variant where there was no connection to international travel. The same day, the Canadian province of Ontario reported the first case of the variant in the Peel Region, with a similar absence of travel history and no contact with anyone who had recently been abroad. On 8 February, the Republic of Ireland reported the detection of 2 further cases.
On 8 February 2021, Austria detected the greatest outbreak of Beta variant in Europe so far. A total of 293 confirmed cases and 200 suspected cases have been identified through sequencing, most of them will be confirmed in all probability. All of the cases were found in the Tirol region, where nearly 9% of the positive PCR tests were identified as the Beta variant by sequencing. The active cases were estimated at around 140. After a week of public discussion and political pressure about a possible quarantine of Tirol, the government of Austria abstained from isolating the areas of concern, instead making a formal plea to reduce movement in and out of the region and go for testing after visiting Tirol. Tirolean officials stated their intention to relax the lockdown rules in Tirol in keeping with the rest of Austria.
On 22 February, the Israeli Health Ministry stated that the variant had been genetically sequenced in just under 1% of 3,000 community samples. Later on, Israel reported a total of 444 cases of the variant, making it the highest infection rate in the world outside South Africa. On 25 February, the Republic of Ireland reported the detection of 4 further cases. By late February, Turkey had 49 cases of the Beta variant.
On 3 March 2021, the Philippines confirmed its first 6 new cases of the South African variant, with 3 patients from Pasay with no travel history, and 3 with travel histories from Qatar and UAE. On 5 March 2021, Romania reported its first two cases of the South African variant, coming from two patients in Bucharest and Pitești.
On 23 March 2021, Lithuania confirmed its first 2 new cases of the South African strain, 1 in Kaunas county and 1 in Vilnius. There are 10 more suspected cases of it. The infected people said, that they didn't travel anywhere. On 26 March there were 3 more cases confirmed, which means that virus is successfully spreading inside.
On 1 April 2021, Malaysia detected its first cases of South African variant. The health ministry reported two cases believed to originate from the Jalan Lima cluster, involving an employee based at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA), with other reported cases sparsely detected within Selangor. As of 1 April, a total of nine cases involving the variant is reported. By 2 May, a total of 48 cases has been detected in least 5 clusters and from contact tracing, of which 20 were found in two clusters in Perak and Kelantan.
On 12 April 2021 Turkey had 285 cases in 11 provinces.
See also Edit
- "GISAID - hCov19 Variants". www.gisaid.org. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants". www.who.int. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- "Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 3 January 2021.
- For a list of sources, see South African COVID-19 variant.
- "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants". www.who.int. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
- "Variants of concern". CDGN. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
- "SA reaches grim milestone of 1 million Covid-19 cases". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
- "Covid: South Africa passes one million infections as cases surge". BBC News. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
- "South Africa announces a new coronavirus variant". The New York Times. 18 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
N501Y...has been found in other countries, including the United Kingdom
- Houriiyah Tegally; et al. (22 December 2020). "Emergence and rapid spread of a new severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage with multiple spike mutations in South Africa". medrxiv. doi:10.1101/2020.12.21.20248640. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
Spatiotemporal phylogeographic analysis suggests that the 501Y.V2 lineage emerged in early August (early July – end August 2020, 95% highest posterior density) in Nelson Mandela Bay.
- "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants". www.who.int. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
- TIMESOFINDIA.COM (2 June 2021). "Explained: Why WHO named Covid-19 variants first found in India as 'Kappa' and 'Delta'". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
- Spike Variants: Beta variant, aka B.1.351, 501Y.V2, 20C/501Y.V2, and South African COVID-19 variant 24 June 2021, covdb.stanford.edu, accessed 1 July 2021
- Corum, Jonathan; Zimmer, Carl (18 January 2021). "Inside the B.1.1.7 Coronavirus Variant (Updated Feb. 18, 2021)". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
- Corum, Jonathan; Zimmer, Carl (24 February 2021). "Coronavirus Variants and Mutations (Section: The B.1.351 Lineage)". www.nytimes.com. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- Abdool Karim, Salim (19 December 2020). "The 2nd Covid-19 wave in South Africa: Transmissibility & a 501.V2 variant". Scribd. CAPRISA. p. 11. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- For a list of the symbols used for the α-amino acids incorporated into protein under mRNA direction, see: "Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides". IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. 1983. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
- Statement of the WHO Working Group on COVID-19 Animal Models (WHO-COM) about the UK and South African SARS-CoV-2 new variants (PDF), World Health Organization, 22 December 2020, retrieved 23 December 2020
- Lowe, Derek (22 December 2020). "The New Mutations". In The Pipeline. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
I should note here that there's another strain in South Africa that is bringing on similar concerns. This one has eight mutations in the Spike protein, with three of them (K417N, E484K and N501Y) that may have some functional role.
- "Expert reaction to South African variant of SARS-CoV-2". Science Media Centre. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- Tegally, Houriiyah; Wilkinson, Eduan; Giovanetti, Marta; Iranzadeh, Arash; Fonseca, Vagner; Giandhari, Jennifer; et al. (2020). Emergence and rapid spread of a new severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage with multiple spike mutations in South Africa (Report). doi:10.1101/2020.12.21.20248640. S2CID 229348551.
- "Novel mutation combination in spike receptor binding site" (Press release). GISAID. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
- "Expert reaction to South African variant of SARS-CoV-2, as mentioned by Matt Hancock at the Downing Street press briefing". Science Media Centre. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
The South African variant '501.V2' is characterised by N501Y, E484K and K417N mutations in the S protein – so it shares the N501Y mutation with the UK variant, but the other two mutations are not found in the UK variant. Similarly, the South African variant does not contain the 69-70del mutation that is found in the UK variant.
- Knapton, Sarah (4 January 2021). "South African variant may evade vaccines and testing, warn scientists". www.telegraph.co.uk.
- Carter, Sarah (4 January 2021). "COVID vaccines "might not" work as well on South African strain, scientists warn". CBS News. Johannesburg.
- "UK scientists worry vaccines may not protect against S.African coronavirus variant". Reuters. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- "New virus mutation raises vaccine questions". France 24. Paris. 13 January 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- Callaway, Ewen (7 January 2021). "Could new COVID variants undermine vaccines? Labs scramble to find out". Nature. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
Chief among those is another receptor-binding-domain mutation, called E484K, that de Oliveira's team has identified in the 501Y.V2 variant.
- "South African coronavirus variant detected in reinfection case in Brazil". www.reuters.com. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
- Weisblum, Yiska; Schmidt, Fabian; Zhang, Fengwen; Dasilva, Justin; Poston, Daniel; Lorenzi, Julio CC; et al. (20 October 2020). "Escape from neutralizing antibodies by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants". eLife. 9. doi:10.7554/eLife.61312. PMC 7723407. PMID 33112236.
- "Brief report: New Variant Strain of SARS-CoV-2 Identified in Travelers from Brazil" (PDF) (Press release). Japan: NIID (National Institute of Infectious Diseases). 12 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- "Emergency use authorization (EUA) of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)" (PDF). Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine (Authorization). Food and Drug Administration. 23 April 2021. Table 8.
- "Johnson & Johnson Announces Single-Shot Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Met Primary Endpoints in Interim Analysis of its Phase 3 ENSEMBLE Trial". jnj.com. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
- Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Xia, Hongjie; Zhang, Xianwen; Fontes-Garfias, Camila R.; Swanson, Kena A.; et al. (17 February 2021). "Neutralizing Activity of BNT162b2-Elicited Serum — Preliminary Report". New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/nejmc2102017. PMC 7944950. PMID 33596352.
- Staff Writer. "South Africa approves Pfizer Covid-19 vaccine for emergency use". Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- "Pfizer and BioNTech Confirm High Efficacy and No Serious Safety Concerns Through Up to Six Months Following Second Dose in Updated Topline Analysis of Landmark COVID-19 Vaccine Study". Pfizer. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
- "South African variant may evade protection from Pfizer vaccine, Israeli study says". Reuters. 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
- Abu-Raddad, L. J.; Chemaitelly, H.; Butt, A. A.; National Study Group for COVID-19 Vaccination (5 May 2021). "Correspondence: Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Variants". New England Journal of Medicine. 385 (2): 187–189. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2104974. PMC 8117967. PMID 33951357.
- Booth, William; Johnson, Carolyn Y. (7 February 2021). "South Africa suspends Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine rollout after researchers report 'minimal' protection against coronavirus variant". The Washington Post. London. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
South Africa will suspend use of the coronavirus vaccine being developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca after researchers found it provided "minimal protection" against mild to moderate coronavirus infections caused by the new variant first detected in that country.
- "Covid: South Africa halts AstraZeneca vaccine rollout over new variant". BBC News. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "South Africa sells AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines to other African countries". Reuters. 21 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "South Africa gets rid of 1 million AstraZeneca vaccine doses, but why?". RFI. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "Just how widespread in France is the Beta variant of Covid?". 29 July 2021.
- "Outcry grows over France 'amber plus' move". Independent.co.uk. 18 July 2021.
- "Other African countries are rapidly rolling out China's vaccine – as SA awaits more data". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "Covid: South Africa variant now 'dominant' in Zimbabwe". BBC News. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Huang, Baoying; Dai, Lianpan; Wang, Hui; Hu, Zhongyu; Yang, Xiaoming; Tan, Wenjie; Gao, George F. (2 February 2021). "Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 VOC 501Y.V2 by human antisera elicited by both inactivated BBIBP-CorV and recombinant dimeric RBD ZF2001 vaccines". bioRxiv: 2021.02.01.429069. doi:10.1101/2021.02.01.429069. S2CID 231834094.
- Kuchler, Hannah (25 January 2021). "Moderna develops new vaccine to tackle mutant Covid strain". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- "Sahpra begins evaluation of Russia's Sputnik V vaccine for use in SA". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Basu, Mohana (27 July 2021). "Sputnik V found to be less effective against Beta variant in lab tests, study says". ThePrint. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
- "China's Sinovac offers SA 5-million vaccine doses 'within weeks'". 702. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "Sinovac May Supply South Africa With 5 Million Vaccines, Report Says". Bloomberg.com. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Ellis, Ralph. "Vaccine Not as Effective Against S. African Variant". WebMD. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "COVID-19: Latest global developments | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "South African SARS-CoV-2 variant neutralized by two Chinese vaccines in case study". News-Medical.net. 4 February 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- "Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Demonstrates 89.3% Efficacy in UK Phase 3 Trial". ir.novavax.com. 28 January 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
- "Covid-19 to Serve as Platform for South African Vaccine Industry". Bloomberg.com. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Fisher, Shamiela. "Nzimande excited about vaccine partnership between Biovac & ImmunityBio". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Sguazzin, Antony. "SA's BioVac to use deal with US-based ImmunityBio to boost local vaccine creation, CEO says". Fin24. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- Wroughton, Lesley; Bearak, Max (18 December 2020). "South Africa coronavirus: Second wave fueled by new strain, teen 'rage festivals'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
- Mkhize, Dr Zwelini (18 December 2020). "Update on Covid-19 (18th December 2020)" (Press release). South Africa. COVID-19 South African Online Portal. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
Our clinicians have also warned us that things have changed and that younger, previously healthy people are now becoming very sick.
- "South African scientists who discovered new Covid-19 variant share what they know". www.theconversation.com. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
- "Risk Assessment: Risk related to spread of new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in the EU/EEA". www.ecdc.europa.eu. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
This variant was first observed in samples from October, and since then more than 300 cases with the 501.V2 variant have been confirmed by whole genome sequencing (WGS) in South Africa
- Sample, Ian; Grover, Natalie (23 December 2020). "South African Covid-19 variant has reached the UK, says Matt Hancock". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
- "South African Covid variant discovered in Switzerland". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
- "Update: New UK, South African variant Covid strains detected in Finland". Yle News. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
- "South African coronavirus variant found in Japan". News24. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
- "First case of 'more contagious' coronavirus strain detected in Australia". 9 News. 29 December 2020.
- "Second COVID-19 wave confirmed in Zambia". Xinhua News Agency. 30 December 2020.
- "France detects first case of South African strain of Covid-19". France24. 31 December 2020.
- "남아공 '변이 코로나' 첫 국내 확인…영국발 변이도 4건 추가" [South Africa's 'mutant corona' first confirmed in Korea... 4 additional variations from UK] (in Korean). Donga Ilbo. 2 January 2021.
- "British, South African corornavirus [sic] mutations detected in Austria". Reuters. Berlin. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
- "Botswana government adjusts national lockdown regulations". SABC News. South Africa. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
...the new strain of the COVID-19 virus, known as 501V2 variant, has been detected in Botswana.
- "Factbox-Coronavirus variants, first found in UK and South Africa, spread worldwide". Reuters. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- "Statement from the National Public Health Emergency Team - Friday 8 January". Government of Ireland. Department of Health. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- "First case of South African COVID-19 variant detected in Canada". dailyhive.com. 9 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
- "Israel records 4 cases of S. African COVID-19 variant". Ynet. 9 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
- "coronavirus-very-contagious-south-africa-variant-now-in-new-zealand". www.newshub.co.nz.
- Martin, Hannah; Hunt, Tom (10 January 2021). "Covid-19: Health officials confirm 31 new cases of coronavirus, first case of South African variant found". Stuff (website). New Zealand. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- Gebauer, Mathhias (12 January 2021). "Coronavirus: Südafrikanische Virus-Mutation auch in Deutschland nachgewiesen" [South African virus mutation also detected in Germany]. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 13 January 2021.
Mittlerweile gebe es sechs Virusnachweise bei sechs Personen aus drei Haushalten, teilte das Ministerium mit. (There are now six virus detections in six people from three households, the ministry said.)
- Sample, Ian (12 January 2021). "Public Health England steps up surveillance of South African Covid variant". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
Scientists are particularly concerned about the South African variant, named B1351... ...At least 29 cases in the UK and three in Ireland have been recorded.
- Alexander Verstraete (13 January 2021). "Eerste geval met Zuid-Afrikaanse coronavariant bevestigd in ons land net als 8 nieuwe gevallen van Britse variant" [First case with South African corona variant confirmed in our country as well as 8 new cases of British variant]. VRT. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
- "Four Additional Cases of the South African Variant Detected". Ministry of Health (Israel). 13 January 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "Taiwan reports first case of mutant South African Covid strain". Taiwan News. Taipei. 13 January 2021. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "Corona-Mutante aus Südafrika in Hamburg entdeckt" [Corona mutant from South Africa discovered in Hamburg]. www.t-online.de (in German). 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
- Little, Simon (15 January 2021). "B.C. becomes 2nd province to identify South African COVID-19 variant". Global News. British Columbia. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
- "Südafrika-Corona-Mutation jetzt auch in Hessen nachgewiesen" [South Africa Corona mutation now also detected in Hesse]. AerzteZeitung.de (in German). 15 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- "Status for udvikling af SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) i Danmark". ssi.dk (in Danish). Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- Yepes, Manuel (16 January 2021). "Covid : un 1er cas de variant sud-africain confirmé à La Réunion" [Covid: a 1st case of South African variant confirmed in Réunion]. Linfo.re (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- "Health Ministry reports 4 more cases of South African virus variant". The Times of Israel. 16 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
- "Gov't votes to require all Dubai returnees to isolate in COVID-19 hotels". The Jerusalem Post. 17 January 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
There are 20 known cases of the variant in the country that resulted from seven chains of infection.
- Klaassen, Niels (18 January 2021). "Berekening van Nederlandse expertengroep: "Eén op tien heeft nu Britse coronavariant, mogelijk derde golf in maart"" [Calculation of Dutch expert group: "One in ten now has British corona variant, possibly third wave in March"]. HLN (in Dutch). The Netherlands. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
Verder zijn er inmiddels drie gevallen van de Zuid-Afrikaanse variant bekend, een andere besmettelijke mutatie van het coronavirus. (Furthermore, three cases of the South African variant, another contagious mutation of the coronavirus, are now known.)
- "COVID-19: UK, South Africa variants found in Ghana – Senior Researcher". StarrFM. 19 January 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
- "Panama detects first case of South Africa COVID-19 variant - health ministry". www.reuters.com. 23 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
- "At least 15(sic) cases of South African variant in Ostend". VRT. 23 January 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
- Martin, Guillaume (23 January 2021). "Comores : la ministre de la Santé confirme la présence du variant sud-africain, 6 cas sur les 100 en 24h" [Comoros: the Minister of Health confirms the presence of the South African variant, 6 cases out of 100 in 24 hours] (in French). Free Dom. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- "Statement from the National Public Health Emergency Team - Tuesday 26 January". Government of Ireland. Department of Health. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
- Chappell, Bill (28 January 2021). "South Carolina Reports 1st Known U.S. Cases Of Variant From South Africa". NPR News. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
- "30 Cases of the South African Variant Detected So Far". Ministry of Health. 27 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "New SARS-CoV-2 variants in Africa". Africa CDC. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
- Yanko, Adir (31 January 2021). "In first, Israeli reinfected with S.African COVID variant". Ynet. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
- "Coronavirus: UK must 'come down hard' on South African variant". BBC News. London. 1 February 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- "First case of South African variant confirmed in Ontario as province reports 1,969 cases of COVID-19". CBC News. Toronto. 1 February 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
- Bowers, Fergal (8 February 2021). "829 new Covid-19 cases, six further deaths, 230,776 vaccinations". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
- "Mutationen: 293 "Südafrika-Fälle" in Tirol bestätigt" [Mutations: 293 "South Africa cases" confirmed in Tyrol]. www.vienna.at. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
- "Bundesregierung spricht Reisewarnung für Tirol aus" [Federal government issues travel warning for Tyrol]. www.bundeskanzleramt.gv.at. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
- Oltermann, Philip (8 February 2021). "Austria warns against travel to Tirol after Bavaria threatens border closure". The Guardian. Berlin. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
- "Health Ministry: 1% of 3,000 COVID samples found be South African variant". The Times of Israel. 22 February 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
Another 444 individuals have been found to be carrying the South African variant.
- "4 children hospitalized in critical condition with COVID-19". Israel Hayom. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
Another 444 individuals have been found to be carrying the South African variant.
- McGlynn, Michelle (25 February 2021). "Nphet confirm new variant B1525 detected in Ireland as 35 deaths and 613 cases confirmed". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
- "No virus variant originated in Turkey: Health ministe". aa.com.tr. Ankara. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
- "PH finds six cases of COVID-19 variant detected in South Africa, more cases of UK variant and mutations". CNN News. Manila. 2 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- "Primele cazuri de infectare cu tulpina SARS-CoV-2 sud-africană, descoperite în România" [First cases of infection with the South African SARS-CoV-2 strain, discovered in Romania] (in Romanian). Europa FM. 5 March 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- "Šimonytė: Lietuvoje nustatyta dar viena pavojinga koronaviruso atmaina, jau rytoj galima tikėtis karantino griežtinimų" [Šimonytė: Another dangerous strain of coronavirus detected in Lithuania, quarantine tightening can be expected tomorrow]. www.delfi.lt. 23 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
- "Health Ministry: South African Covid-19 variant detected in Malaysia | The Star". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
- Reporters, F. M. T. (1 April 2021). "9 Covid-19 cases involving South African variant found". Free Malaysia Today (FMT). Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
- "Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 2 Mei 2021 – Situasi Semasa Jangkitan Penyakit Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) di Malaysia" (in Malay). From the Desk of the Director-General of Health Malaysia. 2 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
- Aliyev, Jeyhun; Hamit, Dilara (12 April 2021). "Turkey: 85% of new COVID-19 cases due to UK variant S.Africa COVID variant seen in 285 people in 11 of Turkey's 81 provinces, Brazil strain seen in 166 people: Health minister". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- Rachael Rettner (23 March 2022). "Coronavirus variants: Facts about omicron, delta and other COVID-19 mutants". livescience.com. Retrieved 17 August 2022.