The Sûreté du Québec (SQ; French: [syʁte dy kebɛk], lit.'Safety of Quebec') is the provincial police service for the Canadian province of Quebec.[6] The agency's name is sometimes translated to Quebec Provincial Police (QPP) and Quebec Police Force (QPF) in English-language sources. The headquarters of the Sûreté du Québec are located on Parthenais Street in Montreal's Sainte-Marie neighbourhood, and the service employs over 5,700 officers. The SQ is the second-largest provincial police service (behind the Ontario Provincial Police) and the third-largest police service in Canada (behind the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Ontario Provincial Police).

Sûreté du Québec
Badge of the Sûreté du Québec[1]
Badge of the Sûreté du Québec[1]
Coat of arms[2]
Patch of Sûreté du Québec
Patch of Sûreté du Québec
Flag of the Sûreté du Québec
Flag of the Sûreté du Québec
MottoService, Intégrité, Justice
Service, Integrity, Justice
Agency overview
FormedMay 1, 1870
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionQuebec, Canada
Size1,542,056 km2
Operational structure
Overseen byMinistry of Public Security of Quebec[3]
Headquarters1701, rue Parthenais
Montreal, Quebec
H2K 3S7
Minister responsible
Agency executive
  • Johanne Beausoleil, Director-general[5]
Website Edit this at Wikidata



No official English name exists; being a minority, Quebec English speakers frequently use common or official French-language terms instead of the more recognised English terms of North American English.[7][8]



The primary function of the Sûreté du Québec (SQ) is to enforce provincial laws, some municipal bylaws, the Criminal Code and many other laws throughout Quebec, and to assist municipal police services when needed.

At the local level, the SQ is responsible for providing local police services to municipalities that chose not to have their own police department (mostly localities with populations under 50,000), in exchange for payment relative to their size. In other cities, the Sûreté du Québec can also take over criminal investigations from municipal police services when required by the Police Act of the province, according to the severity of the crime and the size of the population (e.g., the SQ will take in charge any homicide with no imminent arrests in a city of less than 250,000, even if it has its own police department).[9] The SQ is usually present in smaller, rural or suburban communities, and it is not usually visible on the streets of large urban centres like Montreal and Quebec City, whose own police departments must provide a wide range of services and operations by law. In those cities, however, the SQ still has large offices where various investigations are conducted.

At the provincial level, the SQ is responsible for actions such as patrolling the highways of Quebec, preserving the integrity of governmental institutions, coordinating large-scale investigations (such as during the biker war in the 1990s), and maintaining and sharing the criminal intelligence database of Quebec with other services.[10] In addition, the SQ can provide technical assistance to Quebec's independent investigation unit (BEI) in any incident involving possible wrongdoing by another police department, such as deaths and serious injuries. Should the SQ be involved in such an incident, assistance (if needed) will be provided either by the police service of Montreal or of Quebec City.[11]



On February 1, 1870, the Quebec provincial government created the Police provinciale du Québec[12] under the direction of its first commissioner, Judge Pierre-Antoine Doucet. This new service took over the headquarters of the Quebec City municipal police, which were then disbanded, although the city relaunched a municipal service in 1877.

In 1900, two distinct provincial police services were created: the Office of Provincial Detectives of Montreal, in response to a crime wave in that city, and the Revenue Police, whose mission was to collect taxes. In 1902, the government decided that the provincial police should no longer be directed by a judge but by an officer of the police themselves. Augustin McCarthy was chosen as the first chief drawn from the ranks of the police.

In 1922, two headquarters were established, one in Quebec City, headed by McCarthy, and one in Montreal, headed by Dieudonné Daniel Lorrain. The Office of Provincial Detectives of Montreal became part of the general provincial police in that year. The Quebec division included 35 police officers and two detectives. In 1925, police officers started patrolling on motorcycles. In 1929 and 1930, the structure of the service was reformed and the agency adopted a new name as Sûreté provinciale du Québec which was later shortened to its present name.[13]

Oka Crisis


A significant local, provincial, national and First Nations crisis erupted in 1990 after SQ officers attempted to enforce a court order on the Mohawks of Oka, Quebec. SQ Corporal Marcel Lemay was killed by gunfire in the initial raid (likely by friendly fire [citation needed]), and a 77-day standoff ensued.

Montebello incident


The Sûreté du Québec admitted in August 2007 that they had used undercover police posing as protestors at the 2007 Montebello Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America meetings. This admission[14] was made after a video captured by protestors was widely circulated in the Canadian media and made available on YouTube.[15] The video appeared to show one of the officers carrying a rock, suggesting that the police may have been acting as inciting agents by inciting violence.[16]

Chiefs and directors-general



Upper floors of the SQ headquarters in Montreal.
  1. Bas-Saint-Laurent-Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
  2. Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
  3. Capitale-Nationale-Chaudière-Appalaches
  4. Mauricie-Centre-du-Québec
  5. Estrie
  6. Montréal-Laval-Laurentides-Lanaudière
  7. Outaouais
  8. Abitibi-Témiscamingue-Nord-du-Québec
  9. Côte-Nord
  10. Montérégie

Rank badges


Rank insignia of the Sûreté du Québec are contained on slip-on sleeves, worn on the epaulettes of uniform jacket or shirt shoulders.

Constables (Agent) do not have any insignia on their uniform. The SQ formerly had the rank of Corporal above Constable rank. Team leaders have an epaulette with the words Chef d'équipe.

Ranks of Sûreté du Québec[18][19]
General staff officers Officers Sub-Officers Agents
Directeur general Directeur adjoint Inspecteur chef Inspecteur Capitaine Lieutenant Sergent Chef d'equipe Constable
Director general of the SQ Associate director Chief Inspector Inspector Captain Sergeant Team Leader
No insignia



Early uniforms were British in origin, including the use of the custodian helmet, with the kepi later added as well.[20] The service adopted a uniform with a more distinct green tone, as well as a peaked cap, in the 1960s.[21]

The emblem of the service changed in the 1970s, when the old provincial coat of arms gave way to the fleur-de-lis.

In late 2016, Martin Prud'Homme, Director General of the SQ, announced the uniforms would be changed. Shirts and coats will be of a darker shade of olive green; patches, caps, and bulletproof vests will become black, and pants blue-black. One of the justifications for the changes was that the old green uniform was too similar to that of a soldier's.[22]



Beginning progressively in 2017, marked patrol cars are set to become black with white doors, on which the word "POLICE" will be more evident.[23]

A pair of SQ Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptors in 2008; the one on the left is in the pre-2005 livery design and the one on the right is in the post-2005 design used until 2017.
An SQ Dodge Charger in 2015, using the SQ's pre-2017 styling.
SQ Ford Police Interceptor Utility with post-2017 styling..
An SQ helicopter during the 2012 student protests




Special Vehicles:






The standard-issue weapon of the SQ is the Glock pistol, loaded in 9×19mm Parabellum caliber. Various models have been adopted, such as the standard Glock 17 Gen 3, compact Glock 19, and sub-compact Glock 26. Tactical officers used the C8CQB Close Quarter Battle combat rifle, a variant of the Colt Canada C8 rifle.

Prior to the Glock pistols, officers carried .357 Magnum revolvers, which were replaced with the Glock 17 in 2001.[25]

Licence Plate Recognition System


The SQ has been using the LPRS systems since 2009. The objective of the LPRS is to make the streets and highways safer by removing vehicles not authorized to be on the road. The hotlist plate database can consist of the following types:

  • unregistered plate (not paid at DMV/SAAQ)
  • stolen vehicles
  • AMBER Alert
  • wanted vehicles

The LPRS are installed on 10 Sûreté du Québec vehicles. The LPRS integrator is Gtechna. Gtechna is primarily a citations issuance and management software developer which integrates mission critical technologies such as Licence Plate Recognition (LPR) to streamline the enforcement of moving and parking violations.


The Sûreté du Québec has become well known internationally through the fictional Chief Inspector Armand Gamache and his colleagues, created by Canadian author Louise Penny, who lives in Quebec. Penny's works have been recognized in Quebec by her being made a Member of the Order of Quebec.[26]

The Three Pines series on Amazon Prime Video, inspired by the books, also includes characters who are police officers with the Sûreté du Québec, including Gamache.[27]

See also





  1. ^ "Sûreté du Québec badge". Official website of the Governor General. Retrieved 2018-12-17.
  2. ^ "Sûreté du Québec arms". Official website of the Governor General. Retrieved 2018-12-17.
  3. ^ "Sûreté du Québec". Ministère de la Sécurité publique (in French). Retrieved 2018-12-15. Corps de police national qui agit sous l'autorité du ministre de la Sécurité publique
  4. ^ .,with%20the%20public%20throughout%20Qu%C3%A9bec. Retrieved 2024-03-07. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b "Johanne Beausoleil appointed leader of Sûreté du Québec for seven years". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2022-04-22.
  6. ^ The Sûreté du Québec on the official website describes the service as a "national police service". "As a national police service providing services to citizens, other police organizations and the State, the Sûreté du Québec is also a leader in..."
  7. ^ "QPP - Quebec Provincial Police". 1990-07-11. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
  8. ^ "Quebec police admit they went undercover at Montebello protest - Canada - CBC News". 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2012-08-14.
  9. ^ "The Six Levels of Police Service According to Population Size". Sécurité Publique Québec.
  10. ^ "Mission, vision, valeurs". Sûreté du Québec (in French). Retrieved 2018-10-14.
  11. ^ "62 investigations, no charges in Quebec police watchdog's first year". Montreal Gazette. 2017-06-27. Retrieved 2018-10-14.
  12. ^ "1870 Les débuts de la Sûreté du Québec - Police - Sûreté du Québec". Retrieved 2012-08-14.
  13. ^ "1920-1929 Création de services spécialisés - Police - Sûreté du Québec". 2008-10-22. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
  14. ^ "Quebec police admit they went undercover at Montebello protest". CBC News. August 23, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  15. ^ "police accused of attempting to incite violence at spp". YouTube. 2007-08-22. Retrieved 2012-08-14.[dead YouTube link]
  16. ^ "Quebec police admit they went undercover at Montebello protest". CBC News. 2007-08-23.
  17. ^ a b "SQ chief Prud'homme relieved of duties after criminal allegation". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2022-04-22.
  18. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-06-05.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Grades à la Sûreté du Québec". Sûreté du Québec. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  20. ^ "1878 La police après 1878 - Police nationale - Sûreté du Québec". Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  21. ^ "1963-1967 Identification visuelle et modernisation - Police nationale - Sûreté du Québec". Archived from the original on 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  22. ^ "La SQ affiche ses couleurs". Journal de Montréal. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  23. ^ "Sûreté du Québec rolls out new black and white cruiser design". CBC News. 13 July 2017. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  24. ^ "Voici EN PRIMEUR que sera le nouveau véhicule blindé de la police de Québec". Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  25. ^ "Glock en stock à la SQ". 17 May 2001.
  26. ^ "Louise Penny – Ordre national du Québec".
  27. ^ "Alfred Molina finds multiple bodies and a town full of secrets in mysterious Three Pines trailer". Entertainment Weekly. 1 November 2022. Retrieved 4 December 2022.