The Hummer H1 is a four-wheel-drive utility vehicle based on the M998 Humvee, which was created by AM General. The vehicle was produced from 1992 through 2006 and was the first of what became the Hummer line. Originally designed strictly for military use, the off-road vehicle was released to the civilian market due to market demand.

Hummer H1
ManufacturerAM General
Also calledHummer HMC (1992–2002)
HUMVEE C-Series (2017-current)
Production1992–2006 (11,818 produced)
Model years1992–2004, 2006
AssemblyMishawaka, Indiana, U.S.
Body and chassis
ClassLarge truck/SUV
Body style4-door Open Top - HMCO
4-door SUV - HMCS
4-door Hard Top - HMC4
2-door Fleet - KSC2
2-door Enlarged Cab - XLC2
LayoutFront-mid engine, four-wheel drive
RelatedHumvee military vehicle
Engine6.2 L Detroit Diesel V8
6.5 L Detroit Diesel V8
5.7 L L05 V8
6.5 L turbo Detroit Diesel V8
6.6 L turbo DMAX Diesel V8
TransmissionGM TH400/3L80 3-speed automatic
GM 4L80-E 4-speed automatic
Allison 1000 5-speed automatic
Wheelbase130 in (3,302 mm)
Length184.5 in (4,686 mm)[1]
Width86.5 in (2,197 mm)
Height77 in (1,956 mm)
2004–06: 79 in (2,007 mm)
Pre-2003 Wagon: 75 in (1,905 mm)
SuccessorHummer H2

The vehicle was initially known as the "Hummer"; however, under a 1999 deal, GM bought marketing rights to the Hummer name and called it the Hummer H1.[2] At the time, GM began marketing the Hummer H2 that was also assembled by AM General on a modified GMC Sierra 2500HD chassis. AM General continued to build the H1 and Humvee in its Mishawaka, Indiana facility. GM stopped marketing the H1 in 2006 model year, but AM General continued production of the military Humvee versions.


Originally released in the civilian market March 14, 1992, the Hummer H1 became known from photographs published during Operation Desert Storm and the enthusiastic promotion by actor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

AM General announced that 2006 would be the last model year for the Hummer H1, with production winding down in June 2006 due to a new emission law for diesel engine vehicles, which took effect in 2007. The final model year of 2006 had the most powerful engine and improved fuel efficiency—about 10 mpg‑US (24 L/100 km; 12 mpg‑imp).[3]


The Hummer H1 was available in three major variants: a convertible-like soft top, a four-door hard top Sport Utility Truck and an "Alpha Wagon" body version. Less known variants were a two-door pickup truck and a four-door slantback, which shares the same body style of the Humvee employed by the U.S. Military. The convertible/soft top and the station SUV versions were the last types available to individual consumers.

Currently, five engine types and three automatic transmission types are available. Typical engine/automatic transmission combinations include:

The Hummer H1 shares some common driveline parts with the HMMWV. These include brakes, axles, frame and major body panels (hood, tailgate and quarter panels) are shared between the HMMWV and Hummer H1. All H1s and HMMWVs were produced on the same assembly line; of which the civilian H1s were painted and finished in a separate building.

The H1 models feature a wide track. They can ford 30 inches (76 cm) of water and climb a 22-inch (56 cm) step. Stock ground clearance of 16 inches (41 cm) is due to the driveline components inside a channel in the wide central space between the left and right seats. Approach/departure angles are 72/37.5 degrees. A Central Tire Inflation System (CTIS) controls the tire air pressure allowing lower tire pressures for off-road and higher tire pressures on-road.[4]

Other features include inboard brakes and portal gears to position drivetrain's half shafts higher for greater ground clearance. The radiator is mounted high, sloping over the engine on a forward-hinged hood. The air intake is high, enabling the H1 to ford waist-level water. Optional are magnesium-aluminum alloy or rubber inserts for run flat tire ability.[5] Other options include leather seats, a winch kit, and running boards.[5]

2006 Hummer H1 AlphaEdit

Hummer H1
A Hummer H1 convertible

The "Alpha" was a re-engineered H1 equipped with GM's Duramax Diesel and 5-speed Allison transmission. The previous turbo-diesel engine lacked power.

The update program commenced in late 2002 with production launch in fall of 2004. To fit into the H1 engine bay, 23 engine component changes were required as well as a 2.0 in (51 mm) body lift to accommodate the taller engine and its turbo housing (a prior 0.5 in (13 mm) lift had been done for MY96 to accommodate the turbo on the 6.5L engine). The 8th digit of the VIN is 3, setting this version of the 6.6L Duramax apart from the versions used in pickup trucks.[6] The GMT560 engine output was 300 hp (220 kW) and 520 lb⋅ft (705 N⋅m) of torque. The engine was equipped with cooled exhaust gas recirculation and an internal engine oil cooler, thus, requiring a 40 percent heat rejection increase to engine coolant. Because space was limited between the air-lift brackets that protrude from the hood, the fan system was modified by putting it directly under the cool pack and driving it through a special gearbox directly off the crankshaft damper pulley. Several other cooling system modifications were required to assist with cold starting from −30 °F (−34 °C).

Other major modifications included the use of special high-strength steel in the chassis frame, a more powerful steering gear; quieter axle differentials, redesign of the geared hubs to use quieter helical gears, new induction, exhaust and electrical power systems; and re-engineering of the fuel supply and filtration system.

The Duramax engine delivered more torque at lower engine speeds than the 6.5L, combined with a lower gearing ratio (about 44.5 to 1 in low lock) made the vehicle more powerful. Other changes included centralized tire inflation and a new interior.

Production launch was early in 2005 and continued until production ceased in mid-2006. All vehicles built during this time are classified as model year 2006 (10th digit in VIN is a 6.)

The program was cancelled May 12, 2006, because GM decided to withdraw technical and financial support for future engineering and recertification.

The Hummer brandEdit

On June 2, 2009, General Motors attempted a sale of its Hummer brand to a Chinese company, Tengzhong, as part of its bankruptcy settlement. GM stated at the time that it hoped the sale would save about 3,000 jobs in the US.

On February 24, 2010, General Motors announced that the company was shutting down its Hummer brand due to Tengzhong withdrawing its bid. Tengzhong stated that the bid was withdrawn due to a failure to get approval from the Chinese government.[7]

On January 30th, 2020, General Motors announced the revival of the Hummer nameplate, which would be used as a new electric off-road vehicle sub-brand within its GMC brand. The reborn Hummer, now known as the GMC Hummer EV, will have two variants, an SUV and a truck ("SUT"), with top variants reaching 1,000 hp from three electric motors.[8]

Yearly productionEdit

Model year Total production
1992 316
1993 612
1994 718
1995 1,432
1996 1,374
1997 1,209
1998 945
1999 831
2000 1,333
2001 869
2002 704
2003 494
2004 252
2005 0
2006 729
Total 11,818

While there was no 2005 model year Hummer H1, the 2006 model year H1 Alphas were manufactured in both 2005 and 2006. 448 H1 Alphas were produced from January through May 2005, and 281 H1 Alphas were produced from September 2005 through May 2006, when the production for the Hummer H1 officially ended.[9]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Hummer. July 1999.
  2. ^ "GM to discontinue original Hummer H1 model". NBC News. Associated Press. May 12, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
  3. ^ "Big, militaristic Hummer H1 on its way out". USAToday. Associated Press. May 14, 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
  4. ^ "Hummer H1 Review". Retrieved 2009-09-27.
  5. ^ a b "Hummer brochure". July 1999.
  6. ^ "Hummer H1 For Sale". Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  7. ^ G.M. to Close Hummer After Sale Fails
  8. ^ Paukert, Chris. "Hummer's electrifying return teased in GMC Super Bowl trailer". Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  9. ^ Hummer H1 2006 Model Year Changes,

External linksEdit