Rice bran oil

Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called bran. It is known for its high smoke point of 232 °C (450 °F) and mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir frying and deep frying. It is popular as a cooking oil in East Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Southern China and Malaysia.[1]

Rice bran oil
Rice Bran Oil.jpeg
Bottle of rice bran oil
Fat composition
Saturated fats
Total saturated25%
Myristic: 0.6%
Palmitic: 21.5%
Stearic: 2.9%
Unsaturated fats
Total unsaturated75%
Monounsaturated38%
Oleic acid38%
Polyunsaturated37%
Omega-3 fatty acidsα-Linolenic: 2.2%
Omega-6 fatty acidsLinoleic: 34.4%
Properties
Food energy per 100 g (3.5 oz)3,700 kJ (880 kcal)
Smoke point232 °C (450 °F)
Iodine value99-108
Acid value1.2
Saponification value180-190
Unsaponifiable3-5

Composition and propertiesEdit

Rice bran oil has a composition similar to that of peanut oil, with 38% monounsaturated, 37% polyunsaturated, and 25% saturated fatty acids.

A component of rice bran oil is the γ-oryzanol, at around 2% of crude oil content. Thought to be a single compound when initially isolated, γ-oryzanol is now known to be a mixture of steryl and other triterpenyl esters of ferulic acids.[1] Also present are tocopherols and tocotrienols (two types of vitamin E) and phytosterols.

Fatty acid composition[1]
Fatty acid Lipid
number
Percentage
Myristic acid C14:0 0.6%
Palmitic acid C16:0 21.5%
Stearic acid C18:0 2.9%
Oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid) C18:1 38.4%
Linoleic acid (LA, an omega-6 fatty acid) C18:2 34.4%
α-Linolenic acid (ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid) C18:3 2.2%
Physical properties of crude and refined rice bran oil[2][3]
Property Crude rice bran oil Refined oil
Moisture 0.5-1.0% 0.1-0.15%
Density (15 °C) 0.913-0.920 0.913-0.920
Refractive index 1.4672 1.4672
Iodine value 85-100 95-104
Saponification value 187 187
Unsaponifiable matter 4.5-5.5 1.8-2.5
Free fatty acids 5-15% 0.15-0.2%
Oryzanol 2.0 1.5-1.8
Tocopherol 0.15 0.05
Color (tintometer) 20Y+2.8R 10Y+1.0R

ResearchEdit

Rice bran oil consumption has been found to significantly decrease total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and triglyceride (TG) levels.[4]

UsesEdit

Rice bran oil is an edible oil which is used in various forms of food preparation. It is also the basis of some vegetable ghee. Rice bran wax, obtained from rice bran oil, is used as a substitute for carnauba wax in cosmetics, confectionery, shoe creams, and polishing compounds.

Isolated γ-oryzanol from rice bran oil is available in China as an over-the-counter drug,[5] and in other countries as a dietary supplement.

Comparison to other vegetable oilsEdit

The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by mass of total fat.
Properties of vegetable oils[6][7]
Type Processing
treatment[8]
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Smoke point
Total[6] Oleic
acid
(ω-9)
Total[6] α-Linolenic
acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic
acid
(ω-6)
ω-6:3
ratio
Avocado[9] 11.6 70.6 52–66[10] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[11]
Brazil nut[12] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[13]
Canola[14] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[13]
Coconut[15] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[13]
Corn[16] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[17]
Cottonseed[18] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F)[17]
Cottonseed[19] hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1
Flaxseed/linseed[20] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F)
Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 74.7 very high 216 °C (421 °F)[21]
Hemp seed[22] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F)[23]
Olive[24] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F)[13]
Palm[25] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F)
Palm[26] hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
Peanut[27] 16.2 57.1 55.4 19.9 0.318 19.6 61.6:1 232 °C (450 °F)[17]
Rice bran oil 25 38.4 38.4 36.6 2.2 34.4[1] 15.6 232 °C (450 °F)[28]
High-oleic safflower oil[29] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 very high 212 °C (414 °F)[13]
Sesame[30] 14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1
Soybean[31] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F)[17]
Soybean[32] partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1
Walnut oil[33] unrefined 9.1 22.8 22.2 63.3 10.4 52.9 5:1 160 °C (320 °F)[34]
Sunflower[35] 8.99 63.4 62.9 20.7 0.16 20.5 128:1 227 °C (440 °F)[17]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Orthoefer, F. T. (2005). "Chapter 10: Rice Bran Oil". In Shahidi, F. (ed.). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Vol. 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. doi:10.1002/047167849X. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3.
  2. ^ "What is Rice Bran Oil". A. P. Refinery.
  3. ^ SEA HandBook. The Solvent Extractors' Association of India. 2009.
  4. ^ Pourrajab B, Sohouli MH, Amirinejad A, Fatahi S, Găman MA, Shidfar F. (2021). "The impact of rice bran oil consumption on the serum lipid profile in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 10: 1–11. doi:10.1080/10408398.2021.1895062. PMID 33715544.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "National Drug Standard for 谷维素片 / Oryzanol Tablets (DRAFT)" (PDF). 国家食品药品监督管理总局. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  6. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited or when italicized as the simple arithmetic sum of other component columns.
  7. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  8. ^ "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF).
  9. ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  10. ^ Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  11. ^ Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. The American Oil Chemists’ Society. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  12. ^ "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  14. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  16. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  18. ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  21. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  22. ^ Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
  23. ^ "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
  24. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  25. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  26. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  27. ^ "FoodData Central". fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  28. ^ "Rice bran oil". RITO Partnership. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  29. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  30. ^ "Oil, sesame, salad or cooking". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  31. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  32. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  33. ^ "Walnut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, United States Department of Agriculture.
  34. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org.
  35. ^ "FoodData Central". fdc.nal.usda.gov.