Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts. The oil has a strong peanut flavor and aroma. It is often used in American, Chinese, South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, both for general cooking, and in the case of roasted oil, for added flavor.
Unrefined peanut oil has a smoke point of 320 °F/160 °C and is used as a flavorant for dishes akin to sesame oil. The refined peanut oil has a smoke point of 450 °F/232 °C is commonly used for frying volume batches foods like french fries.
At the 1900 Paris Exhibition, the Otto Company, at the request of the French Government, demonstrated that peanut oil could be used as a source of fuel for the diesel engine; this was one of the earliest demonstrations of biodiesel technology.
Its major component fatty acids are oleic acid (46.8% as olein), linoleic acid (33.4% as linolein), and palmitic acid (10.0% as palmitin). The oil also contains some stearic acid, arachidic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid and other fatty acids.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||3,699 kJ (884 kcal)|
Fat percentage can vary.
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
|Type of fat||Total fat (g)||Saturated fat (g)||Monounsaturated fat (g)||Polyunsaturated fat (g)||Smoke point|
|Sunflower oil||100||11||20||69||225 °C (437 °F)|
|Sunflower oil (high oleic)||100||12||84 ||4 |
|Soybean oil||100||16||23||58||257 °C (495 °F)|
|Canola oil||100||7||63||28||205 °C (401 °F)|
|Olive oil||100||14||73||11||190 °C (374 °F)|
|Corn oil||100||15||30||55||230 °C (446 °F)|
|Peanut oil||100||17||46||32||225 °C (437 °F)|
|Rice bran oil||100||25||38||37||250 °C (482 °F)|
|Vegetable shortening (hydrogenated)||71||23||8||37||165 °C (329 °F)|
|Lard||100||39||45||11||190 °C (374 °F)|
|Suet||94||52||32||3||200 °C (392 °F)|
|Butter||81||51||21||3||150 °C (302 °F)|
|Coconut oil||100||86||6||2||177 °C (351 °F)|
Highly refined peanut oil can contain traces of hexane, a petroleum byproduct used to maximize separation of oil from the solids of peanuts. The EPA identifies hexane as a neurotoxin in rat studies. There are no specific regulations on the limits of hexane use in cooking oils. If quality control is neglected, peanuts that contain the mold that produces highly toxic aflatoxin can end up contaminating the oil derived from them.
Those allergic to peanuts can consume highly refined peanut oil, but should avoid first-press, organic oil. Most highly refined peanut oils remove the peanut allergens and have been shown to be safe for "the vast majority of peanut-allergic individuals". However, cold-pressed peanut oils may not remove the allergens and thus could be highly dangerous to people with peanut allergy.
- Liu, Xiaojun; Jin, Qingzhe; Liu, Yuanfa; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Xingguo; Mao, Wenyue; Wang, Shanshan (2011). "Changes in Volatile Compounds of Peanut Oil during the Roasting Process for Production of Aromatic Roasted Peanut Oil". Journal of Food Science. 76 (3): C404–12. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02073.x. PMID 21535807.
- "USA-Grown Peanut Sources - Peanut Oil". National Peanut Board. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- "The Peanut Situation" (Dec 12, 1942) The Billboard
- The Smoke Point of Fats & Oils - TheSpruce.com
- "Saponification Table Plus The Characteristics of Oils in Soap", Soap Making Resource
- "Peanut Biodiesel". Boiled Peanut World. 2010. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 3 August 2011. Choose peanut oil and then "Oil, peanut, salad or cooking".
- Anyasor, G.N.; Ogunwenmo, K.O.; Oyelana, O.A.; Ajayi, D.; Dangana, J. (2009). "Chemical Analyses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil". Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 8 (3): 269–272. doi:10.3923/pjn.2009.269.272.
- The Culinary Institute of America (2011). The Professional Chef (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-42135-2. OCLC 707248142.
- "Nutrient database, Release 25". United States Department of Agriculture.
- Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
- [dead link]
- Peanut Oil Extraction - Agico Group Official Website
- Hexane = EPA Report 09.2016
- "Aflatoxin suspected in cooking oil". United Press International. 29 December 2011.
- Common Allergens - Peanut FARE (FoodAllergy.org)
- Crevel, R.W.R; Kerkhoff, M.A.T; Koning, M.M.G (2000). "Allergenicity of refined vegetable oils". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 38 (4): 385–93. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00158-1. PMID 10722892.
- Hourihane, J. O'B; Bedwani, S. J; Dean, T. P; Warner, J. O (1997). "Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts". BMJ. 314 (7087): 1084–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7087.1084. PMC 2126478. PMID 9133891.
- "Peanut Allergy". Food Allergy Initiative. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- Carlson, Margaret (13 January 2012). "Deaths Show Schools Need Power of the EpiPen: Margaret Carlson". Bloomberg.