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Avocado oil

Avocado oil is an edible oil pressed from the fruit of the Persea americana (avocado). As a food oil, it is used as an ingredient in other dishes, and as a cooking oil. It is also used for lubrication and in cosmetics, where it is valued for its supposed regenerative and moisturizing properties.[1]

It has an unusually high smoke point, both unrefined and especially when refined. The smoke point of the unrefined form is 480 °F (249 °C) and the refined form can reach 520 °F (271 °C).[2] The exact smoke point depends heavily on the quality of refinement and the way the oil has been handled until reaching store shelves and subsequently kitchens.

Contents

UsesEdit

Avocado oil functions well as a carrier oil for other flavors. It is high in monounsaturated fats and vitamin E. Avocado oil also enhances the absorption of carotenoids and other nutrients.[3]

Because the avocado is a year-round crop, some olive oil processing facilities, particularly in Australia and New Zealand, process olive oil during the olive season, and avocado oil during the rest of the year.

Avocado oil was originally, and still is, extracted for cosmetic use because of its very high skin penetration and rapid absorption. Following drying of the avocado flesh to remove as much water as possible (≈65% water in avocado flesh), avocado oil for cosmetics is traditionally extracted with solvents at elevated temperatures. After extraction, the oil for application in skin care products is usually refined, bleached, and deodorized, resulting in an odorless yellow oil.[4] Like extra virgin olive oil, cold-pressed avocado oil is unrefined and so retains the flavor and color characteristics of the fruit flesh.[5]

PropertiesEdit

Avocado oil is one of few edible oils not derived from seeds; it is pressed from the fleshy pulp surrounding the avocado pit.[6] Extra virgin avocado oil from the Hass cultivar has a characteristic flavor, is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has a high smoke point (≥250 °C or 482 °F), making it a good oil for frying. ‘Hass' cold-pressed avocado oil is a brilliant emerald green when extracted; the color is attributed to high levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids extracted into the oil. Cold-pressed ‘Hass' avocado oil has been described as having an avocado flavor, with grassy and butter/mushroom-like flavors. Other varieties may produce oils of slightly different flavor profile as has been seen with ‘Fuerte,' which has been described as having more mushroom and less avocado flavor.[5] As a culinary oil, avocado oil compares well with olive oil. It has a similar monounsaturated fat profile which helps to protect the oil from breakdown during heating. Avocado oil is naturally low acidic, helping to increase smoke point. An extra virgin avocado oil, characterized by a deep emerald green color (from avocado's chlorophyll content) can be safely heated to a temperature of 480 °F (249 °C). Both unrefined and refined avocado oil can safely be used to conduct almost any high heat cooking application including baking, stir-fry, deep-fry, sear, barbecue, roast and saute. Avocado oil is relatively new to the culinary world and is often mislabeled in regard to smoke point. It is important to note that like all oils, the more refined, the higher the smoke point.

The following table provides information about the composition of avocado oil and how it compares with other vegetable oils.

Nutrition Facts
Serving Size 5ml avocado oil (4.55g)

20 Servings per 100ml (91g) 6 Servings per 1/8 cup (30ml – 27.26g) *

Energy per 5ml serving :
Calories / Kilocalories 40 Cal / kcal Kilojoules 168kJ
Nutrients : Per 1/8 cup (30ml) Per 100ml
Energy 1,005kJ

(240Cal)

3350kJ

(801Cal)

Protein 0g 0g
Fat Total 27g 90g
– saturated 3.9g 13g
– trans fat 0g 0g
– polyunsaturated fat 2.4g 8g
– monounsaturated fat 20.7g 69g
Cholesterol 0 mg 0 mg
Total Carbohydrate 0g 0g
Sugars 0g 0g
Dietary Fiber 0g 0g
Sodium 1.5 mg

(Max)

5 mg

(Max)

Vitamin E 3.6 mg 12 mg
Beta Sitosterol 146.1 mg 487 mg
Vitamin E RDI* 10 mg

Ingredients: avocado oil Storage instructions: Do not refrigerate Average expiry time: 2 years * 1/8 US Legal Nutrition Labeling Cup equals 30ml * Recommended Daily Intake

Vegetable oils[7][8]
Type Processing
Treatment
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Smoke point
Total mono[7] Oleic acid
(ω-9)
Total poly[7] linolenic acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Avocado[9] 11.6 70.6 13.5 1 12.5 249 °C (480 °F)[10]
Canola[11] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 238 °C (460 °F)[12]
Coconut[13] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[12]
Corn[14] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58

232 °C (450 °F)[15]

Cottonseed[16] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 216 °C (420 °F)[15]
Flaxseed/Linseed[17] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13

107 °C (225 °F)

Hempseed[18] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0

166 °C (330 °F)[19]

Olive[20] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 193 °C (380 °F)[12]
Palm[21] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[22] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 31.4 232 °C (450 °F)[15]
Safflower[23] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 212 °C (414 °F)[12]
Soybean[24] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 238 °C (460 °F)[15]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[25] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8

227 °C (440 °F)[15]

Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[26] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6

227 °C (440 °F)[15]

Cottonseed[27] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.3
Palm[28] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
Soybean[29] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Why Is Avocado Oil Good For The Skin?". Livestrong Foundation. 2011-03-31. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  2. ^ "What is unrefined, extra virgin, cold pressed avocado oil?". 
  3. ^ Unlu, Nuray Z.; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J. (1 March 2005). "Carotenoid Absorption from Salad and Salsa by Humans Is Enhanced by the Addition of Avocado or Avocado Oil". Journal of Nutrition. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 135 (3): 431–436. 
  4. ^ "Easy Avocado Oil Uses for Natural Skincare and Healthy Cooking". OilyOily. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". American Oil Chemists' Society. April 2010. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  6. ^ "Avocado oil". Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plants Products. 1999-02-18. Retrieved 2013-07-13. 
  7. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016.  All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
  8. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details") example: avocado oil; user can search for other oils". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017.  Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  9. ^ "Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  10. ^ What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?, The American Oil Chemists’ Society
  11. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c d Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070. 
  13. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  14. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  17. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  18. ^ "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2017. 
  19. ^ https://www.veghealth.com/nutrition-tables/Smoke-Points-of-Oils-table.pdf
  20. ^ "Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  21. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  22. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  23. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  24. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  25. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  26. ^ "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  27. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  28. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  29. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.