Avocado oil is an edible oil extracted from the pulp of avocados, the fruit of Persea americana. It is used as an edible oil both raw and for cooking, where it is noted for its high smoke point. It is also used for lubrication and in cosmetics.[1]

Avocado oil

Avocado oil has an unusually high smoke point: 250 °C (482 °F) for unrefined oil[2] and 271 °C (520 °F) for refined.[3][better source needed] The exact smoke point depends heavily on the quality of refinement and the way the oil is stored.

UsesEdit

Avocado oil functions well as a carrier oil for other flavors. It is high in monounsaturated fats and vitamin E, and also enhances the absorption of carotenoids and other nutrients.[4]

Following drying of the avocado flesh to remove as much water as possible (the flesh is about 65% water), oil for cosmetics is usually extracted with solvents at elevated temperatures. After extraction, it is usually refined, bleached, and deodorized, resulting in an odorless yellow oil.[citation needed] Edible cold-pressed avocado oil is generally unrefined, like extra virgin olive oil, so it retains the flavor and color characteristics of the fruit flesh.[5]

QualityEdit

A study performed at the University of California, Davis in 2020 determined that a majority of the domestic and imported avocado oil sold in the US is rancid before its expiration date or is adulterated with other oils.[6][7] In some cases, the researchers found that bottles labeled as “pure” or “extra virgin” avocado oil contained nearly 100% soybean oil.[6]

PropertiesEdit

Avocado oil is one of few edible oils not derived from seeds; it is pressed from the fleshy pulp surrounding the avocado pit.[8] Unrefined avocado oil from the 'Hass' cultivar has a characteristic flavor, is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has a high smoke point (≥250 °C or 482 °F), making it a good oil for frying. 'Hass' cold-pressed avocado oil is a brilliant emerald green when extracted; the color is attributed to high levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids; it has been described as having an avocado flavor, with grassy and butter/mushroom-like flavors. Other varieties may produce oils of slightly different flavor profile; 'Fuerte' has been described as having more mushroom and less avocado flavor.[5]

Avocado oil has a similar monounsaturated fat profile to olive oil. Avocado oil is naturally low acidic, helping to increase smoke point. Unrefined avocado oil can be safely heated to 480 °F (249 °C). Both unrefined and refined avocado oil can safely be used for almost any high-heat cooking, including baking, stir-frying, deep-frying, searing, barbecuing, roasting, and sauteing. Like all oils, the more refined, the higher the smoke point. Each 30 mL of avocado oil contains 3.6 mg of Vitamin E and 146.1 mg of beta-sitosterol.

The following table provides information about the composition of avocado oil and how it compares with other vegetable oils.

Properties of vegetable oils[9][10]
Type Processing
treatment[11]
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated
fatty acids
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Smoke point
Total[9] Oleic
acid
(ω-9)
Total[9] α-Linolenic
acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic
acid
(ω-6)
ω-6:3
ratio
Almond oil 216 °C (421 °F)[12]
Avocado[13] 11.6 70.6 52-66[14] 13.5 1 12.5 12.5:1 250 °C (482 °F)[15]
Brazil nut[16] 24.8 32.7 31.3 42.0 0.1 41.9 419:1 208 °C (406 °F)[17]
Canola[18] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 2:1 238 °C (460 °F)[17]
Cashew oil
Chia seed
Cocoa butter oil
Coconut[19] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[17]
Corn[20] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58 58:1 232 °C (450 °F)[21]
Cottonseed[22] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 54:1 216 °C (420 °F)[21]
Flaxseed/Linseed[23] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13 0.2:1 107 °C (225 °F)
Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 - 74.7 very high 216 °C (421 °F)[24]
Hemp seed[25] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0 2.5:1 166 °C (330 °F)[26]
Vigna mungo
Mustard oil
Olive[27] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 14:1 193 °C (380 °F)[17]
Palm[28] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 45.5:1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[29] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 0 31.4 very high 232 °C (450 °F)[21]
Pecan oil
Perilla oil
Rice bran oil 25 38.4 2.2 34.4[30] 15.6 232 °C (450 °F)[31]
High-Oleic Safflower oil[32] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 very high 212 °C (414 °F)[17]
Sesame[33] ? 14.2 39.7 39.3 41.7 0.3 41.3 138:1
Soybean[34] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9 13.4:1
Soybean[35] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 7.3:1 238 °C (460 °F)[21]
Walnut oil[36] unrefined 9.1 22.8 22.2 63.3 10.4 52.9 5:1 160 °C (320 °F)[12]
Sunflower (standard)[37] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7 very high 227 °C (440 °F)[21]
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[38] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8 199:1
Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[39] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6 18:1 232 °C (450 °F)[40]
Cottonseed[41] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.3 1.5:1
Palm[42] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
The nutritional values are expressed as percent (%) by mass of total fat.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Woolf, Allan; Wong, Marie; Eyres, Laurence; McGhie, Tony; Lund, Cynthia; Olsson, Shane; Wang, Yan; Bulley, Cherie; Wang, Mindy; Friel, Ellen; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia (2009). "Avocado Oil". Gourmet and Health-Promoting Specialty Oils. pp. 73–125. doi:10.1016/B978-1-893997-97-4.50008-5. ISBN 9781893997974.
  2. ^ Marie Wong; Cecilia Requejo-Jackman; Allan Woolf (April 2010). "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". Aocs.org. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  3. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2019-12-26.
  4. ^ Unlu, Nuray Z.; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J. (1 March 2005). "Carotenoid Absorption from Salad and Salsa by Humans Is Enhanced by the Addition of Avocado or Avocado Oil". Journal of Nutrition. The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. 135 (3): 431–436. doi:10.1093/jn/135.3.431. PMID 15735074.
  5. ^ a b "What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?". American Oil Chemists' Society. April 2010. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
  6. ^ a b Green, Hilary S.; Wang, Selina C. (2020). "First report on quality and purity evaluations of avocado oil sold in the US". Food Control. 116: 107328. doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107328.
  7. ^ "Warning on Avocado Oil Sold in the U.S.: 82% Tested Rancid or Mixed With Other Oils". SciTechDaily. June 17, 2020.
  8. ^ "Avocado oil". Purdue University Center for New Crops and Plants Products. 1999-02-18. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
  9. ^ a b c "US National Nutrient Database, Release 28". United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this table are from this database unless otherwise cited.
  10. ^ "Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for "more details"). Example: Avocado oil (user can search for other oils)". Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  11. ^ "USDA Specifications for Vegetable Oil Margarine Effective August 28, 1996" (PDF).
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  14. ^ Feramuz Ozdemir; Ayhan Topuz (May 2003). "Changes in dry matter, oil content and fatty acids composition of avocado during harvesting time and post-harvesting ripening period" (PDF). Elsevier. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
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  16. ^ "Brazil nut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry. 120: 59–65. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  18. ^ "Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  21. ^ a b c d e Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). "Where There's Smoke, There's a Fryer". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
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  23. ^ "Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  24. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). "Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health". Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  25. ^ Callaway J, Schwab U, Harvima I, Halonen P, Mykkänen O, Hyvönen P, Järvinen T (April 2005). "Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis". The Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 16 (2): 87–94. doi:10.1080/09546630510035832. PMID 16019622. S2CID 18445488.
  26. ^ "Smoke points of oils" (PDF).
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  28. ^ "Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  29. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  30. ^ Orthoefer, F. T. (2005). "Chapter 10: Rice Bran Oil". In Shahidi, F. (ed.). Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. doi:10.1002/047167849X. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3.
  31. ^ "Rice bran oil". RITO Partnership. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  32. ^ "Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  33. ^ "Oil, sesame, salad or cooking". FoodData Central. fdc.nal.usda.gov.
  34. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  35. ^ "Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  36. ^ "Walnut oil, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, United States Department of Agriculture.
  37. ^ "Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  38. ^ "Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  39. ^ "Sunflower oil, high oleic - 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  40. ^ "Smoke Point of Oils". Baseline of Health. Jonbarron.org. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
  41. ^ "Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  42. ^ "Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g". US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.