Scott Levy (born September 8, 1964) is an American professional wrestler, actor, and podcaster better known by his ring name, Raven. He is known for his appearances with professional wrestling promotions including Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment (WWF/E) and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). Widely recognized as "one of the best talkers in wrestling", Raven is known for his "psychological heel tactics" and grunge-inspired gimmick. His feud with The Sandman in the mid-1990s has been described as "one of the most emotional rivalries in professional wrestling's history".
Raven in March 2013
|Birth name||Scott Levy|
|Born||September 8, 1964|
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
|Residence||Atlanta, Georgia, United States|
|Alma mater||University of Delaware|
|Professional wrestling career|
|Ring name(s)||Johnny Polo|
Scotty the Body
|Billed height||6 ft 1 in (185 cm)|
|Billed weight||235 lb (107 kg)|
|Billed from||Short Hills, New Jersey|
Palm Beach, Florida
|Trained by||Larry Sharpe|
|Debut||February 20, 1988|
Championships held by Raven include the ECW World Heavyweight Championship, ECW World Tag Team Championship, NWA World Heavyweight Championship, WCW Light Heavyweight Championship, WCW United States Heavyweight Championship, WCW World Tag Team Championship and WWF/E Hardcore Championship. He is one of the most decorated wrestlers in history, with 36 title reigns under the WWE, WCW and ECW banners, including a record 27 reigns as WWF/E Hardcore Champion.
Levy, who is of Jewish descent, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the son of Paul F. Levy, a journalist and senior editor of The National Enquirer. He graduated from Lake Worth Community High School in 1982. He went on to attend the University of Delaware, where he earned a degree in criminal justice. He took a semester off from college to enlist in the United States Marine Corps Reserve.
Professional wrestling careerEdit
Early career (1988–1992)Edit
After graduating from the University of Delaware with a degree in criminal justice, Levy trained as a professional wrestler under Larry Sharpe at the Monster Factory in New Jersey, making his debut on February 20, 1988 against Jimmy Jack Funk.
Early in his career, Levy competed for the World Wrestling Council in Puerto Rico as well as the Memphis, Tennessee-based promotion Continental Wrestling Association under the ring name "Scotty the Body", where he was given the gimmick of being the "boy toy" of Missy Hyatt, who used him to her and Eddie Gilbert's advantage. After leaving Memphis, Levy wrestled in Florida.[self-published source?]
Levy next traveled to Canada, where he competed briefly for the Vancouver, British Columbia-based promotion All Star Wrestling before leaving due to differences with owner Al Tomko. From there, he returned to the United States, joining Pacific Northwest Wrestling in Portland, Oregon. Over the next three years, he was positioned as one of the main heels, winning all of the titles and feuding heavily with Steve Doll. His manager in PNW was Taylor Made. After taking a brief break from competing, he returned to PNW as a face and began a feud with The Grappler. In the summer of 1989, Levy made a number of appearances under a mask as "Matman", a Batman-inspired character who teamed with Beetlejuice.
After leaving PNW, Levy joined the Dallas, Texas-based Global Wrestling Federation, where he adopted the ring name "Scott Anthony". Levy was part of the stable known as "The Cartel", along with Cactus Jack, Makhan Singh, Rip Rogers and Max Andrews. Levy also served as a color commentator for GWF's televised broadcasts on ESPN alongside play-by-play commentators Craig Johnson and Scott Hudson.
World Championship Wrestling (1992–1993)Edit
In 1992, Levy joined World Championship Wrestling (WCW). He was given the ring name "Scotty Flamingo" and the gimmick of a surfer from Florida, even carrying a surfboard to the ring. He was originally managed by J.T. Southern. Levy competed in the WCW light heavyweight division, winning the WCW Light Heavyweight Championship from Brian Pillman on June 20, 1992 at Beach Blast. He held the title until July 5, 1992, when he was defeated by Brad Armstrong.
Levy went on to align himself with Diamond Dallas Page and Vinnie Vegas as a member of "The Diamond Mine". Levy would continue to feud with Pillman and Armstrong, before feuding with Johnny B. Badd. At Clash of the Champions XXI on November 18, 1992, Levy defeated Badd in a boxing match via knockout after Jeremy and Vegas surreptitiously weighted his boxing glove by soaking it in water.
World Wrestling Federation (1993–1994)Edit
After leaving WCW, Levy briefly wrestled for the United States Wrestling Association (USWA) before joining the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) as manager "Johnny Polo", a spoiled, rich preppy kid. He was initially placed with Adam Bomb, appearing for the first time on May 24 episode of WWF Raw. He managed Bomb for four months until he was replaced by Harvey Wippleman. He then became the manager of The Quebecers in September, whom he led to three reigns as WWF Tag Team Champions. In addition to managing, Polo also occasionally appeared in tag-team and singles competition, facing Jim Powers, Virgil, Rick Steiner, Marty Jannetty, Doink the Clown, 1-2-3 Kid, Owen Hart, and Pierre Oullette. Polo also worked as a color commentator and co-host of Radio WWF, and behind the scenes worked as the associate producer for Monday Night Raw. Levy left the company in October 1994, his final match coming against Adam Bomb on October 2 in Auburn Hills, Michigan. His last appearance was at a house show in Montreal, Quebec on October 21 when he managed Pierre Oullette in a match against Jacques Rougeau.
Extreme Championship WrestlingEdit
Feud with Tommy Dreamer (1994–1996)Edit
After leaving the WWF, Levy began developing a new character, "Raven". Inspired by the poem by Edgar Allan Poe and by Patrick Swayze's manipulative Zen master of crime in the film Point Break, the Raven character was a depressed, sociopathic, stoical, nihilistic misanthrope who would deliver eloquent, philosophical promos peppered with literary allusions and ending with the catchphrase, "Quoth the Raven 'Nevermore'". Levy dramatically altered his appearance, bulking-up to approximately 235 lbs (107 kg), adding nose and eyebrow piercings and began wrestling in ragged jean shorts, a leather jacket, rock band or comic book t-shirts, combat boots and a flannel tied around his waist. After unsuccessfully pitching the character to Jim Cornette, the owner of Smoky Mountain Wrestling (SMW), Raven approached Paul Heyman, the booker of the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based promotion Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), who agreed to bring in Raven as a foil for Tommy Dreamer.
I want elimination by any means necessary. Quoth the Raven 'Nevermore'.— Raven, January 1995
Raven was introduced to ECW by Stevie Richards. In late 1994, Richards had developed an "identity crisis", performing under the ring names "Stevie Flamingo", "Stevie the Body", and "Stevie Polo" — all references to former ring names used by Levy. After sustaining another loss to Tommy Dreamer, Richards became irate and claimed he would present "the real Johnny Polo". Raven made his first appearance on the January 10, 1995 episode of ECW Hardcore TV, with Richards revealing that he had a vendetta against Tommy Dreamer.
Raven formed a stable of lackeys known as "Raven's Nest", with Richards the first member. In February, Johnny Hotbody and Tony Stetson joined the stable, calling Raven the "voice of [their] generation". On the March 24, 1995 episode of ECW Hardcore TV, Dreamer lost to the four members of Raven's Nest in a gauntlet match.
On April 8, 1995 at "Three Way Dance", Raven fired Hotbody and Stetson, replacing them with The Pitbulls. Later that evening, Raven expounded on his history with Dreamer, revealed that they had attended summer camp together as children, where Raven became the boyfriend of Beulah McGillicutty, an overweight girl with acne, after she was spurned by Dreamer. Richards then revealed that he had tracked down McGillicutty, who was now a Penthouse model, who also harbored a grudge against Dreamer. Later that night, Raven faced Dreamer in a singles match for the first time, defeating him following interference from both Richards and McGillicutty. McGillicutty went on to become Raven's valet and onscreen girlfriend, repeatedly interfering in his bouts with Dreamer and receiving numerous piledrivers as a result.[self-published source?] McGillicutty was brought into ECW by Raven, who had been introduced to her by Ron Gant in Florida earlier that year and thought she would add a new dimension to his feud with Dreamer. The feud between Raven and Dreamer escalated on the June 20, 1995 episode of ECW Hardcore TV, with Raven's Nest beating down Dreamer's ally, Luna Vachon, before breaking several of Dreamer's fingers. On June 30, 1995, Raven and Richards defeated The Public Enemy to win the ECW World Tag Team Championship.
In July 1995 at Hardcore Heaven after Raven and Richards successfully defended the ECW Tag Team Championship against Dreamer and Vachon, The Pitbulls left Raven's Nest, with The Dudley Brothers replacing them shortly thereafter. At Heat Wave on July 15, 1995, Dreamer and The Pitbulls defeated Raven and The Dudley Brothers. Later that evening, Dreamer handcuffed Raven and delivered a chair shot later dubbed "the chair shot heard 'round the world." The footage of the chair shot was incorporated into the title sequence of ECW Hardcore TV. At Wrestlepalooza on August 5, 1995, during an 8-man tag team match, Raven, Richards and the Dudley Brothers defeated Tommy Dreamer, Cactus Jack and the Pitbulls after Cactus Jack, Dreamer's long-time ally, turned on him, joining Raven's Nest. On September 16, 1995 at Gangstas Paradise, Raven and Richards lost the ECW World Tag Team Championship to The Pitbulls following interference from Dreamer. Raven and Richards regained the titles from The Pitbulls on October 7, 1995, only to lose them to The Public Enemy later that evening. At November to Remember on November 18, 1995, Dreamer and Terry Funk defeated Raven and Cactus Jack in the main event. At the same event, Raven's Nest received a new member, The Blue Meanie, who became a lackey to Stevie Richards.
At December to Dismember on December 9, 1995, Raven once more defeated Dreamer, although later that night Dreamer, The Pitbulls and The Public Enemy defeated Raven, Richards, The Eliminators and The Heavenly Bodies in a "Ultimate Jeopardy" cage match when Dreamer pinned Richards. At Holiday Hell on December 30, 1995, Raven defeated Dreamer to become number one contender for the ECW World Heavyweight Championship, unsuccessfully challenging incumbent champion The Sandman later that evening. At the same event, The Dudley Brothers left Raven's Nest following a confrontation with Richards. During the build-up to the match, Raven further expounded on his grudge against Dreamer, accusing Dreamer of not having been there for him during his parents' divorce, an accusation that Dreamer hotly denied. At House Party on January 5, 1996, Richards attempted to kiss McGillicutty, who refused, eventually announcing that she was pregnant. After Raven angrily confronted McGillicutty, she informed him that he was not the father, causing Raven to attack Richards. McGillicutty then revealed that Tommy Dreamer was the father, with Dreamer storming the ring and beating down Raven, Richards and The Blue Meanie before embracing Beulah.
ECW World Heavyweight Champion (1996–1997)Edit
On January 27, 1996, Raven introduced his new girlfriend, Kimona Wanalaya. Later that evening, Raven defeated The Sandman to win his first ECW World Heavyweight Championship following extensive interference from Raven's Nest. Over the following months, Raven successfully defended the ECW World Heavyweight Championship in bouts with opponents including Shane Douglas, Pitbull #2, Chris Jericho, Damián 666, 2 Cold Scorpio and Terry Gordy.
At Hardcore Heaven on June 22, 1996, Raven began playing mind games with The Sandman, brainwashing his ex-wife, Lori and his son, Tyler to join Raven's Nest. Lori and Tyler subsequently began accompanying Raven to ringside for his matches, with Raven using him to wage psychological warfare against The Sandman over the following months.[self-published source?]
At the High Incident event on October 26, 1996, Richards was involved in one of ECW's most controversial angles, with Raven's Nest "crucifying" The Sandman by tying him to a cross and placing a crown made of barbed wire on his head. The angle, which was widely criticised as being in poor taste, led to Olympic gold medalist Kurt Angle severing his links with ECW and delayed the promotion's debut on pay-per-view. At the instruction of Paul Heyman, Raven came to the ring and offered a somewhat insincere apology for his actions.
The relationship between Raven and Richards began to deteriorate in late 1996. At Ultimate Jeopardy on October 5, 1996, Raven was scheduled to team with Brian Lee against Dreamer and The Sandman in a match with Raven's ECW World Heavyweight Championship on the line. After Raven was announced as being unable to compete, Richards substituted for him, with Raven losing his title after The Sandman pinned Richards. Upon his return, Raven blamed Richards for the loss. At Holiday Hell on December 7, 1996, Raven defeated The Sandman in a barbed wire match to regain the ECW World Heavyweight Championship. Despite this, the tension between Raven and Richards continued to build until, on December 28, 1996, Richards turned on Raven by superkicking him during a match with The Sandman. Richards, The Blue Meanie and Super Nova subsequently broke away from Raven.
At the Crossing the Line Again event on February 1, 1997, Raven successfully defended the ECW World Heavyweight Championship against "Dr. Death" Steve Williams – inflicting Williams' first loss in the United States in a decade – after interference from Richards backfired. As part of an agreement between ECW and the World Wrestling Federation, Raven and several other ECW wrestlers appeared on the February 24, 1997 episode of Raw Is War, with Raven confronting Richards.
Over the following months, Raven successfully defended the ECW World Heavyweight Championship against opponents including Dreamer, Richards, Rob Van Dam and Super Nova. His reign lasted until April 13, 1997, when he was defeated by Terry Funk in the main event of Barely Legal, ECW's first pay-per-view.
On the May 1, 1997 episode of ECW Hardcore TV, a controversial angle took place in which a morose Raven, despondent at the loss of his title and other setbacks, confronted Richards, telling him he had one final "mission" for him. Raven then attacked Richards before begging him to "end my pain". At The Buffalo Invasion event on May 11, 1997, Raven and Richards reformed their tag team to face Dreamer and Funk, with Richards pinning Funk despite bickering with Raven throughout the match. In the main event, Raven, Richards, Funk and The Sandman men faced one another in a four-way elimination match for Funk's ECW World Heavyweight Championship. During the match, Raven DDT'ed both Funk and The Sandman and then demanded that Richards pin them and then lay down for him. Richards refused, instead superkicking Raven and enabling Funk and The Sandman to pin him.
At Wrestlepalooza on June 6, 1997, Raven faced Dreamer in a "Loser Leaves ECW" match. During the bout, Raven abandoned his new valet, Chastity, and unsuccessfully begged Beulah to take him back. Dreamer ultimately won the match by pinning Raven for the first time, marking the end of their lengthy feud and the end of Raven's ECW career. Raven subsequently left ECW and rejoined World Championship Wrestling.
Return to WCWEdit
The Flock (1997–1998)Edit
On June 30, 1997, Levy made his return to WCW as Raven. He was seen sitting in the front row at Monday Nitro where the commentators acknowledged him as "a man who has been a champion with other organizations". On August 21, 1997 at Clash of the Champions XXXV, Raven defeated Stevie Richards in an "unsanctioned" match and then took a seat in the front row. The storyline continued that Raven would frequently appear in the front row for the next few months with his lackeys, slowly forming what would be known as The Flock. Raven was an "unsigned free agent", but eventually accepted a contract with WCW Commissioner James J. Dillon which stipulated that he could wrestle only when he wanted and under his own rules. The Flock was a stable of misfits in the same vein as the Raven's Nest group in ECW. With The Flock, however, Raven was more openly abusive and controlling, which eventually led to dissension and rebellion. The group's matches were held under Raven's Rules, which meant no disqualifications — weapon usage, double teaming, and outside interference were rampant.
Raven made his in-ring Nitro debut on October 27 defeating Scotty Riggs, he would first offer Riggs to become a member of The Flock which Riggs would refuse. On November 23 at World War 3, Raven met Riggs again in a match, and later joined The Flock. With The Flock's help, Raven won the WCW United States Heavyweight Championship as well as the WCW World Tag Team Championship with Perry Saturn. The former reign lasted only a day as Raven defeated Diamond Dallas Page at Spring Stampede and lost the belt the following night to Bill Goldberg on Nitro. He blamed The Flock and Saturn in particular for his loss. This led to a series of matches, culminating in a match at Fall Brawl that if Raven lost, The Flock would be able to disband. Saturn won with the help of Kidman, who also wanted to leave Raven's abuses.
The Dead Pool (1998–1999)Edit
Without The Flock, Raven began a series of depressing interviews and walked out on several matches. In October at Halloween Havoc, Raven refused to wrestle Chris Jericho for the WCW Television Championship, but eventually was convinced to return to the ring. He lost the match and was not seen until 1999. On his return, a series of vignettes were shown in which a camera crew followed Raven to his supposed childhood home, where he had led a privileged upper class lifestyle. He was also reunited with his former valet Chastity, who WCW claimed was his sister.
He later joined with Vampiro and the Insane Clown Posse in a short-lived stable called The Dead Pool. In a backstage meeting in August 1999, which involved every contracted WCW wrestler, Eric Bischoff offered anyone their release right then and there. Levy was the only one to stand up and walk out, as he was dissatisfied with WCW's creative direction. Levy was granted his release and left the company.
Return to ECW (1999–2000)Edit
As a condition to leaving WCW, Levy was not allowed to directly join the WWF upon leaving the promotion as levied by a no compete clause in his contract. Via a loophole in the contract, Levy rejoined ECW and signed a one-year contract on August 25, 1999. His in-ring appearances were initially limited by a recent surgery to repair a rotator cuff tear.
Raven made a surprise return on ECW's debut on TNN and won the tag team title from the departing The Dudley Boyz along with Tommy Dreamer on August 26, 1999. A reluctant tag team, Raven and Dreamer reigned as ECW World Tag Team Champions for several months. When they lost the belts, they feuded briefly. Raven and Mike Awesome won the tag team title from Tanaka and Dreamer on March 4, 2000, only to lose them a week later to The Impact Players at Living Dangerously. CyberSlam 2000 was Raven's last ECW appearance with Francine, as she aligned with Justin Credible that evening. His last televised match was against Scotty Anton, which Raven lost. Shortly thereafter, he departed for the WWF.
Return to WWF/E (2000–2003)Edit
Levy returned to the WWF, as Raven, in 2000 at Unforgiven when he interfered in the Strap match between Tazz and Jerry Lawler, by hitting Lawler with a DDT. His previous run in the WWF as Johnny Polo was ignored by the company. He then started teaming with Tazz before they went their separate ways. He then moved on to the Hardcore division, where he would often bring out a shopping cart full of trash cans and other potential weapons during his entrances. On December 22, 2000 in Chattanooga, he defeated Steve Blackman for the Hardcore Championship, his first of a record 27 title reigns, though most of Raven's title reigns were short-lived. The Hardcore title at the time was contested under the "24/7" defense rule, leading to segments where one wrestler would win the title only to immediately lose it to another wrestler. At WrestleMania X-Seven, he competed in his only WrestleMania match, losing the Hardcore Championship to Kane in a triple threat match that also included Big Show. At Backlash, he lost to Hardcore Champion Rhyno in a hardcore match. A brief angle had an anonymous Black Ninja, who was later revealed to be his old valet from his Pacific Northwest days, Tori, aiding Raven in retaining the Hardcore Championship.
When the Invasion storyline began, he found himself in the new WCW/ECW Alliance. His most notable storyline during this time was when he was managed by Terri Runnels and destroyed the love interest of Saturn, his mop called "Moppy." He also started teaming with Justin Credible in late July 2001. By the end of the year, Raven was not seen on WWE programs, as the Alliance lost the "Winner Take All" match at Survivor Series.
In March 2002, when the WWE brand extension was announced, Raven was drafted to Raw. On the final SmackDown! before the split began, he defeated Maven to once again win the Hardcore Championship, thus bringing the title to Raw. He lost the title that Monday to Bubba Ray Dudley. At that time, Levy decided to spend some time announcing, and Raven became the new color commentator for Sunday Night Heat and Excess. This role lasted a couple of months, as he later quit the show to resume his wrestling career on Raw. This did not last long either, as he was banished from Raw after losing a match to former Extreme Championship Wrestling alumni Tommy Dreamer on June 24, 2002. Raven was forced to spend the rest of the year on Heat. Levy was then given creative control to develop a storyline related to the seven deadly sins, à la the film Se7en, with Raven becoming a sort of "puppet master" using Heat as his playground. It started to play out; however, it was determined by management that it was not over enough, and the angle was aborted. Although he won his way back onto the Raw roster, he lost to Jeff Hardy in a Royal Rumble qualifier match in what would be his final match in the WWE. He was released from the promotion the following week on January 20, 2003.
Total Nonstop Action WrestlingEdit
The Gathering (2003–2004)Edit
Raven debuted for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA) on January 22, 2003, two days after his release from WWE, attacking and hitting his finisher on Jeff Jarrett and stealing the NWA World Heavyweight Title from him. Raven then embarked upon a long-running storyline in which he claimed it was his "destiny" to win the NWA World Heavyweight Title. Raven began playing mind games with the roster, starting with his former nemesis Sandman, and debuted his trademark Clockwork Orange House of Fun match, which Levy devised himself. On April 30, 2003 Raven got his first shot at Jarrett's NWA World Heavyweight title, yet Jarrett won the match.
On September 17, 2003, Raven lost his trademark long hair after he was defeated by Shane Douglas in a hair versus hair match, thanks to the surprise interference of Vampiro. Vampiro and Raven would grow to be bitter rivals which resulted in a backstage brawl which Vampiro ended up with a torn "ACL." While in TNA, he formed a stable known as The Gathering, which included ROH rival CM Punk, as well as Julio Dinero and Alexis Laree, though they would later turn on him. He created matches involving old friends and brought in former colleagues from ECW such as New Jack, Perry Saturn, Mikey Whipwreck, and Justin Credible, all of whom Raven beat in matches. Later in the year these superstars overturned Sports Entertainment Xtreme (SEX). In 2003, Raven feuded with James Mitchell and the Disciples of the New Church. Raven took them all out one by one just like he said, but with interferences from The Gathering and ECW counterparts. Raven ended his feud with James Mitchell in a Last Man Standing match, which was won by Raven. This led to a long undefeated run and the beginning of Raven's attempts to fulfill his destiny. In 2004, Raven teamed up with The Sandman to go against The Gathering. The Gathering won due to interference from James Mitchell, who had aligned himself with The Gathering. Raven then teamed with Terry Funk to defeat the Gathering, even though James Mitchell tried to interfere.
Also in 2004, Raven's old friend Sabu returned to TNA. Raven teamed with Sabu to defeat The Gathering one last time. Raven and Sabu then feuded with Abyss and "The Alpha Male" Monty Brown. Abyss and Brown outnumbered Sabu on many occasions, when Raven failed to watch Sabu's back. Raven waged a campaign against Sabu, disrespecting the memory of his uncle and assaulting Sabu's mouthpiece, Sonjay Dutt, until Sabu finally broke and attacked him on July 23. Raven defeated Sabu in a No Holds Barred match on August 4, and a scheduled return match on August 18 was canceled after Sabu suffered a legitimate back injury. He also competed in the very first Monster's Ball match, with Abyss and Brown.
NWA World Heavyweight Champion (2005–2006)Edit
On June 19, 2005, Raven turned face and fulfilled his self-proclaimed destiny when he won the NWA World Heavyweight Championship at Slammiversary (by taking Jeff Jarrett's place after Jarrett attacked a fan from the crowd earlier that night and got arrested), defeating A.J. Styles, Abyss, Sean Waltman and Monty Brown in a five way King of the Mountain match. He successfully defended the title in two defenses over the following months against Abyss at No Surrender, and Rhino two months later at Unbreakable. Against Rhino he showed his full array of moves and peeled back the years looking like the Raven in ECW and early WCW. He not only defeated Rhino but hit a Raven Effect DDT on Jeff Jarrett, with the assistance of Jeff Hardy running to the ringside. He also had a tag team match with Sabu against Jeff Jarrett and Rhino.
On September 15, Raven lost the NWA Title to Jeff Jarrett in Oldcastle, Ontario, Canada, at a special event of Border City Wrestling. America's Most Wanted ("Wildcat" Chris Harris and "Cowboy" James Storm) came out and interfered on Jarrett's behalf. BCW officials immediately contacted TNA Director of Authority Larry Zbyszko, who declared the title change official (TNA had briefly gone dark on its national television timeslot prior to jumping to Spike TV, prompting a title change in another NWA based promotion). This led to Raven feuding with Larry Zbyszko, who brought in wrestlers like PJ Polaco and Chris K to wrestle Raven. This culminated in a match at Final Resolution where Raven wrestled Sean Waltman with the stipulation that if Raven lost he would have to leave TNA. Raven lost the match and went on hiatus as a result.
He next feuded with Abyss and Brother Runt, losing to the former in a Hangman's Horror match on Impact after the latter turned on him. Subsequent to this, his coverage in major televised angles has dropped considerably. While he was off-air, an alliance was teased between Kazarian, Johnny Devine, and Matt Bentley. On the TNA Primetime Special before Genesis 2006, the three came out in goth, addressing a new movement in TNA. After a loss at the pay-per-view, sporting a new look (often with a mask), Raven revealed himself as their leader, caning the loser of the match. This stable became known as Serotonin. The direction of this stable was very hard to place, although they lost the majority of their televised matches. Regardless of the outcome, Raven would hit the Serotonin competitor with a cane. After a long hiatus, Raven returned to the ring, losing to Christopher Daniels in a First Blood Invitational then losing to Chris Harris after interference from Kaz. On Impact, Raven came out after Kaz's win over Havok and Martyr and hit Kaz in the back with a Kendo Stick, breaking it over Kaz's back. Raven, Havok, and Martyr then attacked Kaz with kendo sticks. On the July 19 episode of Impact!, Raven and the rest of Serotonin took on the reuniting Triple X. Raven had very little time in the match and Serotonin lost after Skipper hit a diving leg drop, Daniels hit a Best Moonsault Ever, and Senshi hit a Warrior's Way on Havok.
Raven won a House of Fun match, on the August 9 episode of Impact!. He teamed with Robert Roode and James Storm against the team of Chris Harris, Rhino, and Kazarian. Raven lost to Kaz, who had rebelled against him, at Hard Justice despite having the remaining members of Serotonin involve themselves in the match. He then issued a challenge to Abyss and Rhino at Bound for Glory. Abyss later had Black Reign added to the match and made it a Monsters Ball. Raven briefly formed an alliance with Havok, Black Reign, Judas Mesias, and James Mitchell with the purpose of defeating Abyss. At Bound for glory, Raven would go on to lose the match after Abyss gave him a black hole slam on to tacks and glass. On the November 15 episode of Impact, Havok was revealed to be Team 3D's X Division traitor, effectively ending Serotonin. At Turning Point, Raven substituted for Rhino in the "Match of 10,000 Thumbtacks" and teamed with Abyss to defeat Black Reign and Rellik. Raven was officially released from TNA, and his profile was removed from the roster on March 7, 2008.
Alliance with Dr. Stevie (2009–2010)Edit
After an absence of more than a year, Raven surprised fans by returning to TNA on May 28, 2009. He returned as a heel by attacking Abyss with a Kendo stick with Dr. Stevie assisting him. He then aligned himself with Dr. Stevie and Daffney. On the June 18 episode of Impact! he won a Clockwork Orange House of Fun match against Jethro Holliday. At Slammiversary, Abyss and Taylor Wilde defeated Raven and Daffney in the first-ever mixed tag team Monster's Ball match. After the pay-per-view, Raven's name was taken down from the TNA website.
On the November 12, 2009, episode of Impact!, Raven returned again to TNA attacking Abyss and throwing a fireball at Mick Foley's face, aligning himself again with Dr. Stevie and Daffney. At Final Resolution, Abyss and Foley defeated Stevie and Raven in a "Foley's Funhouse" tag team match. Raven appeared on the January 4 episode of Impact!, teaming with Dr. Stevie in a number one contender's tag team match, where they were defeated by Matt Morgan and Hernandez. He appeared on the February 18 episode of Impact!, helping Eric Bischoff take out Abyss, along with Rhino, Homicide, Tomko, and Desmond Wolfe.
EV 2.0 and departure (2010)Edit
Raven returned to television four months later on the June 24 episode of Impact! showing signs of a face turn, appearing in the Impact! Zone crowd beside Stevie Richards and Tommy Dreamer. The following week the three were joined by Rhino. On the July 15 episode of Impact! Raven, Dreamer, Richards, Rhino, Brother Devon, Pat Kenney and Al Snow, led by Mick Foley, aligned themselves with the TNA World Heavyweight Champion Rob Van Dam by attacking Abyss and the rest of the TNA locker room. The following week, TNA president Dixie Carter agreed to give the ECW alumni their own reunion pay–per–view event, Hardcore Justice: The Last Stand, as a celebration of hardcore wrestling and a final farewell to the company. On the July 29 episode of Impact! Raven re–ignited his old feud with Dreamer by turning on him, after his match with Abyss, and laying him out with a DDT on a chair and in doing so, turned heel. The following week, Raven explained his turn by saying that he had not forgotten how Dreamer had "stolen", and later married, his girlfriend Beulah McGillicutty, who turned on Raven back in 1996 during his and Dreamer's initial feud. On August 8 at Hardcore Justice Raven defeated Dreamer in a "Final Showdown" match refereed by Mick Foley. On the following episode of Impact!, the ECW alumni, known collectively as Extreme, Version 2.0 (EV 2.0), were assaulted by A.J. Styles, Kazarian, Robert Roode, James Storm, Douglas Williams and Matt Morgan of Ric Flair's Fourtune stable, who thought they didn't deserve to be in TNA, thus once again turning Raven face. At Bound for Glory, Raven, Dreamer, Rhino, Richards and Sabu defeated Fourtune members Styles, Kazarian, Morgan, Roode and Storm in a Lethal Lockdown match. At Turning Point, EV 2.0 faced Fortune in a ten-man tag team match, where each member of EV 2.0 put their TNA careers on the line. In the end, EV 2.0 lost the match and Sabu was released from TNA. Two weeks later on Impact!, Raven was forced to put his TNA future on the line in a match against the TNA World Heavyweight Champion Jeff Hardy. Hardy won the match and as a result Raven was released from TNA. His release from the company was legitimate. Raven worked one last match for the promotion on November 12, 2010, defeating TNA Television Champion A.J. Styles in a non–title match at the Farewell at the Asylum live event.
Independent circuit and semi-retirement (2008–present)Edit
In 2008, Raven appeared in Juggalo Championship Wrestling (JCW) for Season 2 of SlamTV!. In the main event of the second episode, JCW Heavyweight Champion Corporal Robinson put his title on the line against Sexy Slim Goody. When Robinson attempted to hit the Boot Camp, the lights shut off in the arena. When they turned back on, Raven appeared in the ring and hit Robinson with his Evenflow DDT, before stealing the JCW Heavyweight Championship belt. In the third episode, Raven introduced Sexy Slim Goody as his newest lackey. When Robinson ran out to the ring to take his title back, Sexy Slim Goody (kayfabe) knocked him out with a steel chair shot, and Raven began to shave Robinson's afro. Sabu appeared from out of the crowd and scared Raven off, leaving Robinson with a half shaved afro. The tag team of Raven and Sexy Slim Goody had a match against Corporal Robinson and Sabu in the following episode. Raven walked out on the match with the stolen championship belt, fleeing from Sabu. At Bloodymania II, Raven lost to Corporal Robinson in a "Loser leaves JCW" Ladder match. However, Raven returned to the company at Bloodymania III in a losing effort against his old nemesis Sabu in a Raven's Rules match.
Levy was the heavyweight champion of CWA Pro Wrestling, an independent professional wrestling promotion based out of Orangeburg, South Carolina, from March 15 through August 8, 2008. He won the championship when he defeated Timber in Charlotte, North Carolina on March 15. He was stripped of the title after missing several shows, therefore not being able to defend the championship. Levy was also featured doing shows overseas at Russia's Independent Wrestling Federation, battling Joe Legend. In April 2008, Raven toured Australia and New Zealand including several seminars as well as performing. In June, Raven wrestled for multiple European promotions which included losing to The Vampire Warrior in a flaming tables match for Nu-Wrestling Evolution.
In 2009, Raven regularly wrestled for Collective League of Adrenaline Strength and Honor, NWA Charlotte and Showtime Allstar Wrestling. On August 2, 2009, Raven defeated reigning champion Preston Quinn to win the Vanguard Championship Wrestling World Heavyweight Title in Norfolk, Virginia at the NorVa. Post match, Larry Zbyszko and Raven had a war of words, where Raven challenged Zbyszko to find an opponent to face him for the VCW World Title, a match which he consequently won. In November, he wrestled all across Europe, touring with American Wrestling Rampage.
In January 2010, Raven took on Chris Harris for the PICW Heavyweight Championship and lost. At Bloodymania IV, in the main event Raven took on Corporal Robinson and Mike Knox in a triple threat match for the JCW Heavyweight Championship where Robinson retained his championship.
At JCW Legends and Icons, he was involved in a seven way "Philly Madness" match which included former ECW stars such as Sabu, Shane Douglas and the eventual winner, Rhino. Two days later at Bloodymania V, Raven and Sexy Slim Goody won the JCW Tag Team Championship. On September 16, he defeated Jocephus for the USWO Heavyweight Championship and would lose it in November 11 to Jocephus. At JCW New Year's Eve Ninja Party!, Raven lost the tag team championship back to The Ring Rydas.
On April 28, 2012, Raven debuted for Extreme Rising in a dark match against Gary Wolfe ending in a no contest. On October 27, Raven appeared for Niagara Falls, Ontario based promotion Busted Knuckle Pro Wrestling's Apocalypse event, defeating Eddie Osborne in a Clockwork Orange House of Fun match. During the match, Raven threw out his shoulder while performing a DDT, but still finished the match, despite being hit with several chair shots and even going through a table after the DDT was performed. After the match, he cut a promo putting over all of the young stars in the promotion as well as Osborne, congratulating the promotion on doing a great job so far in his eyes. On November 11 at Extreme Rising, Raven took on Stevie Richards in a loser leaves town match which ended in a no contest.
In the early part of 2013, Raven toured Europe wrestling for various promotions in various countries including Germany and the Netherlands. On May 24, Raven reunited with Perry Saturn in a tag team Raven's Rules match for Billy Corgan's Resistance Pro Wrestling, defeating Brady Pierce and Mad Man Pondo. Raven had spent 2014 in Nigeria and South Africa. He defeated Fury in a singles match at a house show in Lagos, Nigeria on November 7, 2014. He won the WWP Tag Team Championship with Venus on November 24, which they lost December 22 at house show in Abuja, Nigeria. Raven signed with NWF and made his debut on the main event defeating Strong Bone in a Hardcore match on December 23. He teamed with The Steiner Brothers where they defeated Sabu and The Wolves in a Christmas house show in Lagos. He won the NWF World Heavyweight Championship on December 27, defeating Kamjarlio in steel cage match. He earned his first title defense on December 29, by defeating Sabu on a live event in Cairo. He retained again in six-man battle royal on December 30, in a house show in Newark, New Jersey.
|1999||The Jesse Ventura Story||Himself|
|2008||Death Racers||The Reaper|
|2013||Cool as Hell||Himself|
|1996||Swift Justice||Franco||Episode: Sex, Death and Rock 'n' Roll|
|1998||MTV Ultimate Music Video Feud||Himself|
|1999||MTV Beach Brawl||Himself|
|1999||Win Ben Stein's Money||Himself|
|1999||Donny & Marie||Himself|
In 2011, Raven starred in the music video "Owata" by the Smashing Pumpkins.
Levy is a lifelong fan of comic books. In Wizard Magazine's May 1999 issue, Levy is quoted as saying "I love the Marvel Knights line. I'm a big Kevin Smith fan, and his work on Daredevil is the best on that book since Frank Miller's stuff. Inhumans is also great. It could be the break-out book of the year because they're finally treating them as real characters instead of just freaks and monsters with no personality." The article goes on to say that he is a big fan of Watchmen, Swamp Thing, and especially Sandman and that he has a tattoo of Neil Gaiman's Sandman character (Dream) on his back. Levy, along with Brian Azzarello, wrote Issue #14 of Spider-Man's Tangled Web, entitled "The Last Shoot". The comic was based around the professional wrestler (named Crusher Hogan) who Peter Parker defeated in the character's first appearance in Amazing Fantasy. He also provided a cover quote for a trade paperback edition of 100 Bullets.
Levy, along with former colleague Chris Kanyon and colleague Mike Sanders, attempted to sue World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) for "cheating them out of health care and other benefits", but a federal judge in Stamford, Connecticut dismissed the case. In a 2010 interview Levy explained that the case was dismissed due to statute of limitations running out.
Championships and accomplishmentsEdit
- All Action Wrestling
- AAW World Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- Australasian Wrestling Federation
- Extreme Championship Wrestling
- Extreme Wrestling Federation
- EWF Championship (1 time)
- Great Championship Wrestling
- GCW Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- Heartland Wrestling Association
- High Risk Pro Wrestling
- HRPW World Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- Juggalo Championship Wrestling
- Mid-Eastern Wrestling Federation
- National Wrestling Alliance
- National Wrestling Federation
- NWF Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- Pacific Northwest Wrestling
- Pro-Pain Pro Wrestling
- Pro Wrestling Illustrated
- Ring Around The Northwest Newsletter
- Wrestler of the Year (1989–1990)
- Total Nonstop Action Wrestling
- United States Xtreme Wrestling
- UXW Heavyweight Championship (4 times)
- United States Wrestling Association
- United States Wrestling Organization
- USWO Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- USA Pro Wrestling
- USA Pro Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- Vanguard Championship Wrestling
- VCW Heavyweight Championship (1 time)
- World Championship Wrestling
- World Wrestling Entertainment
Luchas de Apuestas recordEdit
|Winner (wager)||Loser (wager)||Location||Event||Date||Notes|
|Shane Douglas (hair)||Raven (hair)||Nashville, Tennessee||NWA-TNA Weekly PPV #63||September 17, 2003|||
- Milner, John. "Raven". Canoe.com. Quebecor Media. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- Lee Maughan (2013). The Complete WWF Video Guide Volume III. Lulu.com. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-1-291-41107-2.[self-published source]
- "Biography". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- Fishman, Scott. "Raven Interview". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- Meltzer, Dave (August 7, 1989). "Wrestling Observer Newsletter". Wrestling Observer Newsletter.
- "Raven". WWE.com. WWE. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Scott E. Williams (December 13, 2013). Hardcore History: The Extremely Unauthorized Story of ECW. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. pp. 69–72. ISBN 978-1-61321-582-1.
- John Chattman; Rich Tarantino (June 11, 2014). Time Heels: Cheating, Stealing, Spandex and the Most Villainous Moments in the History of Pro Wrestling. Pitch Publishing. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-1-909626-82-9.
- "The Sandman". WWE.com. WWE. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- Clapp, John (October 16, 2014). "The 16 most decorated champions in WWE history". WWE.com. WWE. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Murphy, Ryan (May 17, 2013). "8 things you didn't know about the Hardcore Title". WWE.com. WWE. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- Oliver, Sean;Scott Levy (August 29, 2016). Breaking Kayfabe: Scott Levy (video). Kayfabe Commentaries. Event occurs at 0:15. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Look back on leaving WCW? Never more, says Raven". Sun-Sentinel. Tribune Publishing. November 5, 1999. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
- Baines, Tim (September 26, 2004). "Raven takes his lumps". Canoe.ca. Quebecor Media. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
And, under his real name of Scott Levy, he holds a degree in criminal justice from University of Delaware.
- "YouTube". www.youtube.com.
- Rinaldi, Ray (July 5, 1987). "Searching for the shape of Hulks to come". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- Shields, Brian; Sullivan, Kevin (2009). WWE Encyclopedia. DK. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7566-4190-0.
- Scott E. Williams (December 13, 2013). Hardcore History: The Extremely Unauthorized Story of ECW. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-1-61321-582-1.
- Thom Loverro (May 22, 2007). The Rise & Fall of ECW: Extreme Championship Wrestling. Simon and Schuster. pp. 85–88. ISBN 978-1-4165-6156-9.
- Mike Rickard (December 1, 2008). Wrestling's Greatest Moments. ECW Press. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-1-55490-331-3.
- "Raven results match archive: January 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: February 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: March 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: April 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- Thom Loverro (May 22, 2007). The Rise & Fall of ECW: Extreme Championship Wrestling. Simon and Schuster. pp. 88–90. ISBN 978-1-4165-1312-4.
- Pat McNeill (2002). The Tables All Were Broken. iUniverse. pp. 262–. ISBN 978-0-595-22404-3.[self-published source]
- Scott E. Williams (December 13, 2013). Hardcore History: The Extremely Unauthorized Story of ECW. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-1-61321-582-1.
- "Raven results match archive: June 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: July 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- Powell, John (December 5, 1997). "Quoth the Raven: The Raven interview". Canoe.ca. Quebecor Media. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: August 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: October 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: November 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: December 1995". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: January 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: May 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: June 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: June 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- Mike Rickard (December 1, 2008). Wrestling's Greatest Moments. ECW Press. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-1-55490-331-3.
- John Lister (November 2005). Slamthology: Collected Wrestling Writings 1991-2004. Lulu.com. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-4116-5329-0.[self-published source]
- "Raven results match archive: September 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: August 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 1, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- Thom Loverro (May 22, 2007). The Rise & Fall of ECW: Extreme Championship Wrestling. Simon and Schuster. pp. 172–. ISBN 978-1-4165-6156-9.
- Scott E. Williams (December 13, 2013). Hardcore History: The Extremely Unauthorized Story of ECW. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-1-61321-582-1.
- "Raven results match archive: October 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: October 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: December 1996". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Raven results match archive: February 1997". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: March 1997". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: April 1997". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: June 1997". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
- "Raven results match archive: May 1997". TheRavenEffect.com. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
- Brian Fritz (2006). Between the Ropes: Wrestling's Greatest Triumphs and Failures. ECW Press. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-1-55490-268-2.
- R. D. Reynolds (December 1, 2004). The Death of WCW. ECW Press. pp. 210–. ISBN 978-1-55490-255-2.
- "ECW Tag History". WWE. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- Powell, John (September 25, 2000). "Austin culprit unrevealed at Unforgiven". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- Total Nonstop Action Wrestling On Spike TV! – NEWS Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (November 12, 2009). "WILKENFELD'S TNA IMPACT REPORT: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". PWTorch. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- Caldwell, James (December 20, 2009). "CALDWELL'S TNA FINAL RESOLUTION PPV REPORT: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of A.J. Styles vs. Daniels, Angle vs. Wolfe". PWTorch. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
- Keller, Wade (January 4, 2009). "KELLER'S TNA IMPACT LIVE REPORT: Jeff Hardy, NWO reunion, Hulk Hogan, TNA Knockout Title match, more surprises". PWTorch. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (February 18, 2010). "WILKENFELD'S TNA IMPACT REPORT: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". PWTorch. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (June 24, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 6/24: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Keller, Wade (July 1, 2010). "TNA Impact results 7/1: Keller's ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV show – Abyss vs. Hardy, RVD refs". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
- Caldwell, James (July 12, 2010). "TNA News: TNA Impact TV taping "virtual-time coverage" for Thursday's episode". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Martin, Adam (July 13, 2010). "Spoilers: TNA Impact for this Thursday". WrestleView. Archived from the original on April 28, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Martin, Adam (July 15, 2010). "Impact Results". WrestleView. Archived from the original on July 19, 2010. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (July 22, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 7/22: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
- Keller, Wade (July 29, 2010). "Keller's TNA Impact report 7/29: Tommy Dreamer announces new name for ECW faction, Hulk Hogan addresses situation". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (August 5, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 8/5: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved August 5, 2010.
- Caldwell, James (August 8, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Hardcore Justice PPV results 8/8: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of ECW-themed PPV headlined by RVD vs. Sabu". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
- Tomich, Kevin (August 9, 2010). "TNA News: Spoilers – detailed Impact TV taping report for "Whole F'n Show" featuring new angle, MOTY candidate?, three title matches". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- Bishop, Matt (August 12, 2010). "TNA's 'The Whole F'n Show': Beer Money, Machine Guns put on match of year candidate; Fortune makes statement". Slam! Sports. Canoe.ca. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Caldwell, James (October 10, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Bound for Glory PPV results 10-10-10: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Angle vs. Anderson vs. Hardy, "they" reveal". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
- Caldwell, James (November 7, 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Turning Point PPV results 11/7: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of live PPV – Hardy vs. Morgan, EV2 vs. Fortune, Team 3D "retirement" match". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved November 7, 2010.
- Wilkenfeld, Daniel (November 18, 2010). "Wilkenfeld's TNA Impact report 11/18: Complete "virtual time" coverage of Spike TV broadcast". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
- Caldwell, James (November 10, 2010). "TNA News: Another EV2 member cut from TNA – Raven finishes up at this week's Impact TV tapings (minor spoiler)". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
- Goodman, Larry (November 13, 2010). "TNA house show report 11-12 Nashville". Wrestling Observer Newsletter. Retrieved November 13, 2010.
- Creator and Producer: Insane Clown Posse (July 17, 2008). "Slam TV Season 2 – Episode 2". SlamTV!. Season 2. Evansville, Indiana.
- Creator and Producer: Insane Clown Posse (July 25, 2008). "Slam TV Season 2 – Episode 3". SlamTV!. Season 2. Springfield, Illinois.
- Creator and Producer: Insane Clown Posse (July 31, 2008). "Slam TV Season 2 – Episode 4". SlamTV!. Season 2. St. Louis, Missouri.
- "JCW: Gathering of the Juggalos 2009: Bloodymania III". Match Results. Raven. September 7, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2010.
- Martin, Adam (December 11, 2010). "Raven on stand up comedy, ECW crowds, more". WrestleView. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- "Cygy Wrestling Biography of Raven". CygyWrestling. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "Alumni – Theta Chi Fraternity" (PHP). Rengland.net. Retrieved May 10, 2008.[dead link]
- "theraveneffect.com - the official raven website". www.theraveneffect.com.
- "Raven (@theraveneffect) - Twitter". twitter.com.
- theraveneffectTV (June 8, 2011). "Raven's Vlog #18 - June 8, 2011" – via YouTube.
- Potts, Monica (February 26, 2009). "Judge dismisses suit against WWE". The Advocate. Hearst Corporation. Archived from the original on June 24, 2009. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
- Kreikenbohm, Philip. "AWF Australasian Championship « Titles Database « CAGEMATCH - The Internet Wrestling Database". www.cagematch.net.
- "ECW World Heavyweight Championship History at WWE.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "GCW Heavyweight Championship".
- "HWA Tag Team Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- Michael Bradley (August 14, 2011). "JCW Bloodymania 5". Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- "MEWF Mid-Atlantic Heavyweight Championship History at Solie.org". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "NWA Central States Heavyweight Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "NWF Heavyweight Championship History at Solie.org". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "NWA Pacific Northwest Heavyweight Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "NWA Pacific Northwest Television Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "3PW World Heavyweight Championship History at Solie.org". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated (PWI) 500 for 2003". The Internet Wrestling Database. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- "Pro Wrestling Illustrated Top 500 – PWI Years". Wrestling Information Archive. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- Rodgers, Mike (2004). "Regional Territories: PNW #16 Page #2". KayfabeMemories.com.
- "NWA World Heavyweight Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "TNA Slammiversary 2005 Pay Per View results at Online World of Wrestling". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "NWA-TNA Weekly PPV 59 results". Cagematch. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
- "USXW Heavyweight Championship History at UXW Wrestling.net". Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "USWA Tag Team Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "USWO Heavyweight Championship History".
- "Independent Wrestling Results – May 2003". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved July 5, 2008.
- "VCW Heavyweight Championship History".
- "WCW Light Heavyweight Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "WCW United States Heavyweight Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "WWE United States Championship". Retrieved May 25, 2020.
- "WCW World Tag Team Championship History at Wrestling-Titles.com". Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "WWE Hardcore Championship History". World Wrestling Entertainment. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "NWA TNA Weekly Pay-per view #63".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Raven.|