Quick Charge

Quick Charge is a proprietary charging protocol featured in Qualcomm system-on-chips, used in devices such as mobile phones, for managing power delivered over USB, mainly by communicating to the power supply and negotiating a voltage.

It increases the voltage and thus charges batteries in devices faster than standard USB rates allow. Quick Charge 2 onwards technology is primarily used for wall adaptors, but it is also implemented in in-car chargers and powerbanks (for both input and output power delivery).

Quick Charge is also the basis of other proprietary rapid-charging systems developed by other manufacturers.

DetailsEdit

Quick Charge is a proprietary technology which allows for the charging of battery powered devices, primarily mobile phones, at levels above and beyond the typical 5 volts and 2 amps for which most USB standards allow. Numerous other companies have their own competing technologies; these include MediaTek Pump Express and OPPO VOOC (licensed to OnePlus as “Dash Charge”).[1]

Despite being proprietary, the exact behavioural patterns (e.g. voltage negotiations between device and charger) have been reverse-engineered.[2][3].

To take advantage of Qualcomm Quick Charge, both the host providing power and the device must support it. In 2012 the USB Implementers Forum (USB IF) announced that their USB Power Delivery (USB PD) standard had been finalized which allows for devices to transfer up to 100 watts of power over capable USB ports. This new technology was first seen in a Xiaomi Mi Mix 3 prototype that charged from 1% to 100% in 17 minutes.[4]

Quick Charge 2.0 introduced an optional feature called Dual Charge (initially called Parallel Charging).[5] Dual Charge utilises two PMICs to split the power into 2 streams to reduce phone temperature.[6]

Quick Charge 3.0 introduced INOV (Intelligent Negotiation for Optimal Voltage) and Battery Saver Technologies. INOV is an algorithm that determines the optimum power transfer while maximizing efficiency. Battery Saver Technologies aims to maintain at least 80% of its original charge capacity after 500 charge cycles.[7] As well as HVDCP+ and Dual Charge+ (optional). Qualcomm claims Quick Charge 3.0 is up to 4-6C cooler, 16% faster and 38% more efficient than Quick Charge 2.0. And that Quick Charge 3.0 with Dual Charge+ is up to 7-8C cooler, 27% faster and 45% more efficient than Quick Charge 2.0 with Dual Charge.[5]

Quick Charge version 4 was announced in December 2016 alongside the Snapdragon 835. Quick Charge 4 includes HVDCP++, Dual Charge++ (optional), INOV 3.0 and Battery Saver Technologies 2. Version 4 is compatible with both USB⁠-⁠C and USB Power Delivery (USB-PD) specifications. Thus Quick Charge 4 falls back onto USB-PD if either the charger or device is not compatible. Version 4 also features additional safety measures to protect against over-voltage, over-current and overheating, as well as cable quality detection. Qualcomm claims Quick Charge 4 with Dual Charge++ is up to 5C cooler, 20% faster and 30% more efficient than Quick Charge 3.0 with Dual Charge+.[6]

Quick Charge 4+ was announced on June 1, 2017. Quick Charge 4+ introduces Intelligent Thermal Balancing and Advanced Safety Features to eliminate hot spots and protect against overheating and short-circuit or damage of the USB-C connector. And Dual Charge++ is required, in prior versions Dual Charge was optional.[8][9]

Quick Charge for Wireless PowerEdit

On February 25, 2019 Qualcomm announced Quick Charge for Wireless Power. Quick Charge for Wireless Power falls back on the Qi standard by the Wireless Power Consortium if either the charger or device is not compatible.[10]

VersionsEdit

Technology Voltage Max current Max power New features Release date Notes
Quick Charge 1.0 up to 6.3 V[13] 2 A 10 W
  • AICL (Automatic Input Current Limit)
  • APSD (Automatic Power Source Detection)
2013 Snapdragon 600[14][15][16]
Quick Charge 2.0 5 V, 9 V, 12 V, (20 V[a]) 3 A, 2 A, or 1.67 A 18 W (9 V * 2 A)[17][b]
  • HVDCP (High Voltage Dedicated Charging Port)
  • Dual Charge (optional)
2014[c] Snapdragon 200, 208, 210, 212, 400, 410, 412, 415, 425, 610, 615, 616, 800, 801, 805, 808, 810[18]
Quick Charge 3.0 3.6 V to 22 V[19], dynamic with 200 mV increments[12] 2.6 A or 4.6 A[19] 36 W (12 V * 3 A)
  • HVDCP+
  • Dual Charge+ (optional)
  • INOV 1.0 & 2.0
  • Battery Saver Technologies
2016 Snapdragon 427, 430, 435, 450, 617, 620, 625, 626, 632, 650, 652, 653, 665, 820, 821[18]
Quick Charge 4 3.6 V to 20 V, 20 mV increments via QC


5 V, 9 V via USB-PD[20]


3 V to 21 V, in 20 mV steps and 0 A to 3 A 50mA steps[21] increments via USB-PD 3.0 PPS (Programmable Power Supply)[22]

2.6 A or 4.6 A via QC


3 A via USB-PD

100 W (20 V * 5 A) via QC[17]


27 W via USB Power Delivery (USB-PD)

  • HVDCP++
  • Dual Charge++ (optional)
  • INOV 3.0
  • Battery Saver Technologies 2
  • USB-PD compatible
2017 Snapdragon 630, 636, 660, 710,[23][24] 835[25][26]
Quick Charge 4+
  • Dual Charge++ (not optional)
  • Intelligent Thermal Balancing
  • Advanced Safety Features
Snapdragon 670, 675, 712, 730, 730G, 845,855, 865[27][28]

Other charging protocolsEdit

Quick Charge-based protocolsEdit

Note: These are compatible with Quick Charge-enabled chargers

Other proprietary protocolsEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Only available in Revision B, also known as Class B.[12][11]
  2. ^ Because the younger and more powerful QuickCharge 3.0 power supplies are backwards-compatible to QuickCharge 2.0, the QuickCharge 3.0 chargers are often able to deliver more power through QuickCharge 2.0 than the original QuickCharge 2.0 power supplies, due to the support for higher currents at the same voltages.
  3. ^ The Galaxy Note 4, released in September 2014, was already equipped with Qualcomm QuickCharge 2.0.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "How fast can a fast-charging phone charge if a fast-charging phone can charge really fast?". CNet. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  2. ^ [https://www.hackster.io/PSoC_Rocks/hacking-qualcomm-quick-charge-qc-2-0-3-0-with-attiny85-b7627d Hackster.io guide: Custom voltage from Qualcomm Quick Charge powerbank.
  3. ^ Hackaday guide: “Unlocking 12V Quick Charge On A USB Power Bank”
  4. ^ Parikh, Prasham (2019-03-25). "This is the fastest phone charging technology in the world". EOTO Tech. Retrieved 2019-03-26.
  5. ^ a b Roach, Everett (September 2015). "Advancing charging technologies: Qualcomm® Quick Charge™" (PDF). Qualcomm.
  6. ^ a b Humrick, Matt. "Qualcomm Announces Quick Charge 4: Supports USB Type-C Power Delivery". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  7. ^ "Introducing Quick Charge 3.0: next-generation fast charging technology". Qualcomm. 2015-09-14. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  8. ^ "For fast charging, look for Qualcomm Quick Charge 4+ in your next mobile device". Qualcomm. 2017-06-01. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  9. ^ "How can Quick Charge 4+ turbocharge your mobile device?". Qualcomm. 2018-02-23. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  10. ^ "Qualcomm Announces Quick Charge for Wireless Power and Introduces Qi Interoperability". Qualcomm. 2019-02-24. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  11. ^ a b Video by Qualcomm: Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0 technology explained (2015-09-11)
  12. ^ a b c Video: “The evolution of fast charging – summaized. ( Quick Charge & Pump Express )” (technical explanation) (2019-10-12)
  13. ^ Qualcomm.com: Qualcomm Quick Charge 1.0 Battery Charger ICs
  14. ^ "Qualcomm Quick Charge 1.0: Less Time Charging, More Time Doing". Qualcomm. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  15. ^ "Qualcomm's Quick Charge 2.0 technology explained". Android Authority. 2014-11-06. Retrieved 2016-12-05.
  16. ^ Qualcomm QuickCharge 1.0 press release: “Qualcomm acquires summit microelectronics”
  17. ^ a b "What is Qualcomm Quick Charge 3.0?". Belkin. Retrieved 2019-08-20.
  18. ^ a b "Compare Snapdragon Processors". Qualcomm. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  19. ^ a b "Quick Charge 3.0 specs". Qualcomm.
  20. ^ "Nubia Z17 by Nubia and PD6 by BatPower Compatibility". Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  21. ^ "Fresco Logic to demonstrate the Industry's First USB-C PD3.0 Programmable Power Supply (PPS) Total Solution". Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  22. ^ "Qualcomm Announces the First Ever Certified QC4+ Charger". Retrieved 2018-02-25.
  23. ^ "Snapdragon 710 Mobile Platform | Qualcomm". Qualcomm. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  24. ^ https://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/files/snapdragon-710-product-brief.pdf
  25. ^ "Qualcomm can charge your phone faster than you can read this story". CNET. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  26. ^ "Snapdragon 835 Mobile Platform". Qualcomm. Retrieved 2018-08-25.
  27. ^ "Snapdragon 845 Mobile Platform | Qualcomm". Qualcomm. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  28. ^ https://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/files/snapdragon-845-mobile-platform-product-brief.pdf

External linksEdit