List of poisonous plants

(Redirected from Poisonous plant)

Plants that produce toxins and/or cause irritation on contact are referred to as poisonous plants.[1] The toxins in poisonous plants affect herbivores, and deter them from consuming the plants. Plants cannot move to escape their predators, so they must have other means of protecting themselves from herbivorous animals. Some plants have physical defenses such as thorns, spines and prickles, but by far the most common type of protection is chemical.[2]

Australia, 1907: Cattlemen survey 700 cattle that were killed overnight by poisonous plants.

Over millennia, through the process of natural selection, plants have evolved the means to produce a vast and complicated array of chemical compounds to deter herbivores. Tannin, for example, is a defensive compound that emerged relatively early in the evolutionary history of plants, while more complex molecules such as polyacetylenes are found in younger groups of plants such as the Asterales. Many of the known plant defense compounds primarily defend against consumption by insects, though other animals, including humans, that consume such plants may also experience negative effects, ranging from mild discomfort to death.

Many of these poisonous compounds also have important medicinal benefits.[3] The varieties of phytochemical defenses in plants are so numerous that many questions about them remain unanswered, including:

  1. Which plants have which types of defense?
  2. Which herbivores, specifically, are the plants defended against?
  3. What chemical structures and mechanisms of toxicity are involved in the compounds that provide defense?
  4. What are the potential medical uses of these compounds?

These questions and others constitute an active area of research in modern botany, with important implications for understanding plant evolution and medical science.

Below is an extensive, if incomplete, list of plants containing one or more poisonous parts that pose a serious risk of illness, injury, or death to humans or domestic animals. There is significant overlap between plants considered poisonous and those with psychotropic properties, some of which are toxic enough to present serious health risks at recreational doses. There is a distinction between plants that are poisonous because they naturally produce dangerous phytochemicals, and those that may become dangerous for other reasons, including but not limited to infection by bacterial, viral, or fungal parasites; the uptake of toxic compounds through contaminated soil or groundwater; and/or the ordinary processes of decay after the plant has died; this list deals exclusively with plants that produce phytochemicals. Many plants, such as peanuts, produce compounds that are only dangerous to people who have developed an allergic reaction to them, and with a few exceptions, those plants are not included here (see list of allergens instead). Despite the wide variety of plants considered poisonous, human fatalities caused by poisonous plants – especially resulting from accidental ingestion – are rare in the developed world.[4]

Poisonous plants that are food


Many plants commonly used as food possess toxic parts, are toxic unless processed, or are toxic at certain stages of their lives. Some only pose a serious threat to certain animals (such as cats, dogs, or livestock) or certain types of people (such as infants, the elderly, or the immunocompromised). Most of these food plants are safe for the average adult to eat in modest quantities. Notable examples include:

Scientific name Common name(s) Family Description Picture
Allium spp. onion, garlic, leek, and chive Amaryllidaceae Many members of the genus Allium contain thiosulphate, which in high doses is toxic to dogs, cats, and some types of livestock. Cats are more sensitive.[5]  
Asparagus spp. asparagus Asparagaceae Several species including Asparagus officinalis and Asparagus densiflorus. Though asparagus plants cultivated for food are typically harvested before they reach reproductive maturity, the berries of the mature plant are poisonous, containing furostanol and spirostanol saponins. Rapid ingestion of more than five to seven ripe berries can induce abdominal pain and vomiting. Sulfur compounds in the young shoots are also considered at least partially responsible for mild skin reactions in some people who handle the plant.[6]  
Blighia sapida ackee Sapindaceae The seeds, unripened arils, and inedible portions of the ackee fruit contain the toxins hypoglycin A and hypoglycin B, which inhibit enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and thereby cause a depletion of stored glucose in order to meet the body's energy needs, leading to hypoglycemia.[7]  
Citrus spp. lemon, lime, grapefruit, orange, etc. Rutaceae Most citrus fruits, including lemon (Citrus limon), lime, and orange (Citrus × sinensis), among others, are known to contain aromatic oils, the terpenes limonene and linalool, and the furanocoumarin psoralen, which are toxic to dogs, cats, and other animals.[8][9][10] The concentration and distribution of these compounds can vary widely by species, but they are often concentrated in the fleshy rinds.[9] Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, depression, and photosensitivity. Citrus essential oils do not appear to be toxic to humans.[11][12]  
Lathyrus sativus Indian pea, grass pea, chickling pea, white pea Fabaceae A legume grown in Asia and East Africa as an insurance crop for use during famines. Like other grain legumes, L. sativus produces a high-protein seed. The seeds contain variable amounts of β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP), a neurotoxic amino acid.[13] ODAP causes wasting and paralysis if eaten over a long period, and is considered the cause of the disease neurolathyrism, a neurodegenerative disease that causes paralysis of the lower body and emaciation of gluteal muscle (buttocks). The disease has been seen to occur after famines in Europe (France, Spain, Germany), North Africa, and South Asia, and is still prevalent in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and parts of Afghanistan when Lathyrus seed is the exclusive or main source of nutrients for extended periods.  
Malus domestica apple Rosaceae The seeds are mildly poisonous, containing a small amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside.[citation needed] The quantity contained in the seeds of a single apple is usually not enough to be dangerous to humans, but it is possible to ingest enough seeds to provide a fatal dose.[citation needed]  
Mangifera indica mango Anacardiaceae Mango leaves, stems, peels, and sap contain urushiol, an allergen also present in poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac that can cause urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in susceptible people.[citation needed] Cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol have been observed. Those with a history of poison ivy or poison oak contact dermatitis may be most at risk for such an allergic reaction. During mango's primary ripening season, it is the most common source of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.  
Manihot esculenta cassava Euphorbiaceae Roots and leaves contain two cyanogenic glycosides, linamarin and lotaustralin. These are decomposed by linamarase, a naturally occurring enzyme in cassava, liberating hydrogen cyanide.[14] Cassava varieties are often categorized as either sweet or bitter, respectively signifying the absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogenic glycosides. The 'sweet' cultivars can produce as little as 20 milligrams of cyanide per kilogram of fresh roots, whereas bitter ones may produce more than 50 times as much (1 g/kg). Cassavas grown during drought are especially high in these toxins.[15][16] A dose of 40 mg of pure cassava cyanogenic glycoside is sufficient to kill a cow. It can also cause severe calcific pancreatitis in humans, leading to chronic pancreatitis. Processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation, etc.) of cassava root is necessary to remove the toxins and avoid getting sick. In the tropics, where cassava farming is a major industry, "Chronic, low-level cyanide exposure is associated with the development of goiter and with tropical ataxic neuropathy, a nerve-damaging disorder that renders a person unsteady and uncoordinated. Severe cyanide poisoning, particularly during famines, is associated with outbreaks of a debilitating, irreversible paralytic disorder called konzo and, in some cases, death. The incidence of konzo and tropical ataxic neuropathy can be as high as 3 percent in some areas."[17] For some smaller-rooted sweet varieties, cooking is sufficient to eliminate all toxicity. The cyanide is carried away in the processing water and the amounts produced in domestic consumption are too small to have an environmental impact.[14] The larger-rooted, bitter varieties used for the production of flour or starch must be processed to remove the cyanogenic glycosides.[18] Industrial production of cassava flour, even at the cottage level, may generate enough cyanide and cyanogenic glycosides in the effluvia to have a severe environmental impact.[14]  
Myristica fragrans nutmeg Myristicaceae Contains myristicin, a naturally occurring insecticide and acaricide with possible neurotoxic effects on neuroblastoma cells.[19] It has psychoactive properties at doses much higher than used in cooking. Raw nutmeg produces anticholinergic-like symptoms, attributed to myristicin and elemicin.[20] The intoxicating effects of myristicin can lead to a physical state somewhere between waking and dreaming; euphoria is reported and nausea is often experienced. Users also report bloodshot eyes and memory disturbances.[21] Myristicin is also known to induce hallucinogenic effects, such as visual distortions. Nutmeg intoxication has an extremely long delay before peak is reached, sometimes taking up to seven hours, and effects can be felt for 24 hours, with lingering effects lasting up to 72 hours.[22][23]  
Phaseolus lunatus Lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean, double bean, Madagascar bean Fabaceae Raw beans contain dangerous amounts of linamarin, a cyanogenic glycoside.[citation needed]  
Phaseolus vulgaris kidney bean, common bean Fabaceae Phytohaemagglutinin, a toxic lectin, is present in many varieties of common bean but is especially concentrated in red kidney beans. The lectin has several effects on cell metabolism; it induces mitosis and affects the cell membrane regarding transport and permeability to proteins. It agglutinates most mammalian red blood cell types. Consumption of as few as four or five raw kidney beans may be sufficient to trigger symptoms, which include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Onset is from one to three hours after consumption of improperly prepared beans, and symptoms typically resolve within a few hours.[24] Phytohaemagglutinin can be deactivated by cooking beans at 100 °C (212 °F) for ten minutes, which is required to degrade the toxin and is much shorter than the hours required to fully cook the beans themselves. For dry beans, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also recommends an initial soak of at least five hours in water, after which the soaking water should be discarded.[24] However, lower cooking temperatures may have the paradoxical effect of potentiating the toxic effect of haemagglutinin. Beans cooked at 80 °C (176 °F) are reported to be up to five times as toxic as raw beans.[24] Outbreaks of poisoning have been associated with the use of slow cookers, the low cooking temperatures of which may be unable to degrade the toxin.  
Prunus spp. cherry, peach, plum, apricot, almond, etc. Rosaceae Leaves and seeds contain amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside. Many other Prunus species, such as peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus domestica), almond (Prunus dulcis), and apricot (Prunus armeniaca), also possess poisonous parts.[citation needed]  
Rheum rhaponticum rhubarb Polygonaceae The leaf stalks (petioles) are edible, but the leaves themselves contain notable quantities of oxalic acid, which is a nephrotoxic and corrosive acid present in many plants. Symptoms of poisoning include kidney disorders, convulsions, and coma, though it is rarely fatal. The LD50 (median lethal dose) for pure oxalic acid in rats is about 375 mg/kg body weight,[25] or about 25 grams for a 65-kilogram (143 lb) human. Although the oxalic acid content of rhubarb leaves can vary, a typical value is about 0.5%,[26] so almost 5 kg of the extremely sour leaves would have to be consumed to reach the LD50. Cooking the leaves with soda can make them more poisonous by producing soluble oxalates.[27] However, the leaves are believed to also contain an additional, unidentified toxin,[28] which might be an anthraquinone glycoside (also known as senna glycosides).[29] In the edible leaf stalks, the concentration of oxalic acid is much lower, contributing only about 2–2.5% of the total acidity, which is dominated by malic acid.[30] This means that even the raw stalks may not be hazardous (though they are generally thought to be in the US). However, the tart taste of the raw stalks is so strong as to be unpalatable to most consumers.  
Solanum lycopersicum tomato Solanaceae Like many other members of the nightshade family Solanaceae, tomato leaves and stems contain solanine, a glycoalkaloid which is toxic if ingested, causing digestive upset and nervous excitement. Use of tomato leaves as an herbal tea (infusion) has been responsible for at least one death.[31] Leaves, stems, and green unripe fruit of the tomato plant also contain small amounts of the poisonous alkaloid tomatine,[32] although levels are generally too small to be dangerous.[32][33] Ripe tomatoes do not contain any detectable tomatine.[32] Tomato plants can be toxic to dogs if they eat large amounts of the fruit or chew the plant material.[34]  
Solanum tuberosum potato Solanaceae Potatoes contain toxic glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Solanine is also found in other members of the Solanaceae plant family, which includes Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), and Hyoscyamus niger (henbane) (see entries below). The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. The toxin affects the nervous system, causing headaches, diarrhea and intense digestive disturbances, cramps, weakness and confusion, and in severe cases coma and death. Poisoning from cultivated potatoes occurs very rarely, however, as toxic compounds in the potato plant are generally concentrated in the green portions of the plant and in the fruits, and cultivated varieties contain smaller concentrations than wild plants.[35][36] Cooking at high temperatures (over 170 °C or 340 °F) also partly destroys the toxin. However, exposure to light, physical damage, and age can increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber,[37] with the highest concentrations occurring just underneath the skin. Tubers that are exposed to light turn green from chlorophyll synthesis, thus giving a visual clue as to areas of the tuber that may have become more toxic; however, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Some varieties of potato contain greater glycoalkaloid concentrations than others; breeders developing new cultivars try to keep solanine levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). However, when these commercial varieties turn green, even they can approach solanine concentrations of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). The U.S. National Toxicology Program suggests that the average American consume no more than 12.5 mg/day of solanine from potatoes (the toxic dose is several times this, depending on body weight).  
Vitis spp. grape Vitaceae Potentially toxic to dogs, although the precise mechanism is not fully understood.[citation needed] See grape and raisin toxicity in dogs.  

Other poisonous plants


Countless other plants not commonly used in food or drink are also poisonous, and care should be taken to avoid accidentally contacting or ingesting them. Some of these are popular ornamental plants or are cultivated for purposes other than consumption.

Scientific name Common name(s) Family Description Picture
Abrus precatorius jequirity, crab's eye, rosary pea, John Crow bead, precatory bean, Indian licorice, akar saga, giddee giddee, jumbie bead, ruti, weather plant Fabaceae The attractive seeds (usually about the size of a ladybug, glossy red with one black dot) contain abrin, an extremely toxic ribosome-inactivating protein related to ricin.[citation needed] Symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, convulsions, liver failure, and death, usually after several days. Ingesting a single seed can kill an adult human.[citation needed] The seeds have been used as beads in jewelry, which is dangerous; inhaled dust is toxic and pinpricks can be fatal.[citation needed] The seeds are unfortunately attractive to children.  
Aconitum spp. aconite, wolfsbane, monkshood Ranunculaceae All parts are poisonous, containing an alkaloid called aconitine, which disables nerves, lowers blood pressure, and can stop the heart. Even casual skin contact should be avoided. Symptoms include numbness, tingling, and cardiac irregularity. It has been used as a poison for bullets (by German forces during World War II), as a bait and arrow poison (ancient Greece), and to poison water supplies (reports from ancient Asia).[citation needed] If ingested, it usually causes burning, tingling, and numbness in the mouth, followed by vomiting and nervous excitement. It is usually a quick-acting poison and has been used in the past for killing wolves (hence one of the common names).  
Actaea pachypoda doll's eyes, white baneberry Ranunculaceae All parts are poisonous, especially the berries, the consumption of which has a sedative effect on cardiac muscle tissue and can cause cardiac arrest.[citation needed]  
Adenium obesum sabi star, kudu, desert-rose Apocynaceae The plant exudes a highly toxic sap which is used by the Meridian High and Hadza in Tanzania to coat arrow-tips for hunting.[citation needed]  
Adonis vernalis pheasant's eye, false hellebore Ranunculaceae The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds such as adonidin and aconitic acid.[38]  
Aesculus hippocastanum horse-chestnut, buckeye, conker tree Sapindaceae All parts of the raw plant are poisonous due to saponins and glycosides such as aesculin, causing nausea, muscle twitches, and sometimes paralysis.[39]  
Agave spp. century plant, maguey Asparagaceae The juice of several species causes acute contact dermatitis, with blistering lasting several weeks and recurring itching for several years thereafter.[citation needed]  
Ageratina altissima white snakeroot, white sanicle, richweed Asteraceae All parts contain a toxic oil known as tremetol, which is poisonous to cattle, horses, goats, sheep, and humans. Symptoms of ingestion include nausea and vomiting and it is often fatal. When the milk or meat of an animal that has eaten white snakeroot is consumed in sufficient quantities by humans, tremetol poisoning, also called milk sickness, may result.[40][41]  
Agrostemma githago corn cockle Caryophyllaceae Contains the saponins githagin and agrostemmic acid. All parts of the plant are reported to be poisonous and may produce chronic or acute, potentially fatal poisoning, although it has been used in folk medicine to treat a range of ills, from parasites to cancer. There are no known recent clinical studies of corn cockle which provide a basis for dosage recommendations; however, doses higher than 3 g (of seeds) are considered toxic.[42]  
Anemone nemorosa wood anemone, windflower, thimbleweed Ranunculaceae The plant contains chemicals that are toxic to animals including humans, but it has also been used as a medicine. All parts of the plant contain protoanemonin, which can cause severe skin and gastrointestinal irritation, bitter taste and burning in the mouth and throat, mouth ulcers, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hematemesis.[43]  
Anthurium spp. anthurium, tailflower, flamingo flower Araceae Anthurium plants are poisonous due to calcium oxalate crystals. The sap is irritating to the skin and eyes.[44]  
Aquilegia spp. columbine Ranunculaceae Seeds and roots contain cardiogenic toxins which cause both severe gastroenteritis and heart palpitations if consumed. The flowers of various species were consumed in moderation by Native Americans as a condiment with other fresh greens, and are reported to be very sweet and safe if consumed in small quantities. Native Americans also used very small amounts of the root as an effective treatment for peptic ulcers. However, medical use of this plant is difficult due to its high toxicity; columbine poisonings are easily fatal.[45]  
Areca catechu betel nut palm, pinyang Arecaceae The nut contains arecaidine and arecoline, alkaloids which are related to nicotine and similarly addictive.[46] Chewing it causes a mild high, some stimulation, and much red saliva, which can cause nausea if swallowed. Withdrawal causes headache and sweats. Use is correlated with mouth cancer,[47] and to a lesser extent asthma and heart disease.[citation needed]  
Argemone mexicana Mexican poppy, flowering thistle, cardo, cardosanto Papaveraceae A. mexicana seeds contain 22–36% of a pale yellow, non-edible oil called argemone oil or katkar oil, which contains the toxic alkaloids sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine.[48] Poisoning by katkar oil causes epidemic dropsy, with symptoms including extreme swelling, particularly of the legs.[49]  
Arnica montana mountain arnica, mountain tobacco, wolf's bane, leopard's bane Asteraceae It contains the toxin helenalin, which can be poisonous if large amounts of the plant are eaten or small amounts of concentrated Arnica are used. Consumption of A. montana can produce severe gastroenteritis, internal bleeding of the digestive tract, raised liver enzymes (which can indicate inflammation of the liver), nervousness, accelerated heart rate, muscular weakness, and death if enough is ingested.[50][51] Contact with the plant can also cause skin irritation.[52][53] In the Ames test, an extract of A. montana was found to be mutagenic.[51] The plant's toxicity has led to the U.S. FDA officially declaring it to be unsafe.  
Arum maculatum cuckoo-pint, lords and ladies, jack-in-the-pulpit, wake robin, wild arum, devils and angels, cows and bulls, Adam and Eve, bobbins, starch-root Araceae All parts of the plant can produce allergic reactions. The bright red berries contain oxalates of saponins and can cause skin, mouth, and throat irritation, resulting in swelling, burning pain, breathing difficulties, and stomach upset. One of the most common causes of plant poisoning.[citation needed]  
Atropa belladonna deadly nightshade, belladonna, devil's cherry, dwale Solanaceae One of the most toxic plants found in the Western Hemisphere, all parts of the plant contain tropane alkaloids[54] – as do those of its equally deadly sister species A. baetica, A. pallidiflora and A. acuminata. The active agents are atropine, hyoscine (scopolamine), and hyoscyamine, which have anticholinergic properties.[55][56] The symptoms of poisoning include dilated pupils, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, tachycardia, loss of balance, staggering, headache, rash, flushing, dry mouth and throat, slurred speech, urinary retention, constipation, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, and convulsions.[55][57][58] The root of the plant is generally the most toxic part, though this can vary from one specimen to another. Ingestion of a single leaf of the plant can be fatal to an adult.[54] Casual contact with the leaves can cause skin pustules. The berries pose the greatest danger to children because they look attractive and have a somewhat sweet taste.[59] The consumption of two to five berries by children and ten to twenty berries by adults can be lethal. In 2009, a case of A. belladonna being mistaken for blueberries, with six berries ingested by an adult woman, was documented to result in severe anticholinergic syndrome.[60] The plant's deadly symptoms are caused by atropine's disruption of the parasympathetic nervous system's ability to regulate involuntary activities such as sweating, breathing, and heart rate. The antidote for atropine poisoning is physostigmine or pilocarpine.[61] A. belladonna is also toxic to many domestic animals, causing narcosis and paralysis.[62] However, cattle and rabbits eat the plant seemingly without any harmful effects.[58] In humans, its anticholinergic properties will cause the disruption of cognitive capacities like memory and learning.[56]  
Brugmansia spp. angel's trumpet Solanaceae All parts of all plants in this genus contain the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and atropine, which are extremely toxic; ingestion is often fatal. These plants are closely related to and were once grouped with members of the genus Datura, which contain the same deadly alkaloids. Effects of ingestion may include losing connection with reality and hallucinations. An unfortunate case has been reported in the neuroscience literature about a young man performing self-amputation with pruning shears after intentionally ingesting Brugmansia tea, boiled from just two flowers.[63]  
Caladium spp. angel wings, elephant ear, heart of Jesus Araceae All parts of all plants in this genus contain insoluble calcium oxalate crystals, which are toxic. Symptoms of ingestion generally include irritation and burning of the mouth, lips, and throat, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, muscle twitching, and sometimes swelling of the mouth or tongue, which can cause breathing to become fatally blocked. In severe cases chronic kidney disease or renal failure can occur.[64] They are poisonous to dogs and cats as well as humans.[65]  
Calla palustris marsh calla, wild calla, water-arum Araceae The plant is very poisonous when fresh due to its high oxalic acid content, but the rhizome (like that of Caladium, Colocasia, and Arum) is edible after drying, grinding, leaching, and boiling.[66][failed verification]  
Caltha palustris marsh-marigold, kingcup Ranunculaceae It contains several active substances of which the most important from a toxicological point of view is protoanemonin. Ingesting large quantities of the plant may cause convulsions, burning of the throat, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, dizziness, and fainting. Contact of the skin or mucous membranes with the juices can cause blistering or inflammation, and gastric illness if ingested. Younger parts seem to contain lower toxin concentrations and heating breaks these substances down. Small amounts of Caltha in hay do not cause problems when fed to livestock, but larger quantities can lead to gastric illness.[67]  
Cascabela thevetia yellow oleander Apocynaceae All parts of the plant are toxic to most vertebrates as they contain cardiac glycosides. Many cases of intentional and accidental poisoning of humans are known.[68]  
Cephalanthus occidentalis buttonbush Rubiaceae It has several historical medicinal uses, but it is also toxic due to the presence of cephalathin.[69]  
Cerbera odollam suicide tree Apocynaceae The seeds contain cerberin, a potent toxin related to digoxin. The poison blocks the calcium ion channels in heart muscle, causing disruption of the heartbeat. This is typically fatal and can result from ingesting a single seed. Cerberin is difficult to detect in autopsies and its taste can be masked with strong spices, such as a curry. It is often used in homicide and suicide in India; Kerala's suicide rate is about three times the Indian average. In 2004, a team led by Yvan Gaillard of the Laboratory of Analytical Toxicology in La Voulte-sur-Rhône, France, documented more than 500 cases of fatal Cerbera poisoning between 1989 and 1999 in Kerala. They said "To the best of our knowledge, no plant in the world is responsible for as many deaths by suicide as the odollam tree."[70] A related species is Cerbera tanghin, the seeds of which are known as tanghin poison nut and have been used as an 'ordeal poison'.  
Chelidonium majus greater celandine Papaveraceae The whole plant is toxic in moderate doses as it contains a range of isoquinoline alkaloids, but there are claimed to be therapeutic uses when used at the correct dosage.[71] The main alkaloid present in the herb and root is coptisine, with berberine, chelidonine, sanguinarine, and chelerythrine also present. Sanguinarine is particularly toxic with an LD50 of only 18 mg per kg body weight.[72] The effect of the fresh herb is analgesic, cholagogic, antimicrobial, and oncostatic,[73] with action as a central nervous system sedative. In animal tests, Chelidonium majus is shown to be cytostatic. Early studies showed that the latex causes contact dermatitis and eye irritation. Stains on skin of the fingers are sometimes reported to cause eye irritation after rubbing the eyes or handling contact lenses. The characteristic latex also contains proteolytic enzymes and the phytocystatin chelidostatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor.[74]  
Chondrodendron tomentosum curare Menispermaceae It contains highly toxic alkaloids and is one of the sources of the arrow poison curare – specifically 'tube curare', the name of which is derived from the name of the medicinally valuable alkaloid tubocurarine.[75]  
Cicuta spp. water hemlock, cowbane, wild carrot, snakeweed, poison parsnip, false parsley, children's bane, death-of-man Apiaceae The root, when freshly pulled out of the ground, is extremely poisonous and contains cicutoxin, a central nervous system stimulant that induces seizures.[citation needed] When dried, the poisonous effect is reduced. The most common species is C. maculata; one of the species found in the Western United States, C. douglasii, often found in pastures and swamps, has especially thick stems and very large and sturdy flowers which are sometimes harvested for flower displays. This is inadvisable as the sap is also toxic.  
Cleistanthus collinus Phyllanthaceae Ingestion of its leaves or a dicoction of its leaves causes hypokalemia (kaliuresis and cardiac arrhythmias),[76] metabolic acidosis, hypotension, and hypoxia.[77]  
Clivia miniata Natal lily, bush lily, Kaffir lily Amaryllidaceae It contains small amounts of lycorine, making it poisonous.[citation needed]  
Codiaeum variegatum garden croton, variegated croton Euphorbiaceae As with many of the Euphorbiaceae, the sap can cause skin eczema in some people. The bark, roots, latex, and leaves are poisonous.[78]  
Colchicum autumnale autumn crocus, meadow saffron Colchicaceae The bulbs contain colchicine, a potent chemical which binds to tubulin in the cell, impairing or inhibiting a wide variety of normal cellular functions including mitosis, endocytosis and exocytosis, and cellular motility. Colchicine poisoning has been compared to arsenic poisoning; symptoms typically start two to five hours after a toxic dose has been ingested but may take up to 24 hours to appear, and include burning in the mouth and throat, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and kidney failure. Onset of multiple-system organ failure may occur within 24 to 72 hours. This includes hypovolemic shock due to extreme vascular damage and fluid loss through the GI tract, which may result in death.[79] Additionally, those affected may experience kidney damage resulting in low urine output and bloody urine, low white blood cell counts (persisting for several days), anemia, muscular weakness, and respiratory failure. Recovery may begin within 6 to 8 days. There is no specific antidote for colchicine poisoning, although various treatments do exist.[80] Despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity, colchicine is also a popular medicine at low doses, prescribed in the treatment of gout,[81] familial Mediterranean fever, pericarditis, and Behçet's disease. It is also being investigated for use as an anti-cancer drug. Certain drugs and conditions can interfere with colchicine metabolism and abruptly increase its toxicity, giving colchicine a reputation for dangerous drug interactions.[79]  
Conium maculatum hemlock, poison hemlock, spotted parsley, spotted cowbane, bad-man's oatmeal, poison snakeweed, beaver poison Apiaceae All parts of the plant contain γ-coniceine and its derivative coniine, as well as similar alkaloids, which are toxic to all mammals and many other organisms.[82][83] Ingestion can cause stomach pain, vomiting, and progressive paralysis of the central nervous system; ingestion of more than 100 milligrams of coniine (equal to about six to eight fresh leaves, or even smaller doses of the seeds and roots) can be fatal for adult humans.[84][85] Coniine works primarily by inhibiting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nerve cells, which can cause narcotic-like effects as soon as 30 minutes after ingestion, followed by an ascending neuromuscular dysfunction leading to paralysis of the respiratory muscles and ultimately death by oxygen deprivation.[86] Contrary to a common myth, scientific studies have disproven that humans can be exposed to hemlock alkaloids by ingesting the milk or meat of animals which have eaten the plant.[87] C. maculatum should not be confused with the trees commonly called hemlock (Tsuga spp.), which, while not edible, are not nearly as toxic as the herbaceous plant. An infusion of poison hemlock is said to have killed Socrates in 399 BC.  
Consolida spp. larkspur Young plants and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, and paralysis; often fatal. Other plants in the parent genus Delphinium are also poisonous and commonly called larkspur.[88]  
Convallaria majalis lily of the valley Contains at least 38 different cardiac glycosides, including convallarin,[89] which liberate hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. All parts of the plant, including the bright red berries, are extremely poisonous.[90] Symptoms of ingestion may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and irregular heartbeat.[91]  
Coriaria myrtifolia redoul A Mediterranean plant containing the toxin coriamyrtin, ingestion of which produces digestive, neurological, and respiratory problems. The poisonous fruits superficially resemble blackberries and may mistakenly be eaten as such. Can be fatal in children.[citation needed]  
Cytisus scoparius broom, common broom Contains toxic alkaloids that depress the heart and nervous system.[92] The alkaloid sparteine is a class 1a antiarrhythmic agent, a sodium channel blocker. It is not FDA-approved for human use as an antiarrhythmic agent and it is not included in the Vaughn Williams classification of antiarrhythmic drugs.  
Daphne spp. The berries (either red or yellow) are poisonous, causing burns to the mouth and digestive tract, followed by coma; often fatal.[citation needed]  
Datura spp. jimson weed, thorn apple, stinkweed, Jamestown weed, angel's trumpets, moonflower, sacred datura Solanaceae Containing the tropane alkaloids scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and atropine, all parts of these plants are poisonous, especially the seeds and flowers. Ingestion may cause abnormal thirst, hyperthermia, severe delirium and incoherence, visual distortions, bizarre and possibly violent behavior, memory loss, coma, and death. It is a significant poison to grazing livestock in North America. Datura has been used as an entheogenic drug by the indigenous peoples of the Americas and others for centuries, though the extreme variability in a given plant's toxicity depending on its age and growing environment make such usage an exceptionally hazardous practice; the difference between a recreational dose and a lethal dose is minuscule,[93] and incorrect dosage often results in death. For this same reason, Datura has also been a popular poison for suicide and murder, particularly in parts of Europe and India. Reports of recreational usage are overwhelmingly negative. The majority of those who describe their use of Datura find their experiences extremely unpleasant and often physically dangerous.[94]  
Daucus carota wild carrot, bird's nest, bishop's lace, Queen Anne's lace Apiaceae D. carota contains falcarinol, which is dangerously toxic to humans.[95] It has also been reported to contain acetone, asarone, choline, ethanol, formic acid, hydrogen cyanide, isobutyric acid, limonene, malic acid, maltose, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, pyrrolidine, and quinic acid.[96] When in contact with wet D. carota, skin irritation and vesication may occur.  
Deathcamas Various genera in the family Melanthiaceae have species whose common names include "deathcamas", including Amianthium, Anticlea, Stenanthium, Toxicoscordion, and Zigadenus. Melanthiaceae All parts of these plants are toxic, due to the presence of alkaloids. Grazing animals, such as sheep and cattle, may be affected and human fatalities have occurred.[97]  
Delphinium spp. larkspur Ranunculaceae Contains the alkaloid delsoline. Young plants and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis, and often death.[citation needed]  
Dendrocnide moroides stinging tree, gympie gympie Urticaceae Capable of inflicting a painful sting when touched. The stinging may last for several days and is exacerbated by touching, rubbing, and cold temperatures; can be fatal.[citation needed]  
Dicentra cucullaria bleeding heart, Dutchman's breeches Papaveraceae Leaves and roots are poisonous and cause convulsions and other nervous symptoms.[citation needed]  
Dichapetalum cymosum gifblaar Dichapetalaceae Well known as a livestock poison in South Africa, this plant contains the metabolic poison fluoroacetic acid.[citation needed]  
Dieffenbachia spp. dumbcane Araceae All parts are poisonous; the culprits are needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate called raphides, which can cause intense burning, reddening of the skin, irritation, and immobility of the tongue, mouth, and throat if ingested.[citation needed] Swelling can be severe enough to block breathing, leading to death, though this is rare; in most cases, symptoms are mild and can be successfully treated with basic analgesics, antihistamines, or charcoal.[citation needed]  
Digitalis purpurea foxglove Plantaginaceae The leaves, seeds, and flowers are poisonous, containing cardiac or other steroid glycosides. These cause irregular heartbeat, general digestive upset, and confusion; can be fatal.[citation needed]  
Dioscorea communis black bryony Dioscoreaceae All components of the plant, including the tubers, are poisonous due to saponin content, therefore it is not typically used internally. However, it has been used as a poultice for bruises and inflamed joints. It has been suggested that black bryony be used topically with caution, due to a tendency for the plant to cause painful blisters. Studies have isolated calcium oxalate deposits and histamines in the berry juice and rhizomes, which may contribute to skin irritation and contact dermatitis.[citation needed]  
Dryopteridaceae wood ferns, buckler ferns, male ferns Dryopteridaceae The rhizomes of this family are known to contain phloroglucinol derived compounds, previously used to treat nematode infections. Dryopteris filix-mas poisonings consist of vomiting, diarrhea, vertigo, headache, tremor, cold sweats, dyspnea, cyanosis, convulsions, mental disturbances, vision impairment of blindness which may be temporary or permanent. There is some record of Rumohra adiantiformis formerly Arachnoides adiantiformis, causing contact dermatitis.[98]
Duranta erecta golden dewdrop, pigeon berry, skyflower Verbenaceae The leaves and berries of the plant are toxic and are confirmed to have killed children, dogs, and cats.[99]  
Erysimum cheiri wallflower Brassicaceae It contains constituents that may affect the heart.[100]  
Euonymus europaeus spindle, European spindle, spindle tree Celastraceae The fruit is poisonous, containing among other substances the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, as well as an extremely bitter terpene. Poisonings are more common in young children, who are enticed by the brightly coloured fruits. Ingestion can result in liver and kidney damage and even death.[citation needed] There are many other species of Euonymus, many of which are also poisonous.  
Euphorbia pulcherrima poinsettia Euphorbiaceae Its latex can cause an allergic reaction in sensitive individuals.[101] It is also mildly irritating to the skin or stomach[102] and may sometimes cause diarrhea and vomiting if eaten.[103] Sap introduced into the human eye may cause temporary blindness.[104] It is known to be mildly toxic to cats, dogs, and horses.[105]  
Excoecaria agallocha milky mangrove, blind-your-eye mangrove, river poison tree Euphorbiaceae Contact with latex can cause skin irritation and blistering; eye contact can cause temporary blindness.[citation needed]  
Galanthus nivalis snowdrop Amaryllidaceae The plant contains an active lectin or agglutinin named GNA for Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, which is toxic.[citation needed]  
Gelsemium sempervirens yellow jessamine Gelsemiaceae All parts are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal. It is possible to become ill from ingesting honey made from jessamine nectar.[citation needed]  
Gloriosa superba flame lily, climbing lily, gloriosa lily, fire lily Colchicaceae The plant is toxic enough to cause human and animal fatalities if ingested. Every part of the plant is poisonous, especially the tuberous rhizomes. As with other members of the Colchicaceae, this plant contains high levels of colchicine, a toxic alkaloid. It also contains the alkaloid gloriocine. Within a few hours of the ingestion of a toxic amount of plant material, a victim may experience nausea, vomiting, numbness and tingling around the mouth, burning in the throat, abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea. As the toxic syndrome progresses, rhabdomyolysis, ileus, respiratory depression, hypotension, coagulopathy, haematuria, altered mental status, seizures, coma, and ascending polyneuropathy may occur.[106]  
Grevillea spp. silky oak, spiderflower Proteaceae A few species such as Grevillea 'Robyn Gordon', G. robusta, G. banksii, G. bipinnatifida, and others can cause severe contact dermatitis.[107]  
Hedera helix common ivy Araliaceae The leaves and berries contain an expansive variety of saponins, and some people also have allergic reactions to ivy. Ivy extract is included in some cough medicines as an expectorant. Ingestion of ivy extracts has been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea and vomiting and allergic reactions such as skin rash in some people.[108] Merely touching the plant can also sometimes cause contact dermatitis.[109]  
Heliotropium indicum Indian heliotrope Boraginaceae It contains tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[110]  
Helleborus niger Christmas rose Ranunculaceae Contains protoanemonin,[111] or ranunculin,[112] which has an acrid taste and can cause burning of the eyes, mouth, and throat, oral ulceration, gastroenteritis, and hematemesis.[113]  
Heracleum mantegazzianum giant hogweed Apiaceae The sap is phototoxic, causing phytophotodermatitis (severe skin inflammations) when affected skin is exposed to sunlight or to UV rays. Initially the skin becomes red and starts itching. Then blisters form as the reaction continues over 48 hours. They form black or purplish scars, which can last several years.[citation needed] Hospitalization may become necessary.  
Heracleum sosnowskyi Sosnowsky's hogweed Apiaceae Plant has toxic sap and causes skin inflammation on contact.[citation needed]  
Hippomane mancinella manchineel Euphorbiaceae All parts of this tree, including the fruit, contain toxic phorbol esters typical of the Euphorbiaceae plant family. Specifically the tree contains 12-deoxy-5-hydroxyphorbol-6gamma, 7alpha-oxide, hippomanins, mancinellin, sapogenin, phloracetophenone-2, 4-dimethylether is present in the leaves, while the fruits possess physostigmine.[114] Contact with the milky white latex produces strong allergic dermatitis.[115] Standing beneath the tree during rain will cause blistering of the skin from even slight contact with this liquid (even a small drop of rain with the milky substance in it will cause the skin to blister). Burning tree parts may cause blindness if the smoke reaches the eyes. The fruit can also be fatal if eaten. Many trees carry a warning sign, while others have been marked with a red "X" on the trunk to indicate danger. In the French Antilles the trees are often marked with a painted red band a few feet above the ground.[116] The Caribs used the latex of this tree to poison their arrows and would tie captives to the trunk of the tree, ensuring a slow and painful death. A poultice of arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) was used by the Arawaks and Taíno as an antidote against such arrow poisons.[117] The Caribs were also known to poison the water supply of their enemies with the leaves.[citation needed] Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León was struck by an arrow that had been poisoned with manchineel sap during battle with the Calusa in Florida, dying shortly thereafter.[118]  
Hyacinthus orientalis common hyacinth Asparagaceae The bulbs are poisonous, causing nausea, vomiting, gasping, convulsions, and possibly death.[citation needed] Even handling the bulbs can cause skin irritation.  
Hydrangea spp. hydrangea, hortensia Hydrangeaceae Hydrangeas are moderately toxic if eaten, with all parts of the plant containing cyanogenic glycosides.[119]  
Hyoscyamus niger henbane Solanaceae Seeds and foliage contain hyoscyamine, scopolamine and other tropane alkaloids. Can produce dilated pupils, hallucinations, increased heart rate, convulsions, vomiting, hypertension and ataxia.[citation needed]  
Ilex aquifolium European holly Aquifoliaceae The berries cause gastroenteritis, resulting in nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.[citation needed]  
Iris sibirica Siberian iris, Siberian flag Iridaceae Most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves), if mistakenly ingested can cause stomach pains and vomiting. Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction.[120]  
Jacobaea vulgaris ragwort Asteraceae Contains many different alkaloids, including jacobine, jaconine, jacozine, otosenine, retrorsine, seneciphylline, senecionine, and senkirkine.[121] Poisonous to livestock and hence of concern to people who keep horses and cattle. Horses do not normally eat fresh ragwort due to its bitter taste, however it loses this taste when dried, and becomes dangerous in hay. The result, if sufficient quantity is consumed, can be irreversible cirrhosis of the liver. Signs that a horse has been poisoned include yellow mucus membranes, depression, and lack of coordination. The danger is that the toxin can have a cumulative effect; the alkaloid does not accumulate in the liver but a breakdown product can damage DNA and progressively kills cells. Jacobaea vulgaris is also theoretically poisonous to humans, although poisoning is unlikely as it is distasteful and not used as a food. However, some sensitive individuals can develop an allergic skin reaction after handling the plant because, like many members of the family Compositae, it contains sesquiterpine lactones (which are different from the pyrrolizidine alkaloids responsible for the toxic effects), which can cause compositae dermatitis.  
Kalanchoe delagoensis mother of millions Crassulaceae Contains bufadienolide cardiac glycosides[122] which can cause cardiac poisoning, particularly in grazing animals.[123] During 1997, 125 head of cattle died after eating mother-of-millions on a travelling stock reserve near Moree, New South Wales, Australia.[124]  
Kalmia latifolia mountain laurel Ericaceae Contains andromedotoxin and arbutin. The green parts of the plant, flowers, twigs, and pollen are all toxic, and symptoms of toxicity begin to appear about six hours following ingestion. Poisoning produces anorexia, repeated swallowing, profuse salivation, depression, uncoordination, vomiting, frequent defecation, watering of the eyes, irregular or difficult breathing, weakness, cardiac distress, convulsions, coma, and eventually death. Autopsy will show gastrointestinal irritation and hemorrhage.  
Laburnum spp. golden chain Fabaceae All parts of the plant and especially the seeds are poisonous and can be lethal if consumed in excess. The main toxin is cytisine, a nicotinic receptor agonist. Symptoms of poisoning may include intense sleepiness, vomiting, excitement, staggering, convulsive movements, slight frothing at the mouth, unequally dilated pupils, coma and death.[citation needed] In some cases, diarrhea is very severe and at times the convulsions are markedly tetanic.  
Lamprocapnos spectabilis bleeding heart Papaveraceae Contact with the plant can cause skin irritation in some people from isoquinoline-like alkaloids.[125]  
Lantana camara big-sage, wild-sage, tickberry Verbenaceae The toxicity of L. camara to humans is undetermined, with several studies suggesting that ingesting unripe berries can be toxic to humans.[126] Other studies have found evidence which suggests that ingestion of L. camara fruit poses no risk to humans and are in fact edible when ripe.[127]  
Ligustrum spp. privet Oleaceae Berries and leaves are poisonous. Berries contain syringin, which causes digestive disturbances and nervous symptoms; can be fatal.[citation needed] Privet is one of several plants which are poisonous to horses. Privet pollen is known to cause asthma and eczema in patients. It is banned from sale or cultivation in New Zealand due to the effects of its pollen on people with asthma.  
Lilium spp. lily Liliaceae Most have an unidentified water-soluble toxin found in all parts of the plant. Extremely poisonous, yet attractive, to cats, causing acute renal failure; as few as two petals of the flowers can kill.[citation needed]  
Lolium temulentum darnel, poison ryegrass Poaceae The seeds and seed heads of this common garden weed may contain the alkaloids temuline and loliine. Some experts also point to the fungus ergot or fungi of the genus Endoconidium, both of which grow on the seed heads of rye grasses, as an additional source of toxicity.[128]  
Lupinus spp. lupin, lupine Fabaceae Some varieties have edible seeds. Sweet lupines have less and bitter lupines more of the toxic alkaloids lupinine and sparteine.[citation needed]  
Malus florentina Florentine crabapple Rosaceae All members of this genus contain the toxin hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly also in their leaves.[129]  
Mandragora officinarum mandrake Solanaceae Alkaloids present in the fresh plant or the dried root included atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine (hyoscine), scopine, cuscohygrine, apoatropine, 3-alpha-tigloyloxytropane, 3-alpha,6-beta-ditigloyloxytropane and belladonnines. Non-alkaloid constituents included sitosterol and beta-methylesculetin (scopoletin).[citation needed] The alkaloids make the plant, in particular the root and leaves, poisonous, via anticholinergic, hallucinogenic, and hypnotic effects. Anticholinergic properties can lead to asphyxiation.[citation needed]  
Marah oreganus Oregon manroot, coastal manroot, bigroot, western wild cucumber Cucurbitaceae All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the seeds and the large, bitter-tasting, cucumber-like fruits, probably due to toxic cucurbitacins.[130]  
Melia azedarach Chinaberry tree, Cape lilac, syringa berrytree Meliaceae Fruits are poisonous to humans if eaten in quantity.[131] The toxins are neurotoxins and unidentified resins found mainly in the fruits. The first symptoms of poisoning appear a few hours after ingestion. They may include loss of appetite, vomiting, constipation or diarrhea, bloody faeces, stomach pain, pulmonary congestion, cardiac arrest, rigidity, lack of coordination and general weakness. Death may take place after about 24 hours.  
Melianthus major honeybush Francoaceae The entire plant is poisonous to humans and animals but especially the roots, which contain cardiac glycosides.[132][133]  
Menispermum spp. moonseed Menispermaceae The fruits and seeds are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting; often fatal.[citation needed]  
Mentha pulegium pennyroyal, pennyrile Lamiaceae It is toxic to humans and has differing effects dependent on the volume and concentration ingested. The most concentrated and toxic form of the pennyroyal plant is pennyroyal oil. The oil contains 80% to 92% of cyclohexanone pulegone. Pulegone is the molecule in highest concentration, causes a variety of ailments in those who ingest it and is what causes the plant to have its peppermint flavor.[134] Symptoms that may persist after ingesting a small dose (<10 mL) of pennyroyal oil are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and dizziness. Larger volumes may result in multiorgan failure that could lead to death.  
Narcissus spp. daffodil, narcissus, jonquil Amaryllidaceae The bulbs are poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; can be fatal.[citation needed] Stems also cause headaches, vomiting, and blurred vision.  
Nerium oleander oleander Apocynaceae All parts are toxic, the leaves and woody stems in particular. Contains nerioside, oleandroside, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Causes severe digestive upset, heart trouble and contact dermatitis.[citation needed] The smoke of burning oleander can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.  
Nicandra physalodes apple-of-Peru, shoo-fly plant Solanaceae The whole plant is said to be toxic (according to some sources, very toxic)[135] and to be used medicinally as a diuretic, sedative, and cough medicine.  
Nicotiana glauca tree tobacco Solanaceae It contains the toxic alkaloid anabasine. Ingestion of the leaves can be fatal.[136]  
Notobubon galbanum blister bush Apiaceae All parts are poisonous, causing painful blistering upon contact that is intensified with exposure to sunlight.[citation needed]  
Oenanthe crocata hemlock water dropwort Apiaceae Contains oenanthotoxin. The leaves may be eaten safely by livestock, but the stems and especially the carbohydrate-rich roots are much more poisonous. Animals familiar with eating the leaves may eat the roots when these are exposed during ditch clearance – one root is sufficient to kill a cow, and human fatalities are also known in these circumstances. Scientists at the University of Eastern Piedmont in Italy claimed to have identified this as the plant responsible for producing the sardonic grin,[137][138] and it is the most-likely candidate for the "sardonic herb", which was a neurotoxic plant used for the ritual killing of elderly people in Phoenician Sardinia. When these people were unable to support themselves, they were intoxicated with this herb and then dropped from a high rock or beaten to death. Criminals were also executed in this way.[139]  
Paris quadrifolia herb-paris Melanthiaceae Each plant only produces one blueberry-like berry, which is poisonous, as are other tissues of the plant.[140] Paris quadrifolia poisonings are rare, because the plant's solitary berry and its repulsive taste make it difficult to mistake it for a blueberry.  
Passiflora caerulea blue passionflower, common passionflower Passifloraceae The leaves contain cyanogenic glycoside, which breaks down into cyanide.[citation needed]  
Phoradendron spp. American mistletoe; see also the related genus Viscum Santalaceae Mistletoe is a common hemiparasite of trees and shrubs. Toxicity varies by species, but all parts of the plant, especially the leaves and berries, contain an array of dangerous chemicals, including proteins called phoratoxins and toxic alkaloids. Symptoms are very similar to those produced by Viscum species and may include acute gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, weak pulse and/or slow heart rate, and even seizures; it is rarely lethal to adult humans, however, and many wild animals are adapted to eating its fruit.  
Physostigma venenosum calabar beans, ordeal beans Fabaceae The toxin in the seeds is the parasympathomimetic alkaloid physostigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor. Symptoms of poisoning include copious saliva, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, dizziness, headache, stomach pain, sweating, dyspepsia and seizures.,[141] and can lead to cholinergic syndrome or "SLUDGE syndrome". Medicinal uses of physostigmine include the treatment of myasthenia gravis, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease and delayed gastric emptying.  
Phytolacca spp. pokeweed Phytolaccaceae Leaves, berries, and roots contain phytolaccatoxin and phytolaccigenin. The toxicity of young leaves can be reduced with repeated boiling and draining. Ingestion of poisonous parts of the plant may cause severe stomach cramping, persistent diarrhea, nausea, vomiting (sometimes bloody), slow and difficult breathing, weakness, spasms, hypertension, severe convulsions, and death. The poisonous principles are found in highest concentrations in the rootstock, then in leaves and stems and then in the ripe fruit. The plant generally gets more toxic with maturity, with the exception of the berries (which have significant toxicity even while green).[142]  
Pieris japonica Japanese pieris Ericaceae The plant is poisonous if consumed by people or animals.[143]  
Plumeria spp. frangipani Apocynaceae Contact with the milky latex may irritate eyes and skin.[citation needed]  
Podophyllum peltatum mayapple Berberidaceae Green portions of the plant, unripe fruit, and especially the rhizome contain the non-alkaloid toxin podophyllotoxin, which causes diarrhea and severe digestive upset.[citation needed]  
Prunus laurocerasus cherry laurel, common laurel, English laurel Rosaceae Leaves, fruits, and seeds may cause severe discomfort to humans if ingested.[144] The seeds contained within the cherries are poisonous like the rest of the plant, containing cyanogenic glycosides and amygdalin.[145] This chemical composition is what gives the smell of almonds when the leaves are crushed. Laurel water, a distillation made from the plant, contains prussic acid and other compounds and is toxic.  
Prunus padus bird cherry, hackberry, Mayday tree Rosaceae The glycosides prulaurasin and amygdalin, which can be poisonous, are present in some parts of P. padus, including the leaves, stems, and fruits.[146]  
Pteridium aquilinum bracken Dennstaedtiaceae Carcinogenic to humans and animals such as mice, rats, horses, and cattle when ingested. The carcinogenic compound is ptaquiloside or PTQ, which can leach from the plant into the water supply, which may explain an increase in the incidence of gastric and oesophageal cancers in humans in bracken-rich areas.[147]  
Pulsatilla cernua pasque flower, wind flower, prairie crocus, meadow anemone Ranunculaceae It is highly toxic, and produces cardiogenic toxins and oxytoxins which slow the heart in humans. Excess use can lead to diarrhea, vomiting and convulsions,[148] hypotension and coma.[149]  
Quercus spp. oak Fagaceae The leaves and acorns of oak species are poisonous in large amounts to humans and livestock, including cattle, horses, sheep and goats, but not pigs. Poisoning is caused by the toxin tannic acid, which causes gastroenteritis, heart trouble, contact dermatitis and kidney damage. Symptoms of poisoning include lack of appetite, depression, constipation, diarrhea (which may contain blood), blood in urine, and colic; it is rarely fatal, however, and in fact after proper processing acorns are consumed as a staple food in many parts of the world.  
Rhamnus cathartica buckthorn Rhamnaceae The seeds and leaves are mildly poisonous for people and animals, but are readily eaten by birds.[150]  
Rhododendron spp. azalea Ericaceae All parts are poisonous and cause nausea, vomiting, depression, breathing difficulties, and coma, though it is rarely fatal. The primary source of toxicity is a group of closely related compounds called grayanotoxins, which block sodium ion channels in cellular membranes and prevent electrical repolarization during action potentials. Honey made from the nectar of Rhododendron plants may contain dangerous concentrations of grayanotoxins, and has been historically used as a poison and in alcoholic drinks.  
Rhododendron ferrugineum alpenrose, snow-rose, rusty-leaved alpenrose Ericaceae It is moderately toxic, containing arbutin, arecoline and rhodoxanthin, and can cause vomiting, and difficulties of the digestive, nervous, respiratory and circulatory systems.[citation needed]  
Rhododendron luteum yellow azalea, honeysuckle azalea Ericaceae Despite the sweet perfume of the flowers, the nectar is toxic, containing grayanotoxin; records of poisoning of people eating the honey date back to the 4th century BC in Classical Greece.[citation needed]  
Rhododendron tomentosum marsh Labrador tea, wild rosemary Ericaceae All parts of the plant contain poisonous terpenes that affect the central nervous system. First symptoms of overdose are dizziness and disturbances in movement, followed by spasms, nausea, and unconsciousness. The mere smell of the plant may cause headache to some people.[citation needed]  
Rhus spp. African sumac Anacardiaceae Formerly grouped with poison ivy and the rest of the Toxicodendron genus, all parts of this tree contain low levels of a highly irritating oil with urushiol. Skin reactions can include blisters and rashes. The oil spreads readily to clothes and back again, and has a very long life. Infections can follow scratching. As urushiol is not a poison but an allergen, it does not affect certain people. The smoke of burning Rhus lancia can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal.[citation needed]  
Ricinus communis castor oil plant, castor bean, Palma Christi Euphorbiaceae The seeds contain ricin, an extremely toxic and water-soluble ribosome-inactivating protein; it is also present in lower concentrations in other parts of the plant. Also present are ricinine, an alkaloid, and an irritant oil. According to the 2007 edition of the Guinness Book of World Records, the castor oil plant is the most poisonous in the world, though its cousin abrin, found in the seeds of the jequirity plant, is arguably more lethal. Castor oil, long used as a laxative, muscle rub, and in cosmetics, is made from the seeds, but the ricin protein is denatured during processing. Ricin quickly and irreversibly inhibits ribosomes, the molecular machines responsible for producing proteins in all cells.[151] The LD50 in adults is only about 22 μg/kg when injected or inhaled; ingested ricin is much less toxic due to the digestive activity of peptidases, although a dose of 20 to 30 mg/kg, or about 4 to 8 seeds, can still cause death via this route. Reports of actual poisoning are relatively rare.[152] If ingested, symptoms may be delayed by up to 36 hours but commonly begin within 2–4 hours. These include a burning sensation in the mouth and throat, abdominal pain, purging, and bloody diarrhea. Within several days there is severe dehydration, a drop in blood pressure and a decrease in urine. Unless treated, death can be expected to occur within 3–5 days; if they have not died by this time, they often recover.[153] Toxicity varies among animal species: 4 seeds will kill a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox or horse, 7 a pig, and 11 a dog. Ducks have shown substantial resistance to the seeds: it takes an average of 80 to kill them. Poisoning occurs when animals ingest broken seeds or break the seed by chewing; intact seeds may pass through the digestive tract without releasing the toxin.[154]  
Robinia spp. black locust, false acacia Fabaceae All species produce toxic lectins.[155] The poison is a complex mix of lectins with the highest concentration in the fruits and seeds, followed by the root bark and the flowers. There is little poison in the leaves.[156] The lectins, generally called robin, are less toxic than those of e.g. Abrus (abrin) or Ricinus (ricin), and in non-fatal cases the toxic effects tend to be temporary.[157]  
Sambucus spp. elder, elderberry Adoxaceae The roots, twigs, leaves, and unripe fruit are considered poisonous and cause nausea and digestive upset.[citation needed] Ripe berries must be cooked before consumption.  
Sanguinaria canadensis bloodroot Papaveraceae The rhizome contains morphine-like benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, primarily the toxin sanguinarine. Sanguinarine kills animal cells by blocking the action of Na+/K+-ATPase transmembrane proteins. As a result, applying S. canadensis to the skin may destroy tissue and lead to the formation of a large scab called an eschar. Although applying escharotic agents, including S. canadensis, to the skin is sometimes suggested as a home treatment for skin cancer, these attempts can be severely disfiguring,[158] as well as unsuccessful. Case reports have shown that in such instances tumors have recurred and/or metastasized.[159] The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the inclusion of sanguinarine in toothpastes as an antibacterial or anti-plaque agent,[160][161][162][163] although it is believed that this use may cause leukoplakia, a premalignant oral lesion.[164] The safe level of sanguinarine in such products is subject to regulation and debate.[165][166] S. canadensis extracts have also been promoted by some supplement companies as a treatment or cure for cancer, but the FDA has listed some of these products among its "187 Fake Cancer 'Cures' Consumers Should Avoid".[167] Bloodroot is a popular red natural dye used by Native American artists, especially among rivercane basketmakers in the Southeastern United States.[168] However, in spite of supposed curative properties and historical use by Native Americans as an emetic, due to its toxicity internal use is not advisable (sanguinarine has an LD50 of only 18 mg per kg body weight).[72]  
Scopolia carniolica European scopolia, henbane bell Solanaceae Its toxicity derives from its high levels of tropane alkaloids, particularly atropine. The quantity of atropine is the highest in the root.[citation needed]  
Solanum dulcamara bittersweet nightshade Solanaceae All parts are poisonous, containing solanine and causing fatigue, paralysis, convulsions, and diarrhea. Rarely fatal.[169]  
Solanum nigrum black nightshade Solanaceae All parts of the plant except the ripe fruit contain the toxic glycoalkaloid solanine. Solanine poisoning is primarily displayed by gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach cramps, burning of the throat, cardiac dysrhythmia, headache and dizziness. In more severe cases, hallucinations, loss of sensation, paralysis, fever, jaundice, dilated pupils and hypothermia can result. In large quantities, solanine poisoning can be fatal.  
Solanum pseudocapsicum Jerusalem cherry, Madeira winter cherry, winter cherry Solanaceae All parts, especially the berries, are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. It is occasionally fatal, especially to children.[citation needed]  
Sophora secundiflora mescal bean, Texas mountain laurel Solanaceae  
Strophanthus gratus Apocynaceae The ripe seeds of this African plant contain ouabain, a potent cardiac glycoside that, when sufficiently concentrated, can induce cardiac arrest by binding to and inhibiting the action of the sodium-potassium pump and thereby drastically slowing the contraction of cardiac muscle cells. It was once used medicinally in small doses to treat congestive heart failure and other heart conditions, but has largely been replaced by the structurally related digoxin. Extracts from Strophanthus gratus and the bark of Acokanthera species have long been used by Somali tribesmen to poison hunting arrows; if the concentration is high enough, an arrow poisoned with ouabain can kill an adult hippopotamus.[citation needed]  
Strychnos nux-vomica strychnine tree Loganiaceae The seeds usually contain about 1.5% strychnine, an extremely bitter and deadly alkaloid. This substance throws a human into intense muscle convulsions and usually kills within three hours. The bark of the tree may also contain brucine, another dangerous chemical.[citation needed]  
Symplocarpus foetidus skunk cabbage, meadow cabbage, foetid pothos, polecat weed Araceae The leaves and roots contain calcium oxalate crystals, which are moderately toxic to humans. Ingesting large quantities of either may produce symptoms including burning of the mouth and throat, swelling of the lips and tongue, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness; merely handling the fresh leaves can burn the skin.[170]  
Taxus baccata English yew, common yew, graveyard tree Taxaceae Nearly all parts contain toxic taxanes (except the red, fleshy, and slightly sweet aril surrounding the toxic seeds).[171][172] The seeds themselves are particularly toxic if chewed.[173] Several people have committed suicide by ingesting leaves and seeds, including Catuvolcus, king of a tribe in what is now Belgium.  
Toxicodendron spp. Several species, including Toxicodendron radicans (commonly known as poison ivy), Toxicodendron diversilobum (commonly known as poison-oak), and Toxicodendron vernix (commonly known as poison sumac) Anacardiaceae All parts of these plants contain a highly irritating oil with urushiol. Skin reactions can include blisters and rashes. The oil spreads readily to clothes and back again, and has a very long life. Infections can follow scratching. Despite the common names, urushiol is not a poison but an allergen, and because of this it will not affect certain people. The smoke of burning poison ivy can cause reactions in the lungs, and can be fatal. The allergic reaction caused by contact with poison ivy affects more than 70% of the human population, with as many as 350,000 cases reported annually in the United States alone  
Urtica ferox ongaonga Urticaceae Even the lightest touch can result in a painful sting that lasts several days.[citation needed]  
Veratrum spp. false hellebore, corn lily Melanthiaceae Several species, containing highly toxic steroidal alkaloids (e.g. veratridine) that activate sodium ion channels and cause rapid cardiac failure and death if ingested.[174] All parts of the plant are poisonous, with the root and rhizomes being the most toxic.[174] Symptoms typically occur between 30 minutes and 4 hours after ingestion and include nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, numbness, headache, sweating, muscle weakness, bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and seizures.[174] Treatment for poisoning includes gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal followed by supportive care including fluid replacement, antiemetics for persistent nausea and vomiting, atropine for treatment of bradycardia, and vasopressors for the treatment of hypotension.[174] Native Americans used the juice pressed from the roots to poison arrows before combat. The dried powdered root of this plant was also used as an insecticide.[148] The plants' teratogenic properties and ability to induce severe birth defects were well known to Native Americans,[148] although they also used minute amounts of the winter-harvested root (combined with Salvia dorii to potentiate its effects and reduce the toxicity of the herb) to treat cancerous tumors. The toxic steroidal alkaloids are produced only when the plants are in active growth, so herbalists and Native Americans who used this plant for medicinal purposes harvested the roots during the winter months when the levels of toxic constituents were at their lowest. The roots of V. nigrum and V. schindleri have been used in Chinese herbalism (where plants of this genus are known as "li lu" (藜蘆). Li lu is used internally as a powerful emetic of last resort, and topically to kill external parasites, treat tinea and scabies, and stop itching.[175] However some herbalists refuse to prescribe li lu internally, citing the extreme difficulty in preparing a safe and effective dosage, and that death has occurred at a dosage of 0.6 grams.[175] During the 1930s Veratrum extracts were investigated in the treatment of high blood pressure in humans. However patients often had side effects due to the narrow therapeutic index of these products. Due to its toxicity, the use of Veratrum as a treatment for high blood pressure in humans was discontinued.[174]  
Vernicia fordii tung tree Euphorbiaceae It is poisonous in all of its parts, including the fruit and the seeds, although some parts of the tree have been used for medicinal purposes in the past. According to one university website, just one seed from the fruit can be fatal, and other symptoms may include vomiting, diarrhea, and slowed breathing. The leaves can also give a rash similar to that from poison ivy.[176]  
Viscum spp. European mistletoe; see also the related genus Phoradendron Santalaceae Mistletoe is a common hemiparasite of trees and shrubs. Toxicity varies by species, but all parts of the plant, especially the leaves and berries, contain an array of toxic chemicals, including several different viscotoxins, the alkaloid tyramine, and a ribosome-inactivating lectin called viscumin. Symptoms may include acute gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, weak pulse and/or slow heart rate, and even seizures; it is rarely lethal to adult humans, however, and many wild animals are adapted to eating its fruit.[177][178]  
Voacanga africana Apocynaceae The bark and seeds of this tropical tree contain a complex mixture of iboga alkaloids, including voacangine and voacamine. These compounds have been variously used as stimulants, psychedelic drugs, and poisons.[citation needed]  
Wisteria sinensis Chinese wisteria Fabaceae All parts of the plant contain a glycoside called wisterin which is toxic if ingested and may cause nausea, vomiting, stomach pains, and diarrhea. Wisterias have caused poisoning in children of many countries, producing mild to severe gastroenteritis.  
Xanthium spp. cocklebur Asteraceae The common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), a native of North America, can be poisonous to livestock, including horses, cattle, and sheep. Some domestic animals will avoid consuming the plant if other forage is present, but less discriminating animals, such as pigs, will consume the plants and then sicken and die. The seedlings and seeds are the most toxic parts of the plants. Symptoms usually occur within a few hours, producing unsteadiness and weakness, depression, nausea and vomiting, twisting of the neck muscles, rapid and weak pulse, difficulty breathing, and eventually death. Xanthium has also been used for its medicinal properties and for making yellow dye, as indicated by its name (Greek xanthos = 'yellow').  
Zantedeschia aethiopica calla lily, arum lily Araceae All parts of the plant are toxic, containing calcium oxalate, which induces irritation and swelling of the mouth and throat, acute vomiting and diarrhea.[179] Can be fatal.  
Zigadenus glaberrimus sandbog death camas Melanthiaceae All parts of Z. glaberrimus are toxic, due to the presence of alkaloids. This or related species have caused human fatalities.[180]  

See also



  1. ^ "Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants". U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Consumer Updates. 9 June 2021 [Originally posted c. June 2009, since updated but advice unchanged]. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009.
  2. ^ Keddy, P.A. 2007. Plants and Vegetation: Origins, Processes, Consequences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, Chapter 7.
  3. ^ Lewis, W.H. and M.P.F. Elvin-Lewis. 1977. Medical Botany. Plants Affecting Man's Health. Wiley, New York. 515 p. pp. 123–124.[ISBN missing]
  4. ^ Krenzelok EP, Mrvos R.,"Friends and foes in the plant world: A profile of plant ingestions and fatalities." Clin Toxicol. 2011 Mar;49(3):142–149
  5. ^ Cope RB. Toxicology Brief: Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats. Veterinary Medicine 2005
  6. ^ "Growing Asparagus". Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  7. ^ Isenberg, Samantha L.; Carter, Melissa D.; Hayes, Shelby R.; Graham, Leigh Ann; Johnson, Darryl; Mathews, Thomas P.; Harden, Leslie A.; Takeoka, Gary R.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Pirkle, James L.; Johnson, Rudolph C. (13 July 2016). "Quantification of toxins in soapberry (Sapindaceae) arils: Hypoglycin A and methylenecyclopropylglycine". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 64 (27): 5607–5613. doi:10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02478. ISSN 0021-8561. PMC 5098216. PMID 27367968.
  8. ^ "Can Dogs Eat Lemons?". 23 February 2024.
  9. ^ a b Saylor, April (28 September 2023). "Can Dogs Eat Lemons?". PetMD.
  10. ^ Yu, Yingli; Wang, Pengli; Yu, Ruili; Lu, Jiaxi; Jiang, Miaomiao; Zhou, Kun (2 November 2019). "Long-Term Exposure of Psoralen and Isopsoralen Induced Hepatotoxicity and Serum Metabolites Profiles Changes in Female Rats". Metabolites. 9 (11): 263. doi:10.3390/metabo9110263. PMC 6918323. PMID 31684074.
  11. ^ Dosoky, Noura; Setzer, William (5 July 2018). "Biological Activities and Safety of Citrus spp. Essential Oils". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 19 (7): 1966. doi:10.3390/ijms19071966. PMID 29976894.
  12. ^ Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Min Ji; Chung, Bu Young; Bang, Du Yeon; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Cho, Myung Chan; Yoon, Kyungsil; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Kyu Bong; Kim, You Sun; Kwack, Seung Jun; Lee, Byung-Mu (January 2013). "Safety Evaluation And Risk Assessment Of d -Limonene". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B. 16 (1): 17–38. Bibcode:2013JTEHB..16...17K. doi:10.1080/10937404.2013.769418. PMID 23573938.
  13. ^ Rao SL, Adiga PR, Sarma PS (1964). "The Isolation and Characterization of β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid: A Neurotoxin from the Seeds of Lathyrus sativus". Biochemistry. 3 (3): 432–436. doi:10.1021/bi00891a022. PMID 14155110.
  14. ^ a b c Cereda, M. P.; Mattos, M. C. Y. (1996). "Linamarin: the Toxic Compound of Cassava". Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins. 2: 06–12. doi:10.1590/S0104-79301996000100002.
  15. ^ Aregheore EM, Agunbiade OO (1991). "The toxic effects of cassava (manihot esculenta grantz) diets on humans: a review". Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 33 (3): 274–275. PMID 1650055.
  16. ^ White WL, Arias-Garzon DI, McMahon JM, Sayre RT (1998). "Cyanogenesis in Cassava : The Role of Hydroxynitrile Lyase in Root Cyanide Production". Plant Physiol. 116 (4): 1219–1225. doi:10.1104/pp.116.4.1219. PMC 35028. PMID 9536038.
  17. ^ Wagner, Holly. "Cassava's Cyanide-Producing Abilities Can Cause Neuropathy …". Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  18. ^ Padmaja G (1995). "Cyanide detoxification in cassava for food and feed uses". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 35 (4): 299–339. doi:10.1080/10408399509527703. PMID 7576161.
  19. ^ Lee BK, Kim JH, Jung JW, Choi JW, Han ES, Lee SH, Ko KH, Ryu JH (2005). "Myristicin-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells". Toxicol. Lett. 157 (1): 49–56. doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2005.01.012. PMID 15795093.
  20. ^ McKenna A, Nordt SP, Ryan J (August 2004). "Acute nutmeg poisoning". European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 11 (4): 240–241. doi:10.1097/01.mej.0000127649.69328.a5. PMID 15249817. S2CID 21133983.
  21. ^ See Erowid: Nutmeg for various primary and secondary sources related to nutmeg/myristicin intoxication.
  22. ^ "Erowid Nutmeg Vault: Basics".
  23. ^ "Erowid Experience Vaults: Nutmeg (also Myristica fragrans) Main Index".
  24. ^ a b c "Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms and Natural Toxins Handbook: Phytohaemagglutinin". Bad Bug Book. United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 11 July 2009.
  25. ^ "Rhurbarb poisoning on". Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  26. ^ GW Pucher, AJ Wakeman, HB Vickery. "The Organic Acids of Rhubarb (Rheum Hybridum). III. The Behavior of the Organic Acids During Culture of Excised Leaves Archived 29 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine". Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1938
  27. ^ Everist, Selwyn L., Poisonous Plants of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Melbourne, 1974, p. 583
  28. ^ "Rhubarb leaves poisoning". Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia.
  29. ^ "Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System". 1 September 2009. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  30. ^ McGee, Harold. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. New York: Scribner, 2004. p. 367
  31. ^ Pittenger, Dennis R. (2002). "Vegetables That Contain Natural Toxins". California Master Gardener Handbook. ANR Publications. pp. 643–644. ISBN 978-1-879906-54-9.
  32. ^ a b c Barceloux DG (June 2009). "Potatoes, Tomatoes, and Solanine Toxicity (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanum lycopersicum L.)". Disease-a-Month. 55 (6): 391–402. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2009.03.009. PMID 19446683.
  33. ^ Mcgee, Harold (29 July 2009). "Accused, Yes, but Probably Not a Killer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
  34. ^ Hound health handbook: the definitive guide to keeping your dog happy By Betsy Brevitz p. 404
  35. ^ "Tomato-like Fruit on Potato Plants". Iowa State University. Archived from the original on 16 July 2004. Retrieved 8 January 2009.
  36. ^ Glycoalkaloid and calystegine contents of eight potato cultivarsJ-Agric-Food-Chem. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964–73 Archived 11 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "Greening of potatoes". Food Science Australia. 2005. Archived from the original on 24 February 1999. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
  38. ^ "King's American Dispensatory: Adonis". Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  39. ^ "Horse chestnut". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  40. ^ Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. Knopf. p. 380. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
  41. ^ James, Wilma Roberts; Lippsmeyer, Arla (1973). Know your poisonous plants: poisonous plants found in field and garden. Healdsburg, Calif.: Naturegraph Publishers. ISBN 0879610131.
  42. ^ "Corn Cockle professional information from". Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  43. ^ Symptoms of Plant poisoning – Protoanemonin.
  44. ^ Anthurium spp. Archived 3 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Poisonous Plants of North Carolina. North Carolina State University.
  45. ^ Tilford, Gregory L. (1997): Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Mountain Press Pub., Missoula, Montana. ISBN 0-87842-359-1
  46. ^ Rama Bhat, P.; Savitri, V.H.; Laxmi, P.G.; Jenitta, E.P. (2016). "A Study on the phytochemical analysis, silver nanoparticle synthesis and antibacterial activity from seed extract of Areca catechu L.". International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review. 9 (1): 1–9.
  47. ^ Hemantha Amarasinghe (2010). "Betel-quid chewing with or without tobacco is a major risk factor for oral potentially malignant disorders in Sri Lanka: A case-control study". Oral Oncology. 46 (4): 297–301. doi:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.01.017. PMID 20189448.
  48. ^ Singh, S.; Singh, T. D.; Singh, V. P.; Pandey, V. B. (February 2010). "Quaternary Alkaloids of Argemone mexicana". Pharmaceutical Biology. 48 (2): 158–160. doi:10.3109/13880200903062622. PMID 20645832.
  49. ^ "Epidemic dropsy". WHO South East Asia Regional Office. Archived from the original on 21 August 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
  50. ^ Gregory L. Tilford (1997). Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Mountain Press. ISBN 978-0-87842-359-0.
  51. ^ a b "Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and Arnica montana". International Journal of Toxicology. 20 Suppl 2 (2): 1–11. 2001. doi:10.1080/10915810160233712. PMID 11558636.
  52. ^ "Poisonous Plants: Arnica montana". North Carolina State University. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  53. ^ Rudzki E; Grzywa Z (October 1977). "Dermatitis from Arnica montana". Contact Dermatitis. 3 (5): 281–282. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1977.tb03682.x. PMID 145351. S2CID 46223008.
  54. ^ a b "Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products, Atropa Belladonna, Summary Report" (PDF). The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  55. ^ a b "Belladonna". Medline Plus. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
  56. ^ a b Giancarlo Pepeu; Maria Grazia Giovannini (2004). "Acetylcholine: I. Muscarinic Receptors". In Gernot Riedel; Bettina Platt (eds.). From messengers to molecules: memories are made of these (illustrated ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-47862-8.
  57. ^ Mallinson T (2010). "Deadly Nightshade: Atropa Belladonna". Focus on First Aid (15): 5. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010.
  58. ^ a b Lee MR (March 2007). "Solanaceae IV: Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade" (PDF). J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 37 (1): 77–84. PMID 17575737.
  59. ^ Grieve, Margaret; Leyel C.F (1971). Modern Herbal. Courier Dover Publications. p. 584. ISBN 978-0-486-22799-3. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  60. ^ Mateo Montoya A, Mavrakanas N, Schutz JS (2009). "Acute anticholinergic syndrome from Atropa belladonna mistaken for blueberries". Eur J Ophthalmol. 19 (1): 170–172. doi:10.1177/112067210901900130. PMID 19123171. S2CID 9387171.
  61. ^ Potter, Samuel O.L. (1893). A Handbook of Materia Medica Pharmacy and Therapeutics. London: P. Blakiston's. p. 53. the antidote for belladonna is physostigmine or pilocarpine the same as for atropine.
  62. ^ North Carolina State University Department of Plant Biology (2000). "Poisonous Vascular Plants". NC State University. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
  63. ^ Marneros, Andreas; Gutmann, Philipp; Uhlmann, Frank (16 June 2006). "Self-amputation of penis and tongue after use of Angel's Trumpet". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 256 (7). Springer Nature: 458–459. doi:10.1007/s00406-006-0666-2. ISSN 1433-8491. PMID 16783491. S2CID 9261722.
  64. ^ Pramod, Archana (21 March 2023). "What Is Caladium Poisoning?".
  65. ^ "Caladium". Pet Poison Helpline.
  66. ^ A Dictionary of Flowering Plants and Ferns – JC Willis
  67. ^ "Caltha palustris". Native Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.
  68. ^ Shannon D. Langford & Paul J. Boor (1996). "Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures". Toxicology. 109 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/0300-483X(95)03296-R. PMID 8619248.
  69. ^ "Common Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis L." (PDF). Natural Resources Conservation Service Plant Guide. United States Department of Agriculture.
  70. ^ "'Suicide tree' toxin is 'perfect' murder weapon". 26 November 2004. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  71. ^ Gruenwald, Joerg (2000). PDR for Herbal Medicines. Thomson PDR. ISBN 978-1-56363-361-4.
  72. ^ a b Golob, Peter; Caroline Moss; Melanie Dales; Alex Fidgen; Jenny Evans; Irene Gudrups (1999). The use of spices and medicinals as bioactive protectants for grains. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin. Vol. 137. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. ISBN 978-92-5-104294-6. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  73. ^ "Monographs". Retrieved 16 June 2009.
  74. ^ Rogelj B, Popovic T, Ritonja A, Strukelj B, Brzin J (November 1998). "Chelidocystatin, a novel phytocystatin from Chelidonium majus". Phytochemistry. 49 (6): 1645–1649. Bibcode:1998PChem..49.1645R. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00281-7. PMID 9862139.
  75. ^ Bernard, C. (1856). "Analyse physiologique des propriétés des actions de curare et de la nicotine sur les systèmes musculaires et nerveux au moyen du curare". Compt. Rend. 43: 305–319.
  76. ^ Thomas, K; Dayal, AK; Narasimhan, Alka G; Seshadri, MS; Cherian, AM; Kanakasabapathi, Molly B (1991). "Metabolic and Cardiac effects of Cleistanthus Collinus poisoning". J Assoc Physicians India. 39 (4): 312–314. PMID 1938816.
  77. ^ Subrahmanyam, DK; Mooney, T; Raveendran, R; Zachariah, B. A (November 2003). "Clinical and laboratory profile of Cleistanthus collinus poisoning". J Assoc Physicians India. 51: 1052–1054. PMID 15260387.
  78. ^ National Tropical Botanical Garden Codiaeum variegatum (Euphorbiaceae) Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  79. ^ a b Finkelstein Y, Aks SE, Hutson JR, Juurlink DN, Nguyen P, Dubnov-Raz G, Pollak U, Koren G, Bentur Y (June 2010). "Colchicine poisoning: the dark side of an ancient drug". Clinical Toxicology. 48 (5): 407–414. doi:10.3109/15563650.2010.495348. PMID 20586571. S2CID 33905426.
  80. ^ Colchicine. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Emergency Response Safety and Health Database, 22 August 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2008.
  81. ^ "Colchicine for acute gout: updated information about dosing and drug interactions". National Prescribing Service. 14 May 2010. Archived from the original on 30 June 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  82. ^ Cromwell, B. T. (October 1956). "The separation, micro-estimation and distribution of the alkaloids of hemlock (Conium maculatum L.)". Biochemical Journal. 64 (2): 259–266. doi:10.1042/bj0640259. ISSN 0264-6021. PMC 1199726. PMID 13363836.
  83. ^ Vetter, J. (September 2004). "Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum L.)". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 42 (9): 1373–1382. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2004.04.009. PMID 15234067.
  84. ^ Hotti, Hannu; Rischer, Heiko (14 November 2017). "The killer of Socrates: Coniine and Related Alkaloids in the Plant Kingdom". Molecules. 22 (11): 1962. doi:10.3390/molecules22111962. ISSN 1420-3049. PMC 6150177. PMID 29135964.
  85. ^ Drummer, Olaf H.; Roberts, Anthony N.; Bedford, Paul J.; Crump, Kerryn L.; Phelan, Michael H. (1995). "Three deaths from hemlock poisoning". The Medical Journal of Australia. 162 (5): 592–593. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.1995.tb138553.x. PMID 7791646. S2CID 45736238.
  86. ^ "Conium maculatum L." Inchem. IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety). Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  87. ^ Frank, A. A.; Reed, W.M. (April 1990). "Comparative Toxicity of Coniine, an Alkaloid of Conium maculatum (Poison Hemlock), in Chickens, Quails, and Turkeys". Avian Diseases. 34 (2): 433–437. doi:10.2307/1591432. JSTOR 1591432. PMID 2369382.
  88. ^ "Royal Horticultural Society". Archived from the original on 15 August 2004.
  89. ^ "Lily of the valley: Guide to Poisonous Plants". Colorado State University. 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  90. ^ "Poisonous plants: Lily of the valley". Ontario Poison Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children. 2015.
  91. ^ Roberts, Darren M.; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S. (2016). "Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 81 (3): 488–495. doi:10.1111/bcp.12814. ISSN 0306-5251. PMC 4767196. PMID 26505271.
  92. ^ Pojar, Jim, A. MacKinnon, and Paul B. Alaback. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia & Alaska. Redmond, WA: Lone Pine Pub., 1994.[ISBN missing][page needed]
  93. ^ "Erowid Datura Vault". Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  94. ^ Freye, E. (2010). "Toxicity of Datura Stramonium". Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related Designer Drugs. Netherlands: Springer. pp. 217–218. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-2448-0_34. ISBN 978-90-481-2447-3.
  95. ^ "Daucus carota". Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  96. ^ "Daucus carota". Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  97. ^ Schwartz, Fayla C. "Zigadenus glaberrimus". Flora of North America. Retrieved 26 April 2012., in Flora of North Americaial Committee, ed. (1982). Flora of North America. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  98. ^ Aronson, J. K. (2016). "Dryopteraceae". Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs. Elsevier. p. 1100. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53717-1.00670-3. ISBN 9780444537164. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  99. ^ Thompson, N (2007). "Poisonous Plants in Australia: Enabling consumers to buy safe plants" (PDF). WWF-Australia. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
  100. ^ "Wallflower". WebMD.
  101. ^ "Latex Allergy? Beware Poinsettias". WebMD. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
  102. ^ Bender, Steve, ed. (2004). "Euphorbia". The Southern Living Garden Book (2nd ed.). Birmingham, Alabama: Oxmoor House. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-376-03910-1.
  103. ^ "Are Poinsettia Plants Poisonous? Fact or Fiction?". Retrieved 21 December 2007.
  104. ^ "Complete Poinsettia information from". Retrieved 29 November 2008.
  105. ^ "Poinsettia". ASPCA. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  106. ^ Lal, H. S. and P. K. Mishra. (2011). Gloriosa superba – an endangered plant spotted for the first time from forest of Tpchanchi, Hazaribag (Jharkhand) India.[permanent dead link] Science Research Reporter 1(2) 61–64.
  107. ^ Menz, Jennifer; Rossi, Ric; Taylor, Wal C.; Wall, Leon (1 August 1986). "Contact dermatitis from Grevillea'Robyn Gordon'". Contact Dermatitis. 15 (3): 126–131. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1986.tb01311.x. PMID 2946534. S2CID 2846186.
  108. ^ European Medicines Agency, Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (21 November 2017). Assessment report on Hedera helix L., folium, p. 100
  109. ^ Boyle, J.; Harman, R. M. H. (2006). "Contact dermatitis to Hedera helix (Common Ivy)". Contact Dermatitis. 12 (2): 111–112. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1985.tb01067.x. PMID 3987251. S2CID 29719245.
  110. ^ Fu, P.P., Yang, Y.C., Xia, Q., Chou, M.C., Cui, Y.Y., Lin G., "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids-tumorigenic components in Chinese herbal medicina and dietary supplements", Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2002, pp. 198–211
  111. ^ Olson, Kent R., Poisoning & Drug Overdose, p. 312 at Google Book Search, accessed 12 January 2009
  112. ^ Smolinske, Susan C., Toxicity of Houseplants, pp. 38, 153 at Google Book Search, accessed 12 January 2009
  113. ^ Olson, Kent R, Poisoning & Drug Overdose, p. 309 at Google Book Search, accessed 12 January 2009
  114. ^ "Hippomane mancinella". Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 10 November 2004. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  115. ^ Poisonous plants and animals of Florida and the Caribbean By David W. Nellis
  116. ^ fr:Hippomane mancinella
  117. ^ Jones, David E (2007). Poison Arrows: North American Indian Hunting and Warfare. University of Texas Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-292-71428-1. Retrieved 23 January 2009.
  118. ^ Grunwald, Michael (2007). "Chapter 2: The Intruders". The Swamp. Simon & Schuster. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7432-5107-5.
  119. ^ "Hills of Snow". Toxic and Non-Toxic Plants. ASPCA.
  120. ^ "Iris sibirica (Siberian iris)". Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  121. ^ "EHC 80, section 9.1.4". Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  122. ^ Bryotoxins A, B and C: McKenzie et al. (1987), Steyn & van Heerden (1998)
  123. ^ McKenzie & Dunster (1986), McKenzie et al. (1987)
  124. ^ les tanner. "North West Weeds". Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  125. ^ Leikin, Jerrold B.; Paloucek, Frank P., eds. (2007), Poisoning and toxicology handbook, Boca Raton, Fla: CRC, p. 886, ISBN 978-1-4200-4479-9
  126. ^ Sharma O. P. (2007). "A review of the hepatotoxic plant Lantana camara". Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 37 (4): 313–352. doi:10.1080/10408440601177863. PMID 17453937. S2CID 23993698.
  127. ^ Herzog et al. (1996), Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge & Libreros Ferla (2000), TAMREC (2000)
  128. ^ GENUS: Lolium Archived 2 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  129. ^ Plants for a Future
  130. ^ Nancy J. Turner and Adam F. Szczawinski. Common poisonous plants and mushrooms of North America (1991). Timber Press: Portland, Oregon.
  131. ^ Russell, Alice B.; Hardin, James W. & Grand, Larry (1997): "Melia azedarach". In: Poisonous Plants of North Carolina Archived 19 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2008-Jan-26.
  132. ^ "Melianthus major (Honey Bush)". Gardenia.
  133. ^ Liesl van der Walt; Alice Notten (August 2007). "Melianthus major - PlantZAfrica". Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden: South African National Biodiversity Institute.
  134. ^ Siano, F; Catalfamo, M; Cautela, D; Servillo, L; Castaldo, D (2005). "Analysis of pulegone and its enanthiomeric distribution in mint-flavoured food products". Food Additives & Contaminants. 22 (3): 197–203. doi:10.1080/02652030500041581. PMID 16019787. S2CID 40095436.
  135. ^ Polunin, Oleg. Wild Flowers of Europe (1969). Oxford University Press. pp. 370–371.
  136. ^ Foster, Steven (2002). Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 339. ISBN 978-0-395-83806-8.
  137. ^ News Scan Briefs: Killer Smile, Scientific American, August 2009
  138. ^ Appendino G, Pollastro F, Verotta L, Ballero M, Romano A, Wyrembek P, Szczuraszek K, Mozrzymas JW, Taglialatela-Scafati O (2009). "Polyacetylenes from Sardinian Oenanthe fistulosa: A Molecular Clue to risus sardonicus". Journal of Natural Products. 72 (5): 962–965. doi:10.1021/np8007717. PMC 2685611. PMID 19245244.
  139. ^ Owen, James (2 June 2009). "Ancient Death-Smile Potion Decoded?". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
  140. ^ Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Hutchings, Michael J. (July 2008), "Biological Flora of the British Isles: Paris quadrifolia L.", Journal of Ecology, 96 (4): 833–844, Bibcode:2008JEcol..96..833J, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2745.2008.01397.x
  141. ^ "Alzheimer Research Forum". 19 October 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  142. ^ Amitava Dasgupta, 2011, Effects of Herbal Supplements on Clinical Laboratory Test Results, Volume 2, Patient Safety, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-024562-0, see [1], accessed 2 May 2015.
  143. ^ Smith, M. C. (1978). "Japanese pieris poisoning in the goat". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 173 (1): 78–79. PMID 670056.
  144. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1-4053-3296-5.
  145. ^ "Gardening – North Carolina Cooperative Extension". Archived from the original on 19 April 2007. Retrieved 31 March 2007.
  146. ^ N.D.Sargison; D.S.Williamson; J.R.Duncan; R.W.McCance (1996). "Prunus Padus (bird cherry) poisoning in cattle". Veterinary Record. 138 (8): 188. doi:10.1136/vr.138.8.188. PMID 8677622. S2CID 43622812. …stems, leaves and fruits of P. padus contain the glycosides prulaurasin and amygdalin…
  147. ^ Kate Ravilious (9 September 2004). "newspaper article on ptaquiloside from bracken entering water supplies". Guardian. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  148. ^ a b c Edible and Medicinal plants of the West, Gregory L. Tilford, ISBN 0-87842-359-1
  149. ^ Yarnell, E. and Abascal, K. (2001) Botanical Treatments for Depression: Part 2 – Herbal Corrections for Mood Imbalances
  150. ^ Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  151. ^ Benson, S; Olsnes, S; Pihi, A; Skorve, J; Abraham, AK (1975). "On the mechanism of protein-synthesis inhibition by abrin and ricin. Inhibition of the GTP-hydrolysis site on the 60-S ribosomal subunit". Eur J Biochem. 59 (2): 573–580. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1975.tb02484.x. PMID 128455.
  152. ^ Wedin, GP; Neal, JS; Everson, GW; Krenzelok, EP (May 1986). "Castor bean poisoning". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 4 (3): 259–261. doi:10.1016/0735-6757(86)90080-X. PMID 3964368.
  153. ^ Ricinus communis (Castor bean) – Cornell University 2008. "Castorbean". Archived from the original on 8 May 1998.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  154. ^ "Union County College: Biology: Plant of the Week: Castor Bean Plant". Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  155. ^ Poisonous Plants List Poisonous Plants List
  156. ^ Van Damme, EIS J. M. & Barre, Annick & Smeets, Koen & Torrekens, Sophie & Van Leuven, Fred & Rougé, Pierre & Peumans Willy J. The Bark of Robinia pseudoacacia Contains a Complex Mixture of Lectins Plant Physiol. (1995) 107: 833–843
  157. ^ van Wyk, Ben-Erik; van Heerden, Fanie; van Oudtshoorn, Bosch (2002). Poisonous Plants of South Africa. Pretoria: Briza. ISBN 978-1-875093-30-4.
  158. ^ Don't Use Corrosive Cancer Salves (Escharotics), Stephen Barrett, M.D.
  159. ^ McDaniel S, Goldman GD (December 2002). "Consequences of Using Escharotic Agents as Primary Treatment for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer". Archives of Dermatology. 138 (12): 1593–1596. doi:10.1001/archderm.138.12.1593. PMID 12472348.
  160. ^ Godowski KC (1989). "Antimicrobial action of sanguinarine". J Clin Dent. 1 (4): 96–101. PMID 2700895.
  161. ^ Southard GL, Boulware RT, Walborn DR, Groznik WJ, Thorne EE, Yankell SL (March 1984). "Sanguinarine, a new antiplaque agent: retention and plaque specificity". J Am Dent Assoc. 108 (3): 338–341. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.1984.0022. PMID 6585404.
  162. ^ "How to Report Problems With Products Regulated by FDA". Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  163. ^ Kuftinec MM, Mueller-Joseph LJ, Kopczyk RA (1990). "Sanguinaria toothpaste and oral rinse regimen clinical efficacy in short- and long-term trials". J Can Dent Assoc. 56 (7 Suppl): 31–33. PMID 2207852.
  164. ^ "Oral Leukoplakia: Patient Information" (PDF). American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2005.
  165. ^ Letter to FDA, Collgate-Palmolive Company, 24 November 2003
  166. ^ Letter to FDA, Professor George T. Gallagher, Boston University Goldman School of Dental Medicine, 23 June 2003.
  167. ^ "187 Fake Cancer "Cures" Consumers Should Avoid". United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  168. ^ Nolan, Justin. "Northeast Oklahoma, USA" Society of Ethnobotany. 2007 (retrieved 9 January 2011)
  169. ^ "King County Natural Resources and Parks Noxious Weed Control program" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2007.
  170. ^ Chevallier, Andrew (1996). The encyclopedia of medicinal plants. London: D. Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0314-3. OCLC 641789249.
  171. ^ Hook, Ingrid; Christiane Poupat; Alain Ahond; Daniel Guénard; Francoise Guéritte; Marie-Thérèse Adeline; Xiu-Ping Wang; Dairine Dempsey; Séverine Breuillet; Pierre Potier (November 1999). "Seasonal variation of neutral and basic taxoid contents in shoots of European Yew (Taxus baccata)". Phytochemistry. 52 (6): 1041–1045. Bibcode:1999PChem..52.1041H. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00264-2.
  172. ^ Appendino, Giovanni; Silvia Tagliapietra; Hasan Çetin Özen; Pierluigi Gariboldi; Bruno Gabetta; Ezio Bombardelli (1 April 1993). "Taxanes from the Seeds of Taxus baccata". Journal of Natural Products. 56 (4): 514–520. doi:10.1021/np50094a010.
  173. ^ Kwak, Sang-Soo; Myung-Suk Choi; Young-Goo Park; Jong-Shin Yoo; Jang-Ryol Liu (September 1995). "Taxol content in the seeds of Taxus SPP". Phytochemistry. 40 (1): 29–32. Bibcode:1995PChem..40...29K. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00247-5.
  174. ^ a b c d e Schep LJ, Schmierer DM, Fountain JS (2006). "Veratrum poisoning". Toxicol Rev. 25 (2): 73–78. doi:10.2165/00139709-200625020-00001. PMID 16958554. S2CID 42124743.
  175. ^ a b Bensky, D., Clavey, S., Stoger, E. (3rd edition 2004) Materia Medica Eastland Press, Inc. Seattle, p. 461
  176. ^ "Aleurites fordii syn. Vernicia fordii – Tung oil tree". Florida Invasive Plant Education. University of Florida. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011.
  177. ^ Olsnes, Sjur; Stirpe, Fiorenzo; Sandvig, Kirsten; Pihl, Alexander (25 November 1982). "Isolation and Characterization of Viscumin, a Toxic Lectin from Viscum album L. (Mistletoe)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 257 (22): 13263–13270. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)33440-9. PMID 7142144. S2CID 12767029.
  178. ^ "Mistletoe". Wolters Kluwer Health. 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
  179. ^ Miles, Jackie (12 September 2002). "Arum or calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica )". South Coast Weeds. Eurobodalla Shire Council. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  180. ^ Fayla C. Schwartz (2003). "Zigadenus glaberrimus Michaux, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 214, plate 22. 1803". In FNA Editorial Committee (ed.). Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Flora of North America. Vol. 26. Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-19-515208-1.