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List of allergens

This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable.



Name Potential reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. Present in many foods, such as coffee, flavored tea, wine, beer, gin, liqueurs, apéritifs (e.g. vermouth, bitters), soft drinks including cola, juice, citrus, citrus fruit peel, marmalade, tomatoes and tomato-containing products, Mexican and Italian foods with red sauces, ketchup, spices (e.g. cloves, Jamaica pepper (allspice), cinnamon, nutmeg, paprika, curry, anise, and ginger), chili sauce, barbecue sauce, chutney, pickles, pickled vegetables, chocolate, vanilla, baked goods and pastries, pudding, ice cream, chewing gum, and candy.
Egg Anaphylaxis, swelling, sometimes flatulence and vomiting
Fish or shellfish[1] Anaphylaxis, sometimes vomiting Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors, or handling.
Fruit Mild itching, rash, blisters at point of oral contact Mango, strawberries are common problems
Garlic Dermatitis, asymmetrical pattern of fissure, thickening/shedding of the outer skin layers,[2] anaphylaxis
Hot peppers Skin rash, hives, throat tightness, tongue swelling, possible vomiting
Oats Dermatitis, respiratory problems, anaphylaxis
Maize Hives, pallor, confusion, dizziness, stomach pain, swelling, vomiting, indigestion, diarrhea, cough, tightness in throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, anaphylaxis Often a difficult allergy to manage due to the various food products which contain various forms of corn.
Milk[1] Skin rash, hives, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, stomach pain, flatulence, nasal congestion, dermatitis, blisters, anaphylaxis Not to be confused with lactose intolerance.[3]
Peanut[4] Anaphylaxis and swelling, sometimes vomiting Includes some cold-pressed peanut oils. Distinct from tree nut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
Poultry Meat[5] Hives, swelling of, or under the dermis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe oral allergy syndrome, shortness of breath, rarely anaphylactic shock Very rare allergies to chicken, turkey, squab, and sometimes more mildly to other avian meats. Not to be confused with secondary reactions of bird-egg syndrome. The genuine allergy has no causal relationship with egg allergy, nor is there any close association with red meat allergy. Prevalence still unknown as of 2016.[6]
Red Meat[7] Hives, swelling,[8] dermatitis, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath,[9], rarely anaphylaxis Allergies to the sugar carbohydrate found in beef, venison, lamb, and pork called alpha-gal. It is brought on by tick bites.[10][11]
Rice Sneezing, runny nose, itching, stomachache, eczema. People with a rice allergy can be affected by eating rice or breathing in rice steam.
Sesame Possible respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal reactions which can trigger serious systemic anaphylactic responses.[12][13] By law, foods containing sesame must be labeled so in European Union, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.[12]
Soy Anaphylaxis, sometimes vomiting
Sulfites Hives, rash, redness of skin, headache (particular frontal), burning behind eyes, breathing difficulties (anaphylaxis) Used as a preserving agent in many different foods, such as raisins, dried peaches, various other dried fruit, canned or frozen fruits and vegetables, wines, vinegars and processed meats.
Tartrazine Skin irritation, hives, rash Synthetic yellow food coloring, also used for bright green coloring
Tree nut[14] Anaphylaxis, swelling, rash, hives, sometimes vomiting Hazard extends to exposure to cooking vapors, or handling. Distinct from peanut allergy, as peanuts are legumes.
Wheat[15] Eczema (atopic dermatitis), Hives, asthma, hay fever, angioedema, abdominal cramps, Celiac disease, diarrhea, temporary (3 or 4 day) mental incompetence, anemia, nausea, and vomiting[16] Not to be confused with Celiac Disease or NCGS (Non Celiac Gluten Sensitivity). While wheat allergies are "true" allergies, Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disease.[17]


Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. Present in many drugs, such as hemorrhoid suppositories and ointment (e.g. Anusol), cough medicine/suppressant and lozenges, diaper rash ointments, oral and lip ointments, tincture of benzoin, wound spray (it has been reported to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as the common ulcer-causing bacteria H. pylori in test-tube studies), calamine lotion, surgical dressings, dental cement, eugenol used by dentists, some periodontal impression materials, and in the treatment of dry socket in dentistry.
Tetracycline Many, including: severe headache, dizziness, blurred vision, fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms, severe blistering, peeling, dark colored urine[18][19][20]
Dilantin Many, including: swollen glands, easy bruising or bleeding, fever, sore throat[21][22][23]
Tegretol (carbamazepine) Shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue etc., hives[24][25][26]
Penicillin Diarrhea, hypersensitivity, nausea, rash, neurotoxicity, urticaria
Cephalosporins Maculopapular or morbilliform skin eruption, and less commonly urticaria, eosinophilia, serum-sickness–like reactions, and anaphylaxis.[27]
Sulfonamides Urinary tract disorders, haemopoietic disorders, porphyria and hypersensitivity reactions, Stevens–Johnson syndrome toxic epidermal necrolysis
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium, etc.) Many, including: swollen eyes, lips, or tongue, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate[28]
Intravenous contrast dye Anaphylactoid reactions and contrast-induced nephropathy
Local anesthetics Urticaria and rash, dyspnea, wheezing, flushing, cyanosis, tachycardia[29]


Name Possible reaction(s) Remarks
Balsam of Peru Redness, swelling, itching, allergic contact dermatitis reactions, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritus, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and blisters. A number of national and international surveys have identified Balsam of Peru as being in the "top five" allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics.[30][31]
Pollen Sneezing, body ache, headache (in rare cases, extremely painful cluster headaches may occur due to allergic sinusitis; these may leave a temporary time period of 1 and a half to 2 days with eye sensitivity), allergic conjunctivitis (includes watery, red, swelled, itchy, and irritating eyes), runny nose, irritation of the nose, nasal congestion, minor fatigue, chest pain and discomfort, coughing, sore throat, facial discomfort (feeling of stuffed face) due to allergic sinusitis, possible asthma attack, wheezing
Cat Sneezing, itchy swollen eyes, rash, congestion, wheezing
Dog Rash, sneezing, congestion, wheezing, vomiting from coughing, Sometimes itchy welts. Caused by dander, saliva or urine of dogs, or by dust, pollen or other allergens that have been carried on the fur.[32] Allergy to dogs is present in as much as 10 percent of the population.[32]
Insect sting Hives, wheezing, possible anaphylaxis Possible from bee or wasp stings, or bites from mosquitoes or flies like Leptoconops torrens.
Mold Sneeze, coughing, itchy, discharge from the nose, respiratory irritation, congested feeling,[33] joint aches, headaches, fatigue[34]
Perfume Itchy eyes, runny nose, sore throat, headaches, muscle/joint pain, asthma attack, wheezing, chest pain, blisters
Cosmetics Contact dermatitis,[35] irritant contact dermatitis, inflammation, redness,[36] conjunctivitis[37] ,sneezing
Semen Burning, pain and swelling, possibly for days, swelling or blisters, vaginal redness,[38] fever, runny nose, extreme fatigue[39][40][41][42][43] In a case study in Switzerland, a woman who was allergic to Balsam of Peru was allergic to her boyfriend's semen following intercourse, after he drank large amounts of Coca-Cola.[44]
Latex Contact dermatitis, hypersensitivity
Water (see note) Epidermal itching Strictly aquagenic pruritus or aquagenic urticaria, but cold urticaria may also be described as a "water allergy," in which water may cause hives and anaphylaxis
House dust mite[45] Asthma Home allergen reduction may be recommended
Nickel (nickel sulfate hexahydrate) Allergic contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema[46][47]
Gold (gold sodium thiosulfate) Allergic contact dermatitis
Chromium Allergic contact dermatitis
Cobalt chloride Allergic contact dermatitis
Formaldehyde Allergic contact dermatitis
Photographic developers Allergic contact dermatitis
Fungicide Allergic contact dermatitis, fever, anaphylaxis


Many substances can cause an allergic reaction when in contact with the human integumentary system.

Contact allergens
Allergen Source Cross reacts with Clinical presentation
Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) Found within cocamidopropyl betaine in liquid soaps and shampoos Eyelid dermatitis
Latex[nb 1] Avocado
Passion fruit
Ethylene-ripened fruits
Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) Black hair dye
Color developer
Scuba gear
Henna[nb 2]
Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)
Azo dyes
Ester anesthetics
Glyceryl monothioglycolate Permanent hair waving solutions
Toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde (Toluidine) Nail polish Eyelid dermatitis
  1. ^ Risk factors for reaction to latex include spina bifida, family history of allergy to latex, or a personal history of allergies, asthma, or eczema
  2. ^ Paraphenylenediamine may be added to henna but is not found in pure henna.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics 2005
  2. ^ Thomas D. Horn (2003). Dermatology, Volume 2. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-323-02578-2.
  3. ^ "Lactose Intolerance or Milk Allergy: What's the Difference?". Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  4. ^ National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics 2005 Archived 2010-04-06 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^
  6. ^ Hemmer, W.; Klug, C.; Swoboda, I. (2016). "Update on the bird-egg syndrome and genuine poultry meat allergy". Allergo Journal International. 25 (3): 68–75. doi:10.1007/s40629-016-0108-2. PMC 4861744. PMID 27340614.
  7. ^ "Lone Star Tick Bite Might Trigger Red Meat Allergy: Study". MedlinePlus. 9 November 2012. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Rare Meat Allergy Caused By Tick Bites May Be On The Rise". 27 November 2012.
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b "Allergenic Foods and their Allergens, with links to Informall | FARRP | Nebraska".
  13. ^ Permaul, P.; Stutius, L. M.; Sheehan, W. J.; Rangsithienchai, P.; Walter, J. E.; Twarog, F. J.; Young, M. C.; Scott, J. E.; Schneider, L. C.; Phipatanakul, W. (2009). "Sesame Allergy: Role of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Testing in Predicting Food Challenge Results". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 30 (6): 643–648. doi:10.2500/aap.2009.30.3294. PMC 3131114. PMID 20031010.
  14. ^ National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2011-12-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Akagawa M, Handoyo T, Ishii T, Kumazawa S, Morita N, Suyama K (2007). "Proteomic analysis of wheat flour allergens". J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (17): 6863–70. doi:10.1021/jf070843a. PMID 17655322.
  16. ^ "Allergy Society of South Africa – Wheat Allergy". Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
  17. ^ "Everything You Should Know About Wheat Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment". Verywell. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
  18. ^ Tetracycline –
  19. ^ Allergies From Antibiotics |LIVESTRONG.COM
  20. ^ Allergies From Antibiotics |LIVESTRONG.COM
  21. ^ Dilantin Information from
  22. ^ What are the most serious side effects of Dilantin?: Basic | Archived 2011-12-25 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Anticonvulsant Drug Therapy: Dilantin: Neurology: UI Health Topics
  24. ^ Trileptal CMI approved 03.12.01
  25. ^ Tegretol (carbamazepine)
  26. ^ Carbamazepine Archived 2011-11-04 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ MMS: Error
  28. ^ Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines (NSAIDs)
  29. ^ September 1998 CDA Journal – Toxicity and Allergy to Local Anesthesia Archived 2011-12-04 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Gottfried Schmalz; Dorthe Arenholt Bindslev (2008). Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. Springer. ISBN 9783540777823. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  31. ^ Edward T. Bope; Rick D. Kellerman (2013). Conn's Current Therapy 2014: Expert Consult. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780323225724. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
  32. ^ a b Dog Allergy at American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. References up to 2011
  33. ^ "Mold allergies, Mold allergy symptoms, What is mold allergy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-15. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  34. ^ Mold allergies, allergic response, and allergy symptoms
  35. ^ "Two Types of Cosmetic Allergy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  36. ^ "The Downside To Cosmetics – Cosmetic Allergy". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  37. ^ Conjunctivitis – allergic and infectious – information, symptoms and treatment |Bupa UK
  38. ^ Getting Pregnant and Fertility Problems: Sperm Allergy
  39. ^ 'Flu-like symptoms actually semen allergy' – Times LIVE
  40. ^ Semen Allergy Can Cause Flu-like Symptoms in Men |TopNews United States
  41. ^ Semen Allergy Can Be Treated, Study Shows |Daily Health Report
  42. ^ Semen Allergy
  43. ^ UPDATE 1-Semen allergy suspected in rare post-orgasm illness – AlertNet Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Harlan Walker (1990). Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery, 1989: Staplefoods: Proceedings. Oxford Symposium. ISBN 9780907325444. Retrieved March 7, 2014.
  45. ^ Xavier Basagaña, Jordi Sunyer, Manolis Kogevinas, Jan-Paul Zock, Enric Duran-Tauleria, Deborah Jarvis, Peter Burney, Josep Maria Anto, and on behalf of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2004). "Socioeconomic Status and Asthma Prevalence in Young Adults. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey". American Journal of Epidemiology. 160 (2): 178–188. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh186. PMID 15234940.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  46. ^ Vien, Niels K.; Kaaber, Knud (1979). "Nickel cobalt and chromium sensitivity in patients with pompholyx (dyshidrotic eczema)". Contact Dermatitis. 5 (6): 371–4. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1979.tb04907.x. PMID 160856.
  47. ^ Kaaber, K.; Veien, N. K.; Tjell, J. C. (1978). "Low nickel diet in the treatment of patients with chronic nickel dermatitis". British Journal of Dermatology. 98 (2): 197–201. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1978.tb01622.x. PMID 629873.
  • Bolognia, Jean L.; et al. (2007). Dermatology. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.
  • James, William D.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6.

Further readingEdit