|Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) in bloom|
Native to the northern temperate regions, there are 430 different species classified under Prunus. Many members of the genus are widely cultivated for their fruit and for decorative purposes. Prunus fruit are defined as drupes, or stone fruits, because the fleshy mesocarp surrounding the endocarp (pit or stone) is edible. Most Prunus fruit and seeds are commonly used in processing, such as jam production, canning, drying or roasting.
Members of the genus can be deciduous or evergreen. A few species have spiny stems. The leaves are simple, alternate, usually lanceolate, unlobed, and often with nectaries on the leaf stalk. The flowers are usually white to pink, sometimes red, with five petals and five sepals. There are numerous stamens. Flowers are borne singly, or in umbels of two to six or sometimes more on racemes. The fruit is a fleshy drupe (a "prune") with a single relatively large, hard-coated seed (a "stone").
Within the rose family Rosaceae, it was traditionally placed as a subfamily, the Amygdaloideae (incorrectly "Prunoideae"), but was sometimes placed in its own family, the Prunaceae (or Amygdalaceae). More recently, it has become apparent that Prunus evolved from within a much larger clade now called subfamily Amygdaloideae (incorrectly "Spiraeoideae").
In 1737, Carl Linnaeus used four genera to include the species of modern Prunus—Amygdalus, Cerasus, Prunus and Padus—but simplified it to Amygdalus and Prunus in 1758. Since then, the various genera of Linnaeus and others have become subgenera and sections, as it is clearer that all the species are more closely related. Liberty Hyde Bailey says: "The numerous forms grade into each other so imperceptibly and inextricably that the genus cannot be readily broken up into species."
Historical treatments break the genus into several different genera, but this segregation is not currently widely recognised other than at the subgeneric rank. ITIS recognises just the single genus Prunus, with an open list of species,[a] all of which are shown below, under "Species".[b]
One standard modern treatment of the subgenera derives from the work of Alfred Rehder in 1940. Rehder hypothesized five subgenera: Amygdalus, Prunus, Cerasus, Padus and Laurocerasus. To them C. Ingram added Lithocerasus. The six subgenera are described as follows:
- Prunus subgenera:
- Subgenus Amygdalus, almonds and peaches: axillary buds in threes (vegetative bud central, two flower buds to sides); flowers in early spring, sessile or nearly so, not on leafed shoots; fruit with a groove along one side; stone deeply grooved; type species: Prunus dulcis (almond).
- Subgenus Prunus, plums and apricots: axillary buds solitary; flowers in early spring stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit with a groove along one side, stone rough; type species: Prunus domestica (plum)
- Subgenus Cerasus, cherries: axillary buds single; flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)
- Subgenus Lithocerasus: axillary buds in threes; flowers in early spring in corymbs, long-stalked, not on leafed shoots; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus pumila (sand cherry)
- Subgenus Padus, bird cherries: axillary buds single; flowers in late spring in racemes on leafy shoots, short-stalked; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus padus (European bird cherry)
- Subgenus Laurocerasus, cherry-laurels: mostly evergreen (all the other subgenera are deciduous); axillary buds single; flowers in early spring in racemes, not on leafed shoots, short-stalked; fruit not grooved, stone smooth; type species: Prunus laurocerasus (European cherry-laurel)
Another recent DNA study found that there are two clades: Prunus-Maddenia, with Maddenia basal within Prunus, and Exochorda-Oemleria-Prinsepia, but further refinement shows that Exochorda-Oemleria-Prinsepia is somewhat separate from Prunus-Maddenia-Pygeum, and that, like the traditional subfamily Maloideae with apple-like fruits, all of these genera appear to be best considered within the expanded subfamily Amygdaloideae. Prunus can be divided into two clades: Amygdalus-Prunus and Cerasus-Laurocerasus-Padus. Yet another study adds Emplectocladus as a subgenus to the former.
The lists below are incomplete, but include most of the better-known species.
- P. africana: African cherry
- P. apetala: Clove cherry
- P. arborea
- P. armeniaca: Apricot
- P. avium: Sweet cherry or Wild cherry
- P. bifrons
- P. brigantina: Briançon apricot
- P. buergeriana
- P. campanulata: Taiwan cherry
- P. canescens
- P. cerasifera: Cherry plum
- P. cerasoides: Wild Himalayan cherry
- P. cerasus: Sour cherry
- P. ceylanica
- P. cocomilia: Italian plum
- P. cornuta
- P. crassifolia
- P. davidiana: David's peach
- P. darvasica
- P. domestica: Plum
- P. dulcis: Almond
- P. fruticosa: European dwarf cherry
- P. glandulosa: Chinese bush cherry
- P. grayana: Japanese bird cherry
- P. incana
- P. incisa: Fuji cherry
- P. jacquemontii: Afghan bush cherry
- P. japonica: Japanese bush cherry
- P. korshinskyi
- P. kotschyi
- P. laurocerasus: Cherry laurel
- P. laxinervis: Portugal laurel
- P. lusitanica
- P. maackii: Manchurian cherry
- P. mahaleb: Mahaleb cherry
- P. mandshurica: Manchurian apricot
- P. maximowiczii: Korean cherry
- P. mume: Chinese plum
- P. myrtifolia: West Indies cherry
- P. nipponica: Japanese alpine cherry
- P. occidentalis: Western cherry laurel
- P. padus: Bird cherry
- P. persica: Peach
- P. pleuradenia
- P. pseudocerasus
- P. prostrata: Mountain cherry
- P. salicina: Japanese plum
- P. sargentii: North Japanese hill cherry
- P. scoparia: (Kurdish: چوالە تاڵە)
- P. serrula: Tibetan cherry
- P. serrulata: Japanese cherry
- P. sibirica: Siberian apricot
- P. simonii: Apricot plum
- P. speciosa: Oshima cherry
- P. spinosa: Blackthorn
- P. spinulosa
- P. ssiori
- P. subhirtella: Winter-flowering cherry
- P. tenella: Dwarf Russian almond
- P. tomentosa: Nanking cherry
- P. triloba: Flowering plum
- P. turneriana
- P. ursina: Bear's plum
- P. vachuschtii
- P. verecunda
- P. × yedoensis: Yoshino cherry
- P. zippeliana: Big leaf cherry (Chinese: 大叶桂樱)
- P. alabamensis: Alabama cherry
- P. alleghaniensis: Allegheny plum
- P. americana: American plum
- P. andersonii: Desert peach
- P. angustifolia: Chickasaw plum
- P. buxifolia
- P. caroliniana: Carolina laurelcherry
- P. cortapico
- P. debilis
- P. emarginata: Bitter cherry
- P. eremophila: Mojave Desert plum
- P. fasciculata: Wild almond
- P. fremontii: Desert apricot
- P. geniculata: Scrub plum
- P. gentryi
- P. gracilis: Oklahoma plum
- P. guanaiensis
- P. havardii: Havard's plum
- P. hortulana: Hortulan plum
- P. huantensis
- P. ilicifolia: Hollyleaf cherry
- P. integrifolia
- P. littlei
- P. maritima: Beach plum
- P. mexicana: Mexican plum
- P. minutiflora: Texas almond
- P. murrayana: Murray’s plum
- P. myrtifolia: West Indies cherry
- P. nigra: Canada plum
- P. pensylvanica: Pin cherry
- P. pumila: Sand cherry
- P. rigida
- P. rivularis: Creek plum
- P. serotina: Black cherry
- P. sphaerocarpa
- P. subcordata: Klamath plum
- P. subcorymbosa
- P. texana: Peachbush
- P. umbellata: Flatwoods plum
- P. virginiana: Chokecherry
The genus Prunus includes the almond, the nectarine and peach (which are the same species), and several species of apricots, of cherries, and of plums, all of which have cultivars developed for commercial fruit and nut production. The almond is not a true nut, the edible part is the seed. Other species are occasionally cultivated or used for their seed and fruit.
Species such as blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), are grown for hedging, game cover, and other utilitarian purposes.
Many species produce an aromatic resin from wounds in the trunk; this is sometimes used medicinally. Other minor uses include dye production.
Pygeum, a herbal remedy containing extracts from the bark of Prunus africana, is used as to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by inflammation in patients suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Because of their considerable value as both food and ornamental plants, many Prunus species have been introduced to parts of the world to which they are not native, some becoming naturalised.
Ornamentals include the group that may be collectively called "flowering cherries" (including sakura, the Japanese flowering cherries).
Many species are cyanogenic; that is, they contain compounds called cyanogenic glucosides, notably amygdalin, which, on hydrolysis, yield hydrogen cyanide. Although the fruits of some may be edible by humans and livestock (in addition to the ubiquitous fructivory of birds), seeds, leaves and other parts may be toxic, some highly so. The plants contain no more than trace amounts of hydrogen cyanide, but on decomposition after crushing and exposure to air or on digestion, poisonous amounts may be generated. The trace amounts may give a characteristic taste ("bitter almond") with increasing bitterness in larger quantities, less tolerable to people than to birds, which habitually feed on specific fruits.
Benefits to human healthEdit
People are often encouraged to consume many fruits because they are rich in a variety of nutrients and phytochemicals which are supposedly beneficial to human health. The fruits of Prunus often contain many phytochemicals and antioxidants. These compounds have properties that have been linked to preventing different diseases and disorders. Research suggests that the consumption of these fruits reduces the risk of developing diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and other age-related declines. There are many factors that can affect the levels of bioactive compounds in the different fruits of the genus Prunus, including the environment, season, processing methods, orchard operations as well as postharvest management.
Cherries contain many different phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, which is an indicator of being rich in antioxidants. There has been recent research linking the phenolic compounds of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) with antitumor properties.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen; they are the byproducts of metabolism. High levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress which causes damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The oxidative damage results in cell death which ultimately leads to numerous diseases and disorders. Antioxidants act as a defensive mechanism against the oxidative stress. They are used to remove the free radicals in a living system that are generated as reactive oxygen species. Some of those antioxidants include gutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. The antioxidants present in cherry extracts act as inhibitors of the free radicals. However, the DNA and proteins can be damaged when there is an imbalance in the level of free radicals and the antioxidants. When there aren't enough antioxidants to remove the free radicals, there are many diseases that can occur, such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease, etc. Recent studies have shown that using natural antioxidants as a supplement in chemotherapy can decrease the amount of oxidative damage. Some of these natural antioxidants include ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and epigallocatechin gallate; they can be found in certain cherry extracts.
Similar to cherries, strawberries, and raspberries, almonds are also rich in phenolics. Almonds have a high oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), which is another indicator of being rich in antioxidants. As stated before, high levels of the free radicals is harmful and thus, having the capacity to absorb those radicals is greatly beneficial. The bioactive compounds, polyphenols and anthocyanins, that are found in berries and cherries, are also present in almonds. Almonds also contain nonflavonoid and flavonoid compounds, which contribute to the antioxidant properties of almonds. Flavonoids are a group of structurally related compounds that are arranged in a specific manner and can be found in all vascular plants on land. They also contribute to the antioxidant properties of almonds. Some of the nonflavonoid compounds present are protocatechuic, vanillic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. Flavonoid compounds that can be found in the skin of the almond are flavanols, dihydroflavonols, and flavanones.
Of all of the different species of stone fruits, plums are the most rich in antioxidants and phenolic compounds. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) varies within each fruit, but in plums, TAC is much higher in the skin that in the flesh of the fruit.
Apricots are high in carotenoids, which play a key role in light absorption during development. Carotenoids are the pigments which give the pulp and peel of apricots and other Prunus fruits their yellow and orange colors. Moreover, it is an essential precursor for Vitamin A, which is especially important for vision and the immune system in humans. Moreover, these fruits are quite rich in phenolic substances including, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid.
Peaches and nectarinesEdit
Similar to the plum, peaches and nectarines also have higher TAC in the skin than in the flesh. They also contain moderate levels of carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Peaches and nectarines are orange and yellow in color which can be attributed to the carotenoids present. Ascorbic acid is important in hydroxylation reactions, such as collagen synthesis and de novo synthesis of bone and cartilage, and wound healing. Ascorbic acid is also a precursor of Vitamin C, which is essential for repairing tissues and absorbing iron.
Pests and diseasesEdit
Various Prunus species are winter hosts of the Damson-hop aphid, Phorodon humuli, which is destructive to hops Humulus lupulus just at the time of their maturity, so it is recommended that plum trees not be grown in the vicinity of hop fields.
Gummosis is a nonspecific condition of stone fruits (peach, nectarine, plum and cherry) in which gum is exuded and deposited on the bark of trees. Gum is produced in response to any type of wound: insects, mechanical injury or disease.
The earliest known fossil Prunus specimens are wood, drupe and seed and a leaf from the middle Eocene of the Princeton Chert of British Columbia. Using the known age as calibration data, recent research by Oh and Potter reconstructs a partial phylogeny of some Rosaceae from a number of nucleotide sequences. According to this study, Prunus and its "sister clade" Maloideae (apple subfamily) diverged at 44.3 mya (or 43 million years ago, well before most of the primates existed). This date is within the Lutetian, or older middle Eocene.[c] Stockey and Wehr report: "The Eocene was a time of rapid evolution and diversification in Angiosperm families such as the Rosaceae ...."
The Princeton finds are among a large number of angiosperm fossils from the Okanagan Highlands dating to the late early and middle Eocene. Crataegus is found at three locations: Mcabee Falls, Idaho; Republic, Washington and Princeton, British Columbia, while Prunus is found at those locations and Quilchena, British Columbia and Chu Chua, British Columbia. A recent recapitulation of research on the topic reported that the Rosaceae were more diverse at higher altitudes. The Okanagan formations date to as early as 52 mya, but the 44.3 mya date, which is approximate, depending on assumptions, might still apply. The authors state: "... the McAbee flora records a diverse early middle Eocene angiosperm-dominated forest.":165
The Online Etymology Dictionary presents the customary derivations of plum and prune from Latin prūnum, the plum fruit. The tree is prūnus; and Pliny uses prūnus silvestris to mean the blackthorn. The word is not native Latin, but is a loan from Greek προῦνον (prounon), which is a variant of προῦμνον (proumnon), origin unknown. The tree is προύμνη (proumnē). Most dictionaries follow Hoffman, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen, in making some form of the word a loan from a pre-Greek language of Asia Minor, related to Phrygian.
The first use of Prunus as a genus name was by Carl Linnaeus in Hortus Cliffortianus of 1737, which went on to become Species Plantarum. In that work,[clarification needed] Linnaeus attributes the word to "Varr.", who it is assumed must be Marcus Terentius Varro.[dubious ]
- Do a search in the ITIS database on the scientific name Prunus for its current list.
- Other established species appear as well, which for whatever reasons are not yet in ITIS.
- A date of 76 mya is given for Rosaceae, which is within the late Cretaceous.
- Potter, D.; Eriksson, T.; Evans, R.C.; Oh, S.; Smedmark, J.E.E.; Morgan, D.R.; Kerr, M.; Robertson, K.R.; Arsenault, M.; Dickinson, T.A.; Campbell, C.S. (2007). "Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 5–43. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9. [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
- Seedling ecology and evolution. Leck, Mary Allessio., Parker, V. Thomas., Simpson, Robert. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2008. ISBN 9780521873055. OCLC 191891572.
- J., Niklas, Karl (1997). The evolutionary biology of plants. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226580830. OCLC 35262271.
- Velasco, Dianne; Hough, Josh; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey (2016-12-01). "Evolutionary Genomics of Peach and Almond Domestication". G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics. 6 (12): 3985–3993. doi:10.1534/g3.116.032672. ISSN 2160-1836. PMID 27707802.
- Health-promoting properties of fruit and vegetables. Terry, Leon A. (Leon Alexander),. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI. 2011. ISBN 9781845935283. OCLC 697808315.
- Cullen, J.; et al., eds. (1995). European Garden Flora. 4. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521420952.
- Linnaeus Carolus (1830). Sprengel, Curtius, ed. Genera Plantarum Editio Nona [Plant Categories, Ninth Edition]. Gottingen: Dieterich. pp. 402–403.
- Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1898). Sketch of the Evolution of Our Native Fruits. New York: The MacMillan Company. p. 181.
- Bortiri, E.; Oh, S. H.; Jiang, J.; Baggett, S.; Granger, A.; Weeks, C.; Buckingham, M.; Potter, D.; Parfitt, D. E. (2001). "Phylogeny and Systematics of Prunus (Rosaceae) as Determined by Sequence Analysis of ITS and the Chloroplast trnL-trnF Spacer DNA". Systematic Botany. 26 (4): 797–807. JSTOR 3093861.
- Lee, Sangtae; Wen, Jun (2001). "A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA". American Journal of Botany. 88 (1): 150–160. doi:10.2307/2657135. JSTOR 2657135. PMID 11159135.
- Okie, William (July 2003). "Stone Fruits". In Janick, J.; Paulii, R.E. Encyclopedia of Fruits and Nuts. C A B Intl (published 2008).
- Bortiri, Esteban; Oh, Sang-Hun; Gao, Fang-You; Potter, Dan (2002). "The phylogenetic utility of nucleotide sequences of sorbitol 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Prunus (Rosaceae)" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 89 (11): 1697–1708. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.10.1697. PMID 21665596. [The specification is ''Emplectocladus'' (Torr.) Sargent]
- "The Gift Of Graft: New York Artist's Tree To Grow 40 Kinds Of Fruit". NPR. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "This tree produces 40 different types of fruit". ScienceAlert. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Chladil, Mark; Sheridan, Jennifer (2006). "Fire retardant garden plants for the urban fringe and rural areas" (PDF). www.fire.tas.gov.au. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Armstrong, E. Frankland (1913). "Glucosides". In Davis, W.A.; Sadtler, Samuel S. Allen's Commercial Organic Analysis. VII (Fourth ed.). Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. p. 102. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Cook, Laurence Martin; Callow, Robert S. (1999). Genetic and evolutionary diversity: the sport of nature (2nd ed.). Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. p. 135.
- "Edible berries: Bioactive components and their effect on human health". Nutrition. 30 (2): 134–144. 2014-02-01. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2013.04.007. ISSN 0899-9007.
- "Selecting new peach and plum genotypes rich in phenolic compounds and enhanced functional properties". Food Chemistry. 96 (2): 273–280. 2006-05-01. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.02.032. ISSN 0308-8146.
- Liu, Rui Hai (2013-06-01). "Dietary Bioactive Compounds and Their Health Implications". Journal of Food Science. 78 (s1): A18–A25. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12101. ISSN 1750-3841.
- Wang, Shiow Y.; Jiao, Hongjun. "Scavenging Capacity of Berry Crops on Superoxide Radicals, Hydrogen Peroxide, Hydroxyl Radicals, and Singlet Oxygen". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48 (11): 5677–5684. doi:10.1021/jf000766i.
- "Sugars, organic acids, phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)". Food Chemistry. 107 (1): 185–192. 2008-03-01. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.004. ISSN 0308-8146.
- "Chemical characterisation and bioactive properties of Prunus avium L.: The widely studied fruits and the unexplored stems". Food Chemistry. 173: 1045–1053. 2015-04-15. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.145. ISSN 0308-8146.
- Lee, Bo-Bae; Cha, Mi-Ran; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Park, Eunju; Park, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seung-Cheol (2007-06-01). "Antioxidative and Anticancer Activity of Extracts of Cherry (Prunus serrulata var. spontanea) Blossoms". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 62 (2): 79. doi:10.1007/s11130-007-0045-9. ISSN 0921-9668.
- Wijeratne, Subhashinee S. K.; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Shahidi, Fereidoon (2006-03-01). "Antioxidant activity of almonds and their by-products in food model systems". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 83 (3): 223. doi:10.1007/s11746-006-1197-8. ISSN 0003-021X.
- "Determination of the bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Brazilian blackberry, red raspberry, strawberry, blueberry and sweet cherry fruits". Food Chemistry. 156: 362–368. 2014-08-01. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.125. ISSN 0308-8146.
- Monagas, Maria; Garrido, Ignacio; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Bartolome, Begoña; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen. "Almond (Prunus dulcis(Mill.) D.A. Webb) Skins as a Potential Source of Bioactive Polyphenols". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55 (21): 8498–8507. doi:10.1021/jf071780z.
- Gil, María I.; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A.; Hess-Pierce, Betty; Kader, Adel A. "Antioxidant Capacities, Phenolic Compounds, Carotenoids, and Vitamin C Contents of Nectarine, Peach, and Plum Cultivars from California". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50 (17): 4976–4982. doi:10.1021/jf020136b.
- Hegedú´s, Attila; Engel, Rita; Abrankó, László; Balogh, Emó´ke; Blázovics, Anna; Hermán, Rita; Halász, Júlia; Ercisli, Sezai; Pedryc, Andrzej (2010-11-01). "Antioxidant and Antiradical Capacities in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruits: Variations from Genotypes, Years, and Analytical Methods". Journal of Food Science. 75 (9): C722–C730. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01826.x. ISSN 1750-3841.
- Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Skutkova, Helena; Pavlik, Dusan; Babula, Petr; Krska, Boris; Horna, Ales; Adam, Vojtech; Provaznik, Ivo (2010-09-07). "Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes". Molecules. 15 (9): 6285–6305. doi:10.3390/molecules15096285.
- Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M.; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, María. "Quality, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of New Flat-Type Peach and Nectarine Cultivars: A Comparative Study". Journal of Food Science. 76 (5): C729–C735. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02165.x.
- "Damson-hop aphid, Phorodon humuli". Rothamstead Insect Survey. Rothamstead Research. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012.
- Benson, N.R.; Woodbridge, C.G.; Bartram, R.D. (1994). "Nutrient Disorders in Tree Fruits" (PDF). Pacific Northwest Extension Publications. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- Day, Kevin (27 January 1999). "Peach and Nectarine Cork Spot:A Review of the 1998 Season" (PDF). University of California Cooperative Extension - Tulare County. University of California, Davis. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- Hartman, John; Bachi, Paul (November 2005). "Gummosis and Perennial Canker of Stone Fruits" (PDF). Plant Pathology. University of Kentucky. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
- Stockey, Ruth A.; Wehr, Wesley C. (1996). "Flowering Plants in and around Eocene Lakes of the Interior". In Ludvigson, Rolf. Life in Stone: a Natural History of British Columbia's Fossils. Vancouver: UBCPress. pp. 234, 241, 245. ISBN 0-7748-0578-1.
- Oh, Sang-Hun; Potter, Daniel (2005). "Molecular phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of tribe Neillieae (Rosaceae) using DNA sequences of cpDNA, rDNA, and LEAFY1". American Journal of Botany. 92 (1): 179–192. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.1.179. PMID 21652396.
- Dillhoff, Richard M; Leopold, Estella B.; Manchester, Steven R. (February 2005). "The McAbee flora of British Columbia and its relation to the Early-Middle Eocene Okanagan Highlands flora of the Pacific Northwest" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 42 (2): 151–166. doi:10.1139/e04-084.
- "plum". Online Etymological Dictionary.
- "prune". Online Etymological Dictionary.
- "prūnum". Lewis's Elementary Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. 1890.
- "prūnus". Lewis's Elementary Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. 1890.
- "προῦμνον". Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
- "προύμνη". Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
- Linnaeus, Carolus (1737). Hortus Cliffortianus. Amsterdam. p. 186. doi:10.5962/bhl.title.690. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
|Wikispecies has information related to Prunus|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prunus.|
- "GRIN Species Records of Prunus". Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- "Our Cherries Collection — Prunus". Missouri Botanical Garden: Kemper Center for Home Gardening. 2001–2009. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- Tree of 40 fruit website