Plauen (German pronunciation: [ˈplaʊən]; Czech: Plavno) is, with around 65,000 inhabitants, the fifth-largest city of the Free State of Saxony after Leipzig, Dresden, Chemnitz and Zwickau, the second-largest city of the Vogtland after Gera, as well as the largest city in the Saxon Vogtland (German: Sächsisches Vogtland). The city lies on the Whiter Elster River (Weiße Elster; progression: Saale→ Elbe→ North Sea), in the Central Vogtlandian Hill Country. Plauen is the southwesternmost city of a string of cities sitting in the densely populated foreland of the Elster and Ore Mountains, stretching from Plauen in the southwest via Zwickau, Chemnitz and Freiberg to Dresden in the northeast. It is the capital of the Vogtland District. Plauen borders Thuringia to the north, and it is also situated near the Saxon border with Bavaria (Franconia) and the Czech Republic (Bohemia).
Clockwise from top: view over the city centre, astronomical clock, St John's Church, old market, St Mark's Church, old and new city hall
|Subdivisions||5 city boroughs with 38 parts|
|• Lord mayor||Ralf Oberdorfer (FDP)|
|• Total||102.11 km2 (39.42 sq mi)|
|Elevation||412 m (1,352 ft)|
|• Density||630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Vehicle registration||V, AE, OVL, PL, RC|
Although being a Saxon city, the regional Vogtlandian dialect spoken in Plauen is a (Saxon-influenced) East Franconian variant related to the dialects of neighbouring Franconia in Bavaria. The name of the city as well as the names of many of its boroughs are of Slavic origin. Plauen and the surrounding Saxon Vogtland are known as the centre of the German embroidery and lace industry.
Plauen was founded by Polabian Slavs in the 12th century as "Plawe" and was passed to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1327. The town was captured by the Archbishop of Magdeburg, Lippold von Bredow, in 1384. In 1466, it was passed to Albertine Saxony and later in 1569 to the Electorate of Saxony. Plauen became incorporated into the Kingdom of Saxony in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars, and in 1871 it became part of the German Empire.
In the late-19th century, Plauen became a centre of textile manufacturing, specializing in Chemical lace, called Plauen lace. Around 1910, Plauen, as an industrial 'boomtown' of the region, reached its population peak (1910 census: 121,000, 1912: 128,000).
In the 1930s, Plauen hosted the first chapter of the Nazi Party outside of Bavaria. Plauen's population, however, has shrunk dramatically since the Second World War (1939: 111,000 inhabitants). During the war, Germany operated a Nazi prison in the town, and three subcamps of the Flossenbürg concentration camp. 500 women, mostly Polish, but also Russian, Italian, French, Yugoslavian and Croatian, were imprisoned and used as forced labour in the first two subcamps, and 50 men from various countries were imprisoned in the third subcamp. It was occupied by American troops on 16 April 1945 but was left to Red Army on 1 July 1945.
From 1945 onwards, Plauen fell into the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, which later became the German Democratic Republic (1949-1990). Plauen hosted a large Red Army occupation garrison and, in the last years of the GDR (DDR), an officer school of the Border Guards ("Grenztruppen der DDR"). The first mass demonstration against the communist regime in the GDR began in Plauen on 7 October 1989; this was the beginning of a series of mass demonstrations across the country and ultimately led to the re-unification of Germany in 1990.
The first freely elected mayor after German reunification was Rolf Magerkord of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), who served from 1990 to 2000. The mayor was originally chosen by the city council, but since 1994 has been directly elected. Ralf Oberdorfer of the Free Democratic Party (FDP) has been mayor since 2000. The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 June 2014, with a runoff held on 6 July, and the results were as follows:
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Ralf Oberdorfer||Free Democratic Party||8,641||40.1||9,327||53.7|
|Steffen Zenner||Christian Democratic Union||7,213||33.4||8,029||46.3|
|Uwe Täschner||Green / Left / SPD||5,711||26.5|
|Source: Wahlen in Sachsen|
The most recent city council election was held on 26 May 2019, and the results were as follows:
|Christian Democratic Union (CDU)||20,717||23.7||11.7||11||5|
|Alternative for Germany (AfD)||17,464||20.0||New||11||New|
|The Left (Die Linke)||12,728||14.5||6.9||6||3|
|Social Democratic Party (SPD)||12,245||14.0||5.0||6||2|
|Free Democratic Party (FDP)||8,687||9.9||2.6||4||1|
|Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)||7,529||8.6||2.7||3||1|
|Initiative Plauen (WV)||4,752||5.4||0.4||2||±0|
|The III. Path||3,366||3.8||New||1||New|
|Source: Wahlen in Sachsen|
Industry and infrastructureEdit
Plauen (Vogtland) Oberer Bahnhof lies on the Leipzig–Hof line. The section of this line through Plauen is part of the Saxon-Franconian trunk line running between Nürnberg, Hof, Plauen, Zwickau, Chemnitz and Dresden. The city had another station, Plauen (Vogtland) Unterer station (now defunct), on the Elster Valley Railway. There is a plan to rename the Oberer (Upper) station into Plauen Hauptbahnhof (Main Station).
Vogtlandbahn (Vogtland Railway), a regional train company, operates services from Plauen to Hof, Werdau, Chemnitz, Zwickau, Falkenstein and Adorf within Germany and Cheb in the Czech Republic. At these stations, there are other Vogtlandbahn services to Munich, Regensburg, Marktredwitz, Dresden and Leipzig within Germany and Karlovy Vary and Prague in the Czech Republic. A Vogtlandbahn Express Bus service runs between Plauen and Berlin Schönefeld Airport and Zoological Garden.
The Plauen Straßenbahn is a tramway that has 6 lines connecting the centre of city, Plauen-Tunnel stop, to the surrounding areas and the Oberer railway station.
Education and scienceEdit
Plauen is home to a University of Applied Sciences with about 300 students and a DIPLOMA Fachhochschule.
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- Heinrich von Plauen (1370–1429), Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights
- Christoph Pezel (1539–1604), theologian
- Johann von Mayr (1716–1759), Prussian general
- Ferdinand Gotthelf Hand (1786–1851), philologist
- Eduard Friedrich Poeppig (1798–1868), botanist, zoologist and explorer
- Gustav Hartenstein (1808–1890), philosopher
- Charles Beyer (1813–1876), locomotive designer and engineer
- Emil Kautzsch (1841–1910), theologian
- Arwed Rossbach (1844–1902), architect in Leipzig
- Hermann Vogel (1854–1921), illustrator
- Kurt Helbig (1901–1975), weightlifter
- Friedrich Hielscher (1902–1990), religious philosopher, writer and resistance fighter against Nazism
- E.O. Plauen (1903–1944), cartoonist
- Paul Wessel (1904–1967), politician (SED)
- Egon Zill (1906–1974), Nazi SS commandant of the Flossenbürg concentration camp
- Werner Hartenstein (1908–1943), war-time commander of U-156
- Walter Ballhause (1911–1991), photographer
- Horst Dohlus (1925–2007), SED functionary
- Karl Richter (1926–1981), conductor, organist, and harpsichordist
- Hans Otte (1926–2007), composer and pianist
- Klaus Zoephel (1929–2017), composer and conductor
- Klaus Zink (born 1936), footballer
- Angelika Bahmann (born 1952), slalom canoeist, Olympic champion
- Kornelia Ender (born 1958), swimmer, Olympic champion
- Andrea Stolletz (born 1963), handball player
- Olaf Schubert (1967), comedian and musician
- Martin Dulig (born 1974), politician (SPD)
- Christian Bahmann (born 1981), slalom canoeist
- Christin Zenner (born 1991), swimmer
- "Bevölkerung des Freistaates Sachsen nach Gemeinden am 31. Dezember 2019". Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen (in German). July 2020.
- Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 828. ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6.
- Mangold, Max (2005). Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (6th ed.). Mannheim: Dudenverlag. p. 635. ISBN 9783411040667.
- "Untersuchungshaftanstalt Plauen". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- "Plauen (Industriewerke AG) Subcamp". KZ-Gedenkstätte Flossenbürg. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- "Plauen (Cotton Mill) Subcamp". KZ-Gedenkstätte Flossenbürg. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- "Plauen (Dr. Th. Horn) Subcamp". KZ-Gedenkstätte Flossenbürg. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
- "Städtepartnerschaften". plauen.de (in German). Plauen. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
- "Städtepartnerschaften". heilsbronn.de (in German). Heilsbronn. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
- Miller, Michael (2017). Gauleiter Volume 2. California: R James Bender Publishing. p. 341. ISBN 978-1-932970-32-6.