Archbishopric of Magdeburg
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Prince-Archbishopric of Magdeburg
Prince-Bishoprics of Hildesheim, Halberstadt
and Magdeburg (violet), about 1250
Halle (from 1503)
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
• Conquered Jüterbog
• Subdued Halle
• Albert of Brandenburg
Planned since 955 and established in 968, the Roman Catholic archdiocese had de facto turned void since 1557, when the last papally confirmed prince-archbishop, the Lutheran Sigismund of Brandenburg came of age and ascended to the see and the Magdeburg cathedral chapter had adopted Lutheranism in 1567, with most parishioners having preceded in their conversion. All his successors were only administrators of the prince-archbishopric and Lutheran too, except of the Catholic layman Leopold William of Austria (1631–1635). In ecclesiastical respect the remaining Catholics and their parishes and abbeys in the former archdiocese were put under supervision of the Archdiocese of Cologne in 1648 and under the jurisdiction of the Apostolic Vicariate of the Northern Missions in 1670.
In political respect the Erzstift, the archiepiscopal and capitular temporalities, had gained imperial immediacy as prince-archbishopric in 1180. Its territory comprised only some parts of the archdiocesan area, such as the city of Magdeburg, the bulk of the Magdeburg Börde, and the Jerichow Land as an integral whole and exclaves comprising about the Saalkreis including Halle upon Saale, Oebisfelde and environs as well as Jüterbog and environs. The prince-archbishopric maintained its statehood as an elective monarchy until 1680. Then Brandenburg-Prussia acquired Magdeburg prince-archbishopric, and after being secularised, transformed it into the Duchy of Magdeburg, a hereditary monarchy in personal union with Brandenburg.
The 1994-founded modern Diocese of Magdeburg is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church located in the German states of Saxony-Anhalt (bulk), Brandenburg and Saxony (smaller fringes each).
After the wars of the years 940 and 954, when the Polabian Slavs, as far as the Oder, the Magyars had come far into Germany, that Augsburg was in danger. At the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 they were defeated and repelled. Immediately in 955 Otto the Great set to work to establish an archbishopric in Magdeburg, for the stabilisation through Christianisation of the eastern territories. He wished to transfer the capital of the diocese from Halberstadt to Magdeburg, and make it an archdiocese. But this was strenuously opposed by the Archbishop of Mainz, who was the metropolitan of Halberstadt. When, in 962, Pope John XII sanctioned the establishment of an archbishopric, Otto seemed to have abandoned his plan of a transfer. The estates belonging to the convents mentioned above (founded in 937) were converted into a mensa for the new archbishopric, and the monks transferred to the Berge Convent. The archiepiscopal church made St. Maurice its patron, and in addition received new donations and grants from Otto.
Its ecclesiastical province included the existing dioceses of Brandenburg and Havelberg and the newly founded dioceses of Merseburg, Zeitz, and Meißen. Lebus was added in 1424. The new archdiocese was close to the unsecured border regions of the Holy Roman Empire and Slavic tribes, and was meant to promote Christianity among the many Slavs and others. Then, on 20 April 967, the archbishopric was solemnly established at the Synod of Ravenna in the presence of the pope and the emperor. The first archbishop was Adelbert, a former monk of St. Maximin's at Trier, afterwards missionary bishop to the Ruthenians (Ruthenia), and Abbot of Weissenburg in Alsace. He was elected in the autumn of 968, received the pallium at Rome, and at the end of the year was solemnly enthroned in Magdeburg.
The archdiocesan area of Magdeburg was rather small; it comprised the Slavonic districts of Serimunt, Nudizi, Neletici, Nizizi, and half of northern Thuringia, which Halberstadt resigned. The cathedral school especially gained in importance under Adalbert's efficient administration. The scholastic Othrich was considered the most learned man of his times. Many eminent men were educated at Magdeburg.
Othrich was chosen archbishop after Adalbert's death (981). Gisiler of Merseburg by bribery and fraud obtained possession of the See of Magdeburg, and also succeeded temporarily in grasping the Bishopric of Merseburg (until 1004). Among successors worthy of mention are the zealous Gero (1012–23); Werner (1063–78), who was killed in battle with Henry IV; St. Norbert, prominent in the 12th century (1126–34), the founder of the Premonstratensian order.
Archbishop Wichmann (1152–92) was more important as a sovereign and prince of the Holy Roman Empire than as a bishop. Wichmann sided with the emperor in the Great Saxon Revolt and was rewarded by recognising the archepiscopal and the cathedral capitular temporalities as a state of imperial immediacy within the Holy Roman Empire, thus Wichmann was the first to add the title secular prince to his ecclesiastical archbishop. Albrecht II (1205–32) quarrelled with Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg (1198–1215), because he had pronounced the pope's ban against the latter and this war greatly damaged the archbishopric. In 1208 he began to build the present Cathedral of Magdeburg, which was only consecrated in 1263, and never entirely finished; Günther I (1277–79) hardly escaped a serious war with the Margrave Otto IV, who was incensed because his brother Eric of Brandenburg had not been elected archbishop. The Brandenburgers succeeded in forcing Günther I and Bernard III (1279–1281) to resign and in making Eric archbishop (1283–1295).
Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg (1513–45), on account of his insecure position, as well as being crippled by a perpetual lack of funds, gave some occasion for the spread of Lutheranism in his diocese, although himself opposing the Reformation. It is not true that he became a Lutheran and wished to retain his see as a secular principality, and just as untrue that in the Kalbe Parliament in 1541 he consented to the introduction of the Reformation in order to have his debts paid. His successors were the zealous Catholics John Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1545–1550), who however could accomplish very little, and Frederick IV of Brandenburg, who died in 1552.
Administrators who were secular princes now took the place of the archbishop, and they, as well as the majority of the cathedral chapter and the inhabitants of the archdiocese, were usually Protestant. They belonged to the Hohenzollern House of Brandenburg, which had adopted Calvinism in 1613. Christian William was taken prisoner in 1631, and went over to the Catholic Church in Vienna. At the time of the Peace of Prague (1635), the Archbishopric of Magdeburg fell to August, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels. In the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), the expectancy to the archbishopric was promised to Brandenburg-Prussia upon the death of August. When the Saxon prince died in 1680, the archbishopric was secularised by Brandenburg and transformed into the Duchy of Magdeburg.
The remaining Catholics in the area were under the jurisdiction of the Apostolic Vicariate of the Northern Missions between 1670 and 1709, and again from 1780 to 1821. Between 1709 and 1780 the Apostolic Vicariate of Upper and Lower Saxony was the competent Catholic jurisdiction. In 1821, the area was transferred in Catholic respect to the Diocese of Paderborn. In 1994, the Diocese of Magdeburg was founded in the area.
Archbishops and administratorsEdit
Archbishops of MagdeburgEdit
- Adalbert 968–981
- Giselmar 981–1004
- Tagino 1004–1012
- Waltaro 1012
- Gero 1012–1023
- Humfrid 1023–1051
- Engelhard 1052–1063
- Werner of Steutzlingen 1064–1078
- Hartwig of Spanheim 1079–1102
- Henry I of Assel 1102–1107
- Adalgod of Osterberg 1107–1119
- Rudigar of Baltheim 1119–1125
- Norbert of Xanten 1126–1134
- Conrad I of Querfurt 1134–1142
- Frederick of Wettin 1142–1152
- Wichmann von Seeburg 1152–1180; prince-archbishop to 1192; Bishop of Naumburg, 1150–54
Prince-archbishops of MagdeburgEdit
- Wichmann von Seeburg 1180–1192; archbishop from 1152
- Ludolf of Koppenstedt 1192–1205
- Albert I of Käfernburg 1205–1232
- Burkhard I of Woldenberg 1232–1235
- Wilbrand of Kasernberg 1235–1254
- Rudolf of Dinselstadt 1254–1260
- Rupert of Mansfeld 1260–1266
- Conrad II of Sternberg 1266–1277
- Günther I of Schwalenberg 1277–1279
- Bernhard III of Wolpe 1279–1282
- Eric of Brandenburg 1282–1295
- Burkhard II of Blankenburg 1295–1305
- Henry III, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben 1305–1307
- Burkhard III of Mansfeld-Schrapglau 1307–1325
- Heideke of Erssa 1326–1327
- Otto of Hesse 1327–1361
- Dietrich Kagelwit 1361–1367
- Albert II of Sternberg 1367–1372
- Peter Gelvto 1372–1381
- Louis of Meissen 1381–1382
- Frederick II of Hoym 1382
- Albert III of Querfurt 1382–1403
- Günther II of Schwarzburg 1403–1445
- Frederick III of Beichlingen 1445–1464
- John II of Palatinate-Simmern 1464–1475
- Ernest II of Saxony 1475–1480; prince-archbishop to 1513
1480: Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt administered by archbishops of Magdeburg
Prince-archbishops of Magdeburg, administrators of HalberstadtEdit
- Ernest II of Saxony 1480–1513; prince-archbishop from 1475
- Albert IV of Brandenburg 1513–1545; also archbishop-elector of Mainz from 1514–1545
- John Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach 1545–1551
- Frederick IV of Brandenburg 1551–1552; Frederick III as administrator of Halberstadt
- Sigismund of Brandenburg 1552–1566; papally confirmed as archbishop although Lutheran, since the Holy See still expected the new schism to be a temporary phenomenon
1566: Archdiocese ruled by Lutheran administrators
Administrators of MagdeburgEdit
- Joachim Frederick of Brandenburg 1566–1598
- Christian William of Brandenburg 1598–1631
- Leopold William of Austria, a layman, Catholic administrator, 1631–1638; also administrator of the prince-bishoprics of Passau (1625–1662), of Strasbourg (1626–1662), of Halberstadt (1628–1648), of Olmütz (1632–1662) and of Breslau (1656–1662) and de jure of the prince-archbishopric of Bremen (1635–1645)
- Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels, Count of Barby, 1638–1680
1680: Prince-Archbishopric secularised to duchy
Ecclesiastical Province of MagdeburgEdit
The archbishop of Magdeburg was the metropolitan of the Ecclesiastical Province of Magdeburg (de facto dissolved in 1648), with the archbishops also holding – besides the archbishop-elector of Mainz – the honorary title Primas Germaniae. The suffragans of Magdeburg were:
- Diocese of Brandenburg, Lutheran since 1539, the pertaining prince-bishopric secularised and merged into the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1571.
- Diocese of Havelberg, Lutheran since 1558, the pertaining prince-bishopric secularised and merged into the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1598.
- Diocese of Lebus since 1424 (before suffragan to Gniezno), Lutheran since 1555, pertaining temporalities (County of Beeskow) secularised and merged into the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1598.
- Diocese of Merseburg, Lutheran since 1544, the pertaining prince-bishopric secularised and merged into the Electorate of Saxony in 1565
- Diocese of Naumburg-Zeitz, Lutheran between 1542 and 1547 and from 1562 on, the pertaining prince-bishopric secularised and merged into the Electorate of Saxony in 1615
Residences of the Archbishops of Magdeburg were:
Calbe Castle (secondary residence)