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Timeline of Solar System exploration

  (Redirected from Planetary exploration)

Charted timeline of Solar System exploration, as of December 2014

This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch. It includes:

  • All spacecraft that have left Earth orbit for the purposes of Solar System exploration (or were launched with that intention but failed), including lunar probes.
  • A small number of pioneering or notable Earth-orbiting craft.

It does not include:

  • The great majority of Earth-orbiting satellites.
  • Space probes leaving Earth orbit that are not concerned with Solar System exploration (such as space telescopes targeted at distant galaxies, cosmic background radiation observatories, and so on).
  • Probes that failed at launch.

The dates listed are launch dates, but the achievements noted may have occurred some time later—in some cases, a considerable time later (for example, Voyager 2, launched 20 August 1977, did not reach Neptune until 1989).

Missions in italics are unfinished, i.e. have not yet been designated as successes or failures. Some unitalicised missions are nevertheless still operational, some in mission extension phases.

Contents

1950sEdit

 
Sputnik 1 – First Earth orbiter

1957

1958

1959

  •   Luna 1 – 2 January 1959 – First lunar flyby (attempted lunar impact?)
  •   Pioneer 4 – 3 March 1959 – Lunar flyby
  •   Luna 2 – 12 September 1959 – First lunar impact
  •   Luna 3 – 4 October 1959 – Lunar flyby; First images of far side of Moon

1960sEdit

 
Vostok 1 – First manned Earth orbiter
 
Mariner 2 – First Venus flyby
 
Mariner 4 – First Mars flyby
 
Luna 9 – First lunar lander
 
Venera 4 – First Venus atmospheric probe
 
Zond 5 – First lunar flyby and return to Earth
 
Apollo 8 - First manned lunar orbiter
 
Apollo 11 – First manned lunar landing

1960

  •   Pioneer 5 – 11 March 1960 – Interplanetary space investigations

1961

  •   Venera 1 – 12 February 1961 – Venus flyby (contact lost before flyby)
  •   Vostok 1 – 12 April 1961 – First manned Earth orbiter
  •   Mercury-Redstone 3 – 5 May 1961 – First American in space
  •   Ranger 1 – 23 August 1961 – Attempted lunar test flight
  •   Ranger 2 – 18 November 1961 – Attempted lunar test flight

1962

  •   Ranger 3 – 26 January 1962 – Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon)
  •   Mercury-Atlas 6 – 20 February 1962 – First American manned Earth orbiter
  •   Ranger 4 – 23 April 1962 – Lunar impact (but unintentionally became the first spacecraft to hit the lunar farside and returned no data)[1]
  •   Mariner 2 – 27 August 1962 – First successful planetary encounter, First successful Venus flyby
  •   Ranger 5 – 18 October 1962 – Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon)
  •   Mars 1 – 1 November 1962 – Mars flyby (contact lost)

1963

  •   Luna 4 – 2 April 1963 – Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon)
  •   Cosmos 21 – 11 November 1963 – Attempted Venera test flight?

1964

  •   Ranger 6 – 30 January 1964 – Lunar impact (cameras failed)
  •   Zond 1 – 2 April 1964 – Venus flyby (contact lost)
  •   Ranger 7 – 28 July 1964 – Lunar impact
  •   Mariner 3 – 5 November 1964 – Attempted Mars flyby (failed to attain correct trajectory)
  •   Mariner 4 – 28 November 1964 – First Mars flyby
  •   Zond 2 – 30 November 1964 – Mars flyby (contact lost)

1965

  •   Ranger 8 – 17 February 1965 – Lunar impact
  •   Ranger 9 – 21 March 1965 – Lunar impact
  •   Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 - 6 May 1965 - Oldest spacecraft still in use
  •   Luna 5 – 9 May 1965 – Lunar impact (attempted soft landing)
  •   Luna 6 – 8 June 1965 – Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon)
  •   Zond 3 – 18 July 1965 – Lunar flyby
  •   Luna 7 – 4 October 1965 – Lunar impact (attempted soft landing)
  •   Venera 2 – 12 November 1965 – Venus flyby (contact lost)
  •   Venera 3 – 16 November 1965 – Venus lander (contact lost) – First spacecraft to reach another planet's surface, First Venus impact
  •   Luna 8 – 3 December 1965 – Lunar impact (attempted soft landing?)
  •   Pioneer 6 – 16 December 1965 – "Space weather" observations

1966

  •   Luna 9 – 31 January 1966 – First lunar lander
  •   AS-201 – 26 February 1966 – Lunar programme test flight
  •   Luna 10 – 31 March 1966 – First lunar orbiter
  •   Surveyor 1 – 30 May 1966 – Lunar lander
  •   Explorer 33 – 1 July 1966 – Attempted lunar orbiter (failed to attain lunar orbit)
  •   Lunar Orbiter 1 – 10 August 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  •   Pioneer 7 – 17 August 1966 – "Space weather" observations
  •   Luna 11 – 24 August 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  •   Surveyor 2 – 20 September 1966 – Attempted lunar lander (crashed into Moon)
  •   Luna 12 – 22 October 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  •   Lunar Orbiter 2 – 6 November 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  •   Luna 13 – 21 December 1966 – Lunar lander

1967

1968

  •   Surveyor 7 – 7 January 1968 – Lunar lander
  •   Apollo 5 – 22 January 1968 – Lunar programme test flight
  •   Zond 4 – 2 March 1968 – Lunar programme test flight
  •   Luna 14 – 7 April 1968 – Lunar orbiter
  •   Zond 5 – 15 September 1968 – First lunar flyby and return to Earth, first life forms to circle the moon
  •   Apollo 7 – 11 October 1968 – Lunar programme test flight (manned)
  •   Pioneer 9 – 8 November 1968 – "Space weather" observations
  •   Zond 6 – 10 November 1968 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth
  •   Apollo 8 – 21 December 1968 – First manned lunar orbiter

1969

  •   Venera 5 – 5 January 1969 – Venus atmospheric probe
  •   Venera 6 – 10 January 1969 – Venus atmospheric probe
  •   Mariner 6 – 25 February 1969 – Mars flyby
  •   Apollo 9 – 3 March 1969 – Manned lunar lander (LEM) flight test
  •   Mariner 7 – 27 March 1969 – Mars flyby
  •   Apollo 10 – 18 May 1969 – Manned lunar orbiter
  •   Luna E-8-5 No.402 – 14 June 1969 – Attempted lunar sample return, first attempted sample return mission
  •   Luna 15 – 13 July 1969 – Second attempted lunar sample return
  •   Apollo 11 – 16 July 1969 – First manned lunar landing and first successful sample return mission
  •   Zond 7 – 7 August 1969 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth
  •   Apollo 12 – 14 November 1969 – Manned lunar landing

1970sEdit

 
Venera 7 – First Venus lander and the first spacecraft to land on another planet
 
Mars 3 – First Mars lander
 
Pioneer 10 – First Jupiter flyby
 
Mariner 10 – First Mercury flyby
 
Voyager 2 – First Uranus/first Neptune flyby

1970

  •   Apollo 13 – 11 April 1970 – Manned lunar flyby and return to Earth (manned lunar landing aborted) Farthest from Earth a human has gone
  •   Venera 7 – 17 August 1970 – First Venus lander and the first spacecraft to land on another planet
  •   Luna 16 – 12 September 1970 – First robotic lunar sample return
  •   Zond 8 – 20 October 1970 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth
  •   Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 – 10 November 1970 – First lunar rover

1971

  •   Apollo 14 – 31 January 1971 – Manned lunar landing
  •   Salyut 1 – 19 April 1971 – First space station
  •   Mars 2 – 19 May 1971 – Mars orbiter and attempted lander; First Mars impact
  •   Mars 3 – 28 May 1971 – Mars orbiter, First Mars lander (lost contact after 14.5s) and First Mars atmospheric probe
  •   Mariner 9 – 30 May 1971 – First Mars orbiter
  •   Apollo 15 – 26 July 1971 – Manned lunar landing; First manned lunar rover
  •   Luna 18 – 2 September 1971 – Attempted lunar sample return (crashed into Moon)
  •   Luna 19 – 28 September 1971 – Lunar orbiter

1972

1973

  •   Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 – 8 January 1973 – Lunar rover
  •   Pioneer 11 – 5 April 1973 – Jupiter flyby and First Saturn flyby
  •   Skylab – 14 May 1973 – First American space station
  •   Explorer 49 (RAE-B) – 10 June 1973 – Lunar orbiter/radio astronomy
  •   Mars 4 – 21 July 1973 – Mars flyby (attempted Mars orbiter)
  •   Mars 5 – 25 July 1973 – Mars orbiter
  •   Mars 6 – 5 August 1973 – Mars flyby and attempted lander (failed due to damage on Mars landing)
  •   Mars 7 – 9 August 1973 – Mars flyby and attempted lander (missed Mars)
  •   Mariner 10 – 4 November 1973 – Venus flyby and First Mercury flyby

1974

  •   Luna 22 – 2 June 1974 – Lunar orbiter
  •   Luna 23 – 28 October 1974 – Attempted lunar sample return (failed due to damage on lunar landing)
  •     Helios-A – 10 December 1974 – Solar observations

1975

  •   Venera 9 – 8 June 1975 – First Venus orbiter and lander; First images from surface of Venus
  •   Venera 10 – 14 June 1975 – Venus orbiter and lander
  •   Viking 1 – 20 August 1975 – Mars orbiter and lander; First lander returning data and First pictures from Martian surface
  •   Viking 2 – 9 September 1975 – Mars orbiter and lander

1976

  •     Helios-B – 15 January 1976 – Solar observations, Closest solar approach (0.29 AU)
  •   Luna 24 – 9 August 1976 – Lunar robotic sample return

1977

  •   Voyager 2 – 20 August 1977 – Jupiter/Saturn/first Uranus/first Neptune flyby
  •   Voyager 1 – 5 September 1977 – Jupiter/Saturn flyby, Farthest human-made object – currently (2018) about 142 AU

1978

1980sEdit

 
Giotto – Comet Halley flyby

1981

  •   Venera 13 – 30 October 1981 – Venus flyby and lander
  •   Venera 14 – 4 November 1981 – Venus flyby and lander

1983

1984

  •   Vega 1 – 15 December 1984 – Venus flyby, lander and first balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby
  •   Vega 2 – 21 December 1984 – Venus flyby, lander and balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby

1985

 
Galileo – Mission to Jupiter
  •   Sakigake – 7 January 1985 – Comet Halley flyby
  •   Giotto – 2 July 1985 – Comet Halley flyby
  •   Suisei (Planet-A) – 18 August 1985 – Comet Halley flyby

1986

  •   Mir – 20 February 1986 – First modular space station (completion 1996)

1988

  •   Phobos 1 – 7 July 1988 – Attempted Mars orbiter/Phobos landers (contact lost)
  •   Phobos 2 – 12 July 1988 – Mars orbiter/attempted Phobos landers (contact lost)

1989

1990sEdit

1990

 
Mars Pathfinder – Mars lander and first Mars rover

1991

  •       Yohkoh (Solar-A) – 30 August 1991 – Solar observations

1992

  •   Mars Observer – 25 September 1992 – Attempted Mars orbiter (contact lost)

1994

  •   Clementine – 25 January 1994 – Lunar orbiter/attempted asteroid flyby
  •   WIND – 1 November 1994 – Solar wind observations

1995

  •     SOHO – 2 December 1995 – Solar observatory

1996

1997

 
Cassini–Huygens – First Saturn orbiter and first Titan lander

1998

1999

2000sEdit

 
Mars Express/Beagle 2 – First planetary mission by the ESA
 
MESSENGER – First Mercury orbiter

2001

2002

  •   CONTOUR – 3 July 2002 – Attempted flyby of three comet nuclei (lost in space)

2003

2004

  •   Rosetta/Philae – 2 March 2004 – First comet orbiter and lander (Landed in November 2014)
  •   MESSENGER – 3 August 2004 – First Mercury orbiter (Achieved orbit 18 March 2011)

2005

2006

  •   New Horizons – 19 January 2006 – First Pluto/Charon flyby (on 14 July 2015)[2]
  •       Hinode (Solar-B) – 22 September 2006 – Solar orbiter
  •   STEREO – 26 October 2006 – Two spacecraft, solar orbiters

2007

  •   Phoenix – 4 August 2007 – Mars polar lander (Mars landing on 25 May 2008)
  •   SELENE (Kaguya) – 14 September 2007 – Lunar orbiters
  •   Dawn – 27 September 2007 – Asteroid Ceres and Vesta orbiter (Entered orbit around Vesta on 16 July 2011 and around Ceres on 6 March 2015)
  •   Chang'e 1 – 24 October 2007 – Lunar orbiter

2008

 
Chandrayaan-1 - Water Around Fresh Moon Crater
  •   Chandrayaan-1 – 22 October 2008 – Lunar orbiter and impactor – Discovered water on the Moon

2009

2010sEdit

 
Mars Science Laboratory – Mars lander and large rover
 
Mangalyaan – First Indian Mars orbiter
 
Trace Gas Orbiter, ESA/Roscosmos Mars orbiter

2010

2011

  •   Juno – 5 August 2011 – Jupiter orbiter
  •   GRAIL – 10 September 2011 – Two spacecraft, Lunar orbiters
  •   Tiangong (Project 921-2) – 29 September 2011 - First Chinese space station[3]
  •     Fobos-Grunt and Yinghuo-1 – 8 November 2011 – Phobos orbiter, lander and sample return (Russia), Mars orbiter (China) – failed to escape Earth orbit
  •   Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover) – 26 November 2011 – large Mars 900 kg Rover (landed 6 August 2012)

2012

2013

  •   IRIS – 27 June 2013 – Solar observations
  •   LADEE – 6 September 2013 – Lunar orbiter
  •   Hisaki – 14 September 2013 – Planetary atmosphere observatory
  •   Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) – 5 November 2013 – Mars orbiter
  •   MAVEN – 18 November 2013 – Mars orbiter
  •   Chang'e 3 – 1 December 2013 – First Chinese lunar lander and rover (most recent lander since Russian Luna 24 in 1976)

2014

  •   Chang'e 5-T1 – 23 October 2014 – Lunar flyby/orbiter and Earth reentry probe; technology demonstration to prepare for Chang'e 5 mission
  •       Hayabusa 2 / MASCOT – 3 December 2014 – Asteroid lander and sample return, First asteroid rover
  •   PROCYON - 3 December 2014 – Comet observer and failed asteroid flyby
  •   Exploration Flight Test 1 – 5 December 2014 – Unmanned Earth orbital test of Orion interplanetary vehicle.

2015

  •   DSCOVR – 11 February 2015 – Solar observation
  •   Astrosat – 28 September 2015 – Space observatory
  •   LISA Pathfinder – 3 December 2015 – Test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory

2016

2018

Planned or scheduledEdit

 
Euro-Russian ExoMars rover
 
American Mars 2020 rover

2018

  •   Chang'e 4 – 8 December 2018 – Lunar lander and rover, the first landing on the lunar far side

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

  •   Luna 28 – Lunar south pole lander, rover, and sample return
  •   Federation spacecraft – manned lunar orbit

2026

2029

  •   Manned lunar landing[11]
  •   Mars sample return (before 2030)

2030

  •   Manned lunar landing and beginning of building of a human colony[11]
  •   Manned landing on the Moon (2020–30)[12]

2031

2037

2040–60

  •   Manned phase of the Chinese Mars exploration program[13]
  •   Manned phase of the Russian Mars exploration program[14]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Williamson, Mark (1998). "Protecting the space environment: Are we doing enough?". Space Policy. 14 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1016/S0265-9646(97)00038-6.
  2. ^ a b Chang, Kenneth (18 July 2015). "The Long, Strange Trip to Pluto, and How NASA Nearly Missed It". New York Times. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  3. ^ "China's space program shoots for moon, Mars, Venus". The Guardian. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  4. ^ "Chandrayaan-2 launch postponed again". The Hindu. PTI. 2018-08-05. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
  5. ^ "UAE plans to launch mission to Mars in 2021". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  6. ^ "UAE's names Mars probe Hope". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  7. ^ "惑星資源探査 ⼩型テラヘルツ探査機" (PDF) (in Japanese). National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
  8. ^ Yamazaki, Keisuke (March 27, 2017). "Japan planning 2020 mission to put satellite in Martian orbit". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
  9. ^ Rivkin, Andy (27 September 2018). "Asteroids have been hitting the Earth for billions of years. In 2022, we hit back". Applied Physics Laboratory. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  10. ^ "Space exploration in 2022". Russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Russia's plan to conquer the moon: Nation will send 12 cosmonauts to lunar surface ahead of creating a permanent base by 2030". Dailymail.co.uk. 22 June 2016.
  12. ^ "Moon may light man's future". China Daily. 15 August 2009.
  13. ^ "中国嫦娥探月工程进展顺利 进度将有望加快--军事频道-中华网-中国最大职业人士门户". military.china.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  14. ^ Пилотируемый полет на Марс будет возможен после 2040 года – Роскосмос. versii.com (in Russian). Retrieved 22 August 2014.

External linksEdit