Piaggio P.180 Avanti
The Piaggio P.180 Avanti is an Italian executive transport aircraft with twin turboprop engines mounted in pusher configuration. It seats up to nine people in a pressurized cabin, and may be flown by one or two pilots. The design is of three-surface configuration, having both a small forward wing and a conventional tailplane as well as its main wing, with the main wing spars passing behind the passenger cabin area.
|Designer||Alessandro Mazzoni |
|First flight||23 September 1986|
|Introduction||30 September 1990|
|Primary users||Italian Air Force|
Avantair (ceased 2013)
|Number built||236 (Oct 2018)|
A 1980s wave of new-generation planes, developed to appeal to Fortune 500 clients, included Piaggio's Avanti and Beech Aircraft Corp.'s very similar Starship. Engineering studies for the airplane that would eventually be named Avanti began in 1979 and designs were tested in wind tunnels in Italy and the United States in 1980 and 1981, conducted by Professor Jan Roskam from the University of Kansas (using Wichita State University's wind tunnel and Boeing's transonic wind tunnel in Seattle) along with Professor Gerald Gregorek at Ohio State University (using OSU's 2D pressure wind tunnel).
Piaggio's chief engineer, Alessandro Mazzoni, filed in 1982 to patent the Avanti design. Beginning in 1983, Gates Learjet partnered with Piaggio to develop a fuselage for the new aircraft (referred to as Gates Piaggio GP-180). Learjet's design influence can be seen in the steeply raked windshield and the two large ventral delta fins under the tail. At high angles of attack these delta fins provide a nose-down pitching moment and help to avoid a potential stall, and they increase stability in flight by damping yaw and Dutch roll.
Gates Learjet's financial problems ended their collaboration in January 1986, but Piaggio continued the project, and the first prototype flew on 23 September 1986. The P.180 Avanti received Italian certification on 7 March 1990 and American certification was obtained on 2 October 1990.
The first 12 fuselages were manufactured in Wichita, Kansas, with H & H Parts and Plessey Midwest, then flown to Italy for final assembly. Avanti Aviation Wichita ran out of money in 1994; the project languished until a group of investors led by Piero Ferrari became involved in 1998. The 100th aircraft was delivered in October 2005 and the 150th in May 2008. Piaggio reported that, as of October 2010, the Avanti and Avanti II fleets had logged over 500,000 flying hours.
An improved Avanti II obtained European and U.S. certification in November 2005. Six months later, 70 planes had been ordered, including 36 by Avantair. Avanti II received type approval for Russia in 2011. The Avanti II featured uprated Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66B turboprop engines and flies about 18 km/h (11 mph) faster, with better fuel economy; and an all-new "glass panel" avionics suite from Rockwell Collins reduced cockpit clutter. In addition to heading, attitude and navigation information, flat panel color liquid crystal displays add collision avoidance (TCAS), ground proximity (TAWS) and real-time graphic weather depiction.
The Avanti is marketed as being faster than other turboprops and many midsized jets, with cost efficiency as much as 40 percent better than market-competing jets, as a result of less drag and a lower fuel burn rate. Powered by the same Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66 engines as the Beechcraft King Air B200, the Avanti II is 100 knots (190 km/h) faster than that model King Air. Flying magazine judged the Avanti to be the "Fastest Civilian Turboprop Twin" in 2014, saying "Avanti's speed is pretty much on par with Cessna's M2, while providing more space and a lower operating cost."
First flown in 2013, the P.1HH UAV prototype crashed off Sicily in May 2016 after 100 hours of flight tests, a second prototype flew in July 2017 before two others joined. The first Avanti EVO manufactured at the new $150 million factory at Albenga Airport was delivered in 2016, one year after moving production from its previous Genoa Cristoforo Colombo Airport plant.
On 22 November 2018, Piaggio Aerospace entered receivership after declaring itself insolvent as its restructuring plan failed. After the financial crisis of 2007–2008, a key US fractional customer went bankrupt and P.180 Evo sales dropped from a 2008 peak of 30 deliveries to just three in 2018. By November 2018, no P.1HHs were delivered to the UAE and the Italian Ministry of Defence €766 million support for the P.2HH program was frozen as populist coalition partner Five Star Movement prioritized social programmes over defence spending.
On 21 June 2019, the Italian government committed to €716 million in orders to make the business more attractive to a potential buyer: €260 million from the defence ministry for nine new Avanti Evos, plus an upgrade of 19 earlier aircraft; €200 million for engine maintenance; €160 million for the P1HH HammerHead certification completion and at least one system (two aircraft and one ground station) acquisition; and €96 million for logistics support. While the deals should be approved later, two aircraft had been delivered so far in 2019, and two more remain in the backlog. Three non-binding expressions of interest to buy the aircraft business had been received, 10 for the engine business and 26 for the whole company. The official tender for the sale of Piaggio Aerospace should start after the summer of 2019.
The Avanti's counter rotating turboprop engines are placed on a mid-set, high aspect ratio wing located just behind the cabin. The three-surface design incorporates both a T-tail and a pair of small, fixed forewings having slight anhedral and landing flaps. On the Avanti II these flaps automatically deploy in concert with the main wing flaps. This reduces the load on the tailplane, even when the flaps are deployed, by reducing the pitch-down moment created by the deployment of the main wing flaps. This in turn allows the size of both the tailplane and the main wing to be reduced. This particular three-lifting-surface configuration was patented in 1982.
The forward wing's angle of incidence is slightly greater than that of the main wing, so that it stalls before the main wing, producing an automatic nose-down effect prior to the onset of main wing stall; its five-degree anhedral (negative dihedral) keeps the stream wash interference clear of the engine inlets, the main wing and the tailplane.
The cabin cross-section varies continuously along the length of the aircraft; the shape approximates an NACA airfoil section, and the slowly changing curve helps prolong laminar flow on the front of the fuselage. Piaggio claims that the fuselage contributes up to 20% of the Avanti's total lift, with the front and rear wing providing the remaining 80%. Due to the unusual fuselage shape, the mid cabin is considerably wider than the cockpit. The front and rear airfoils are custom sections designed by Jerry Gregorek of Ohio State University's Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory to achieve a drag-reducing 50% laminar flow at cruise. The company claims the overall design of the P180 Avanti II enables the wing to be 34% smaller than on conventional aircraft.
The P180 is reported to have good fuel efficiency relative to small turbojets flying in the same speed and altitude range. Flight International stated: "The Avanti has no direct turboprop competitors, its closest jet rivals are the Raytheon Premier I and the Cessna Citation CJ2+ ... Piaggio says low-drag laminar flow is maintained to around 50% of the wing chord, compared with around 20–25% for conventional tractor turboprops where propeller wash disturbs the airflow over the wing... specific air range at high altitude is 3.4 km/kg (0.84nm/lb) compared with around 2 km/kg (0.49nm/lb) for current jets or 2.7 km/kg (0.67nm/lb) for other turboprops." By this estimate, mileage is 70% better per fuel unit than comparable jet aircraft, although this greater efficiency is achieved only at a relatively slow 315 KTAS and FL410. P180 Avanti II Specifications now show slightly lower numbers for specific range of 3.1 km/kg (0.76 nm/lb).
Interior noise is lower than conventional turboprop aircraft, because the propellers and engine exhausts are behind the cabin. Piaggio quotes 68 dBA. However, due to the strongly disturbed flow in which the pusher propellers operate, the exterior noise is higher. The exterior noise level and its higher pitched sound has been shown to be the result primarily of the interaction of the turbine engine exhaust flows and the five-bladed pusher propellers (est. +9 dB). On takeoff, the Avanti has been measured at 81.9 dBA sideline noise level, slightly lower than the Beechcraft King Air at 82.8 dBA. This is below FAA stage 3 noise limits, which set a maximum of 89 EPNdB for takeoff. However, the P180 has been the subject of noise complaints at airports, such as Aspen–Pitkin County Airport in Colorado as well as Naples Municipal Airport, Florida, where that airport authority determined it was the noisiest aircraft using the facility. Alan Parker, chairman of the Naples Municipal Airport Authority's technical committee, described the Avanti as "irritating loud" and compared the high pitched sound "to fingernails on a chalkboard".
The Piaggio P.180 Avanti has a sea level, standard day, maximum gross weight takeoff distance of 869 m (2,851 ft) and a landing roll of 872 m (2,861 ft).
Deliveries were at a high of 30 in 2008, but only two in 2013.
In 2014 Piaggio announced development of an updated version, named EVO. It uses new Hartzell composite propellers, with blades of scimitar configuration. Its wings carry new winglets; aerodynamic improvements have been incorporated, and an additional 60-gallon (400 lb) fuel tank option to increase range to 1,770 nautical miles (3,280 kilometres; 2,040 miles). The company predicts improved climb performance, 250 nm greater range, and 3% reduction in fuel usage. The revised propeller shape, combined with a lower engine speed, promises a 68% reduction in external noise. Avanti EVO type certification was granted by EASA on 28 November 2014, and by the FAA on 6 July 2015. Although projected purchase price was in the $7.4 million range, by May 2017 the actual price was approximately $7.7 million. The first EVO was delivered in April 2015, with five more to follow the same year.
- P.180 Avanti
- First production variant.
- P180 M
- Military version with a combination passenger/freighter configuration for use as a VIP and light utility transport.
- P.180 RM
- Variant for use in radio calibration.
- P.180 AMB
- Air ambulance variant.
- P.180 APH
- Aerial cartography.
- P.180 Avanti II
- Variant with improved avionics and engines.
- Variant with 400kt TAS and higher useful load.
- Multirole Patrol Aircraft (MPA)
- Initially called Maritime Patrol Aircraft, MPA is a variant of the Avanti II with a larger wingspan and bigger fuel tanks. As with the EVO propulsion system, MPA uses more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66B engines and Hartzell five-blade scimitar propellers. MPA electronics include the Albatros mission mystem from Saab Group and Pro Line Fusion avionics from Rockwell Collins.
- Piaggio-Selex P.1HH Hammerhead
- Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle based on the Avanti II airframe, with an increased wingspan and the ability to carry up to 1,100 pounds (500 kg) of weapons. The P.1HH HammerHead Mission Management System is based on the Selex ES (now Leonardo S.p.A.) skyISTAR solution. The vehicle's first flight took place in December 2013 from Trapani–Birgi Italian Air Force base.
- The Italian Air Force signed an agreement with Piaggio Aerospace to buy three Unmanned Aerial System P.1HH HammerHead (six aircraft and three ground control stations) with delivery starting from the early months of 2016. United Arab Emirates Air Force ordered eight P.1HH aircraft. On 31 May 2016 the first P.1HH prototype crashed off the Sicilian coast, delaying flight testing for thirteen months during construction of a second prototype. Piaggio flew the second prototype at Trapani–Birgi military airport on 5 July 2017 The UAE was to take delivery of six P.1HHs in 2018 and the remaining two in 2019, however by November 2018, no P.1HHs had been delivered and Piaggio Aerospace requested to be placed into receivership.
- Piaggio develops with Leonardo, the Italian and UAE Armed Forces a P.1HH successor for 2023, with a new wing, more composite materials, and re-thought systems. With a larger wing and airframe, maximum endurance rose to 30h, but following the 2018 Italian election, the country's €766 million program for 20 aircraft and 10 control stations was suspended.
The Avanti is operated by charter companies and small feeder airlines, and is also used as a business aircraft. The fractional aircraft operator Avantair was Piaggio's largest client, with a fleet of 57 Avanti aircraft, before they went bankrupt and the fleet was liquidated.
A Piaggio Avanti San Diego-to-Charleston flight in 2003, piloted by Joe Ritchie with co-pilot Steve Fossett, set National Aeronautic Association and Fédération Aéronautique Internationale transcontinental speed records with an average speed of 475.2 knots (880.1 km/h; 546.9 mph), breaking the previous Los Angeles to New York turboprop record of 395.21 knots set by Chuck Yeager in 1986 in a Piper Cheyenne 400LS. Elapsed time for the Avanti's coast-to-coast trip was 3:51:52.
- Italian Air Force operates 17 Piaggio P.180 Avanti since 1994
- Italian Army
- Italian Navy
- Guardia di Finanza
- Corps of the Port Captaincies – Coast Guard
- Polizia di Stato
- Corpo Forestale dello Stato
- Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco
- Ente Nazionale per l'Assistenza al Volo
- Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State ATM Corporation" – 1 (1 Avanti II)
- United Arab Emirates
Specifications (P180 Avanti EVO)Edit
Data from Aviation Week
- Crew: 1
- Capacity: 7–9
- Length: 14.4 m (47.3 ft)
- Wingspan: 14.0 m (46.0 ft)
- Height: 4.0 m (13.0 ft)
- Wing area: 16.0 m2 (172 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: 12.3
- Empty weight: 3,799 kg (8,375 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 5,488 kg (12,100 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 1,271 kg (2,802 lb)
- Max Landing weight : 5,216 kg (11,500 lb)
- Max Zero Fuel weight : 4,445 kg (9,800 lb)
- Cabin : 17.5 ft long, 5.8 ft high, 6.1 ft wide (3.5 ft floor)
- Foreplane area: 2.19 m² (23.59 ft²)
- Horizontal stabilizer area: 3.83 m² (41.27 ft²)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66B turboprop, 630 kW (850 shp) each ISA+28C Flat Rated
- Maximum speed: 740 km/h (460 mph, 400 kn) FL310 high speed cruise
- Cruise speed: 589 km/h (366 mph, 318 kn) FL410 long range cruise
- Minimum control speed: 190 km/h (120 mph, 100 kn) Vmca
- Range: 2,800 km (1,740 mi, 1,510 nmi) 4 passengers, NBAA IFR, 100-nm alternate
- Ferry range: 2,830 km (1,760 mi, 1,530 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 12,000 m (41,000 ft)
- Time to altitude: 10 min to FL 250
- Wing loading: 343 kg/m2 (70.3 lb/sq ft)
- Fuel consumption: 0.220 kg/km (0.779 lb/mi)
- Power/mass: 230 W/kg (0.14 hp/lb)
- Takeoff (SL, ISA) : 994 m (3,262 ft)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- US patent 4746081, Mazzoni, Alessandro, "Aircraft having three lift surfaces", published 27 May 1982, issued 1988-05-24, assigned to Industrie Aeronautiche e Rinaldo Piaggio S.p.A.
- Murdo Morrison (12 October 2018). "NBAA: Business jet designs that changed the industry". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
- "Purchase Planning Handbook" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week Network. June 2019.
- "Fuel Miser". Flying Magazine. 30 December 2008. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- Weiner, Eric (5 June 1989). "Innovative Plane Making Its Debut". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
Like the Starship, the Piaggio Avanti features a canard and rear-mounted engines. But the Avanti is made mostly of aluminum, not composites. It weighs thousands of pounds less than the Starship and is about 60 m.p.h. faster.
- Martin, Ed (29 October 1989). "Business Jets Ready For Takeoff". Chicago Tribune. Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
This is the futuristic Piaggio Avanti. It, and a handful of other avant-garde designs like it are leading American business aviation into the 1990s.
- "Dr. Jan Roskam Project Advisor". DARcorp. Design, Analysis and Research Corporation. Archived from the original on 18 February 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
Jan Roskam managed the low speed and transonic speed windtunnel programs for the SIAI Marchetti S-211 and Piaggio 180-Avanti.
- Roskam, Jan (2002). Roskam's airplane war stories : an account of the professional life and work of Dr. Jan Roskam, airplane designer and teacher. Lawrence, Kan: DARcorporation. pp. 195–198. ISBN 9781884885570.
- Cozzolino, A. (20 June 2006). "Research Investment & Commercial Success : Piaggio Aero Industries" (PDF). Sustainable Solutions for New Horizons. Fifth Community Aeronautics Days. Vienna: BMVIT. pp. 11–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "Dr. Alessandro Mazzoni". M3 Aviation Inc. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
As Director of Engineering for I.A.M. Rinaldo Piaggio from 1974 to 1991, he designed the P.180 Avanti, and is the US Patent holder (4746081) for the Three Lifting Surface Configuration (3LSC) aircraft.
- US patent D280892, Mazzoni, Alessandro, "Aircraft ornamental design", published 10 June 1982, issued 1985-10-08, assigned to Rinaldo Piaggio S.p.A.
- Kleinfield, N. R. (14 December 1984). "BUSINESS PEOPLE; GATES LEARJET PICKS 2-DIVISION MANAGER". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
Mr. Neal… …will also direct and coordinate the company's role in developing the new Gates Piaggio business aircraft, designated the GP-180.
- "Avanti doubts composite benefit" (PDF). Flight International. 12 October 1985. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
It is manufactured using techniques 'unique' to an aircraft of its size, according to Ronald Neal, the manager who heads Gates Learjet's involvement with the aircraft, currently limited to fuselage construction.
- Huber, Mark (September 2002). "Piaggio Avanti". Business Jet Traveler. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- Gerzanics, Mike (22 January 2002). "Pushing the envelope". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Hodgkins, Stan (26 May 2011). "Piaggio Avanti II". P1 Magazine. Cambridge. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- "The Sexy Avanti P180". Airport Journals. 1 June 2002. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Taylor 1988, p. 163
- "Italy certificates Avanti". Flight International. 21 March 1990. p. 19. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- "EASA TCDS EASA.A.059 Piaggio P.180" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2012.
- Taylor 1999, p. 439
- De'Pompeis, Roberto; Cinquetti, Paolo; Martini, P.I. Sergio (1 April 1991). "Development and Certification Flight Test on the Piaggio P.180 Avanti Aircraft: A General Overview". SAE Technical Paper. SAE Technical Paper Series. 1. doi:10.4271/911003.
- "NBAA: Piaggio embarks on 'new phase' of jet development", Flight global, 19 October 2010, archived from the original on 6 December 2014
- Morrison, Murdo (6 December 2011). "IN FOCUS: Piaggio looks to special missions market with P180 Avanti and new jet". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- George, Fred (October 2010). "Piaggio P180 Avanti II". Aviation Week. p. 40. Archived from the original on 7 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
Perhaps its greatest asset is being the world’s most eco-friendly, twin-turbine business aircraft.
- Goyer, Robert (19 April 2012). "Piaggio P.180 Avanti II". Flying. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
Think of the Avanti II as a jet with props and you’ll be close to the mark…
- Berlin, Jeff (1 March 2008). "Ciao, Avanti". Plane & Pilot. Madavor Media. Archived from the original on 15 July 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Fogelson, Jason (18 April 2012). "Piaggio's P180 Avanti II Turboprop Challenges Executive Jets". Forbes. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012.
- Reeves, Benjamin (6 April 2012). "Piaggio Aero P180 Avanti II: Too Much Private Plane Or Just Right?". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 3 May 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Barnard, Bailey S. (4 April 2014). "Test Flight: Piaggio Aero P.180 Avanti II". Robb Report. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
- Bergqvist, Pia (17 September 2014). "Fastest Airplanes: Top Performers in Their Class". Flying. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Murdo Morrison (29 November 2018). "What went wrong at Piaggio and is there a way back?". Flight Global. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "First Avanti EVO Delivered from New Piaggio Plant". Aviation Week. 1 November 2016. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
- Kate Sarsfield (24 June 2019). "Italian government throws Piaggio €700 million lifeline". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- Piaggio Aerospace’s Avanti EVO receives EASA and FAA certification for landing gear system, 2 October 2015
- Garrison, Peter (December 2002), "Three's Company", Flying Magazine, archived from the original on 18 October 2018, retrieved 22 October 2016
- "P180 Avanti-Specification and Description". Piaggio. January 2005. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- Aircraft Configuration Study for Experimental 2-Place Aircraft and RPVs, DTIC, March 1990, archived from the original on 8 April 2013, retrieved 2 June 2012
- Des couacs chez les canards [Quacks in the canards (ducks)] (diagram) (in French), FR, page bottom, archived from the original on 22 May 2012, retrieved 13 May 2012
- Gregorek, Gerald (1 September 2007). "A Word From the Doctor". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
The Avanti was one of the highlights of my career. The laminar flow airfoils were very clean sheet. I think they were the first of the new breed of laminar flow airfoils that demonstrated high performance at transonic speeds.
- "Efficiency", P.180, Piaggio Aero, archived from the original on 7 May 2006
- Collins, Peter (1 November 2005), "Flight Test: Piaggio Avanti II – Hard to beat", Flight International, archived from the original on 16 July 2012, retrieved 3 January 2012
- Black, Gary (March 1990), "Aircraft Configuration Study for Experimental 2-Place Aircraft and RPVs", Naval Postgraduate School Thesis, archived from the original on 8 April 2013
- "Tonal and Broadband Noise Calculations for Aeroacoustic Optimization of a Pusher Propeller", Journal of Aircraft, 47 (3), May–June 2010, archived from the original on 4 May 2011, retrieved 28 December 2011
- "FAA Stage Classifications", Aircraft Noise Terminology, Palm Beach International Airport, retrieved 13 December 2011[dead link]
- Noise Levels for U.S. Certificated and Foreign Aircraft, Federal Aviation Administration, 15 February 2001, archived from the original on 31 October 2012, retrieved 16 October 2012
- Urquhart, Janet (9 September 2011). "Aspen airport gets earful about noisy airplane". Aspen Times. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
Operation of the P180 has climbed onto lists maintained by the airport, which tracks noise events and noise complaints, though the aircraft is actually quieter, in terms of decibels, than some private jets, according to Paul Dunholter, noise consultant for the airport. It’s the pitch that’s noticeable.
- Miguel-Navarro, Tracy X. (25 April 2010). "Naples airport addressing noise complaints with Avanti aircraft". Naples Daily News. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Niles, Russ (13 December 2011). "Naples Targets Piaggio Noise". AVweb. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "P180 Avanti II". Piaggio. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- Sarsfield, Kate (7 August 2014), "Hartzell to supply propellers for new Avanti EVO", Flight Global, Reed Business Information, archived from the original on 9 August 2014, retrieved 9 August 2014
- George, Fred (20 May 2014). "Avanti Launches EVO: An Improved Avanti II". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "P180 Avanti EVO". Avanti EVO dedicated site. Piaggio Aerospace. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "TCDS EASA.A.059 Issue 10". EASA. European Aviation Safety Agency. 23 May 2017. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "TCDS A59EU Rev 22 Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A." (PDF). Regulatory and Guidance Library. Federal Aviation Administration. 6 July 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- Piaggio Says Chinese Like Italian Style Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 November 2014
- Grady, Mary (22 May 2017). "New Piaggio Avanti Evo Twin Turboprop Takes Flight". Robb Report. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
The new Piaggio planes are flying out of Southern California…
- Reed Business Information Limited (21 April 2015). "Piaggio Avanti Evo enters service". flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- Huettel, Steve (4 July 2010). "Air Ambulance Worldwide helps critically ill patients around the globe". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the original on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
Mark Jones describes his company’s newest ambulance, the Piaggio P180, as 'a turboprop that thinks it’s a jet.'
- "Avanti EVO deliveries begin". AOPA Pilot: 48. March 2015.
- Sweetman, Bill (11 July 2012). "Piaggio, Saab Tackle Ambitious MPA Program". Aviation Week. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Bergqvist, Pia (10 November 2015). "Piaggio Rolls Out MPA". Flying. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
Italian twin-turboprop modified for military missions.
- Tomkins, Richard (16 November 2016). "New multirole aircraft shown by Piaggio Aerospace". UPI. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
Piaggio Aerospace has rolled out a new multi-role aircraft it is developing with a company from the United Arab Emirates.
- Davies, Alex (19 June 2013). "The Italian Air Force Is Buying 10 Of These Strange-Looking Drones". Business Insider. New York. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- "Piaggio Aero Industries unveils at the 2013 Paris Air Show – DETAIL – Selex ES". Archived from the original on 11 May 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Osborne, Tony (18 February 2013). "Piaggio Reveals Unmanned Avanti". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
The Hammerhead will be controlled from mission control stations produced by Selex, with line of sight and beyond line of sight using satellite communications.
- Eshel, Tamir (26 February 2015). "Italian Air Force to acquire six HammerHead MALE UAVs". Defense Update. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- Kington, Tom (26 February 2015). "Italian AF First To Buy HammerHead UAV". USA Today. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- "First Flight of the P.1HH HammerHead UAS". YouTube. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "L'Aeronautica "cliente di lancio" del Piaggio P.1HH – Analisi Difesa". analisidifesa.it. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- Chong, Jordan (27 February 2017). "Piaggio looks to increase awareness in Australia at Avalon". Australian Aviation. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Stevenson, Beth (6 March 2016). "UAE announced as first export customer for Hammerhead UAV". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- Kington, Tom (1 June 2016). "Piaggio Aero Drone Prototype Crashes in Mediterranean". Defense News. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
Given that the crashed aircraft was the only version flying, the delivery schedule may suffer while investigators seek the cause of the incident.
- Morrison, Murdo (22 November 2016). "INTERVIEW: Piaggio chief executive Renato Vaghi". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
- Morrison, Murdo (6 July 2017). "Piaggio resumes flight testing of P.1HH HammerHead UAV". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
- Murdo Morrison (6 June 2018). "Piaggio developing successor to P.1HH UAV". FlightGlobal.
- "Avantair, Inc. Reports Fiscal 2012 Third Quarter Financial Results, See "fleet of 57 aircraft" at bottom of page". Archived from the original on 24 June 2012.
- Chad Trautvetter. "Selling Off Avantair, Piece by Piece | Aviation International News". Ainonline.com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- John Morris (22 May 2017). "Piaggio Steps Up Its Comeback". ShowNews. Aviation Week Network. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2017.
- "Avanti EVO now available in MedEvac". FlyCorporate. 10 March 2017. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- "FAI Record ID #7631". FAI portal. Fédération Aéronautique Internationale. Retrieved 16 June 2017.[permanent dead link]
- Harrison, Kirby J. (4 August 2008). "Piaggio gets confirmation of Avanti speed records". AINonline. Aviation International News. Archived from the original on 5 September 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Aboulafia, Richard. Jane's Civil Aircraft, 1996, Harper Collins, p. 197
- "RCMP sells sleek plane for half of asking price". CBC News. 24 July 2014. Archived from the original on 17 September 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- Taylor 1999, pp. 438–39.
- "P 180". Aeronautica Militare. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- "Siglato accordo tra AM e Protezione civile", Aeronautica [Air Force] (in Italian), IT: Difesa[dead link]
- Flight International 15–21 December 2009, p. 43
- "Servizio aereo", Organizzazione centrale [Central organisations] (in Italian), IT: Carabinieri[dead link]
- "La flotta aerea", Servizio aeronavale [Aeronaval service] (in Italian), IT: GDF[dead link]
- P.180, IT: Guardia costiera, archived from the original on 5 June 2011
- Polizia di Stato [State police] (in Italian), IT, archived from the original on 3 September 2014, retrieved 29 August 2014
- Corpo forestale [Forest Corp] (in Italian), IT, archived from the original on 3 September 2014
- Piaggio aero, April 2007, archived from the original on 11 September 2005
- Servizi e attività [Services & activities] (in Italian), IT: Enav, archived from the original on 24 September 2015
- "O nas – Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe" [About Us – Polish Medical Air Rescue] (in Polish). Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- "State ATM Corporation Participates in International Aerospace Show MAKS-2017". Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- Peaford, Alan (15 June 2009). "PARIS AIR SHOW: UAE selects Piaggio Avanti for multi-utility role". Flightglobal. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
The United Arab Emirates air force has selected the Piaggio P180 Avanti II as part of a fleet expansion programme, which includes two of the business aircraft for use as light multi-utility aircraft.
- Gale, Ivan (15 June 2009). "Air Force purchases two aircraft from Italy's Piaggio Aero". The National. Abu Dhabi. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- "Operations Planning Guide" (PDF). Business & Commercial Aviation. Aviation Week. May 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2016.
- Taylor, John W.R. (ed.) Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
- Taylor, Michael J.H. (ed.) Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000 Edition. London: Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.
- "World Air Forces Directory 2009". Flight International, 15–21 December 2009, pp. 33–53.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Piaggio P180.|
- Official website
- "Final Report HCLJ510-2011-33 N108GF". Accident Investigation Board Denmark. 27 September 2012. p. 82.
- "Aircraft Comparitive Analysis – Piaggio P-180 Avanti II". AvBuyer. 8 January 2008.
- "Piaggio P180 Avanti II". Business & Commercial Aviation. October 2010.
- "Piaggio P.180 Avanti II". Flying magazine. 19 April 2012.
- Richard Ward (18 July 2018). "Pilot Report: Piaggio Avanti Evo". AIN online.