List of peasant revolts

  (Redirected from Peasant rebellion)

This is a chronological list of conflicts in which peasants played a significant role.

BackgroundEdit

 
The Cudgel War was the 16th century peasant uprising in Finland, which was at that time part of the Kingdom of Sweden.[1] Poltettu Kylä (Burned Village), by Albert Edelfelt, 1879

History of peasant wars spans over a period of over two thousand years. A variety of reasons fueled the emergence of the peasant revolt phenomenon, including:[2]

Later peasant revolts such as the Telangana Rebellion were also influenced by agrarian socialist ideologies such as Maoism.[3]

The majority of peasant rebellions ended prematurely and were unsuccessful. Peasants suffered from limited funding and lacked the training and organisational capabilities of professional armies.[4]

Chronological listEdit

The list gives the name, the date, the peasant allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

  Peasant victory
  Peasant defeat
  Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive)
  Ongoing conflict
Date Conflict State Peasants Result Image References
209–206 BC Anti-Qin revolts (including Dazexiang Uprising) Qin dynasty Peasants under several rebel leaders, including Chen Sheng, Wu Guang, Xiang Yu, and Liu Bang Qin dissolution [5]
205–186 BC Great revolt of the Egyptians   Ptolemaic Kingdom Native Egyptian peasants and soldiers under secessionist Pharaohs Hugronaphor and Ankhmakis Suppression of the rebellion [6]
17–25 Lülin Xin dynasty Lülin rebels Collapse of Xin dynasty; ascendancy of rebel leader Liu Xiu after infighting among Lülin forces
17–27 Red Eyebrows Xin dynasty Red Eyebrows rebels Goal of the rebellion partially achieved, but eventual defeat of the movement by Liu Xiu
172–173 Bucolic War   Roman Empire Egyptian peasants under Isidorus Suppression of the rebellion [7]
184–205 Yellow Turban Rebellion Han dynasty Yellow Turban rebels Suppression of the rebellion, though Han dynasty is severely weakened   [8]
185–205 Heishan bandit movement Han dynasty Bandit confederacy of the Taihang Mountains
Gongsun Zan's forces
Suppression of the rebellion, though Han dynasty is severely weakened
3rd–5th century Bagaudae   Roman Empire Bagaudae
Suebi
Gain control of some territory; end with the general collapse of the Roman Empire
4th–late 5th century Circumcellions   Roman Empire (until 435)
Catholic Church (until 435)
Vandal Kingdom (since 435)
African landlords
Berber and Roman peasants
Donatist authorities
Rebellious Roman military under Gildo (in 398)
End of Roman Catholic rule in Africa, but suppression of the rebellion by Vandals and Arian authorities [9]
611–619 Anti-Sui rebellions Sui dynasty Peasants under several rebel leaders
Defected military forces under several rebel generals, officials and nobles
Collapse of Sui dynasty; ascendancy of rebel leader Li Yuan after infighting among rebel forces
841–843 Stellinga Uprising Saxon nobility
Frankish military under Louis the German
Stellinga Suppression of the rebellion
859–860 Rebellion of Ch'iu Fu Tang dynasty Chinese peasants and bandits under Ch'iu Fu Suppression of the rebellion, though Tang dynasty is severely weakened [10]
874–878 Rebellion of Wang Xianzhi Tang dynasty Chinese peasants and bandits under Wang Xianzhi and Shang Junzhang Suppression of the rebellion, though Tang dynasty is severely weakened [11]
875–884 Rebellion of Huang Chao Tang dynasty Chinese peasants and bandits under Huang Chao Suppression of the rebellion, though Tang dynasty is severely weakened [12]
928–932 Basil the Copper Hand Rebellions   Byzantine Empire Peasants under Basil the Copper Hand Suppression of the rebellion [13]
993–995 Da Shu rebellion in Sichuan Song dynasty Peasants under Wang Xiaobo and Li Shun Suppression of the rebellion [14]
996 Peasants' revolt in Normandy Normandy under Rodulf of Ivry and Richard II, Duke of Normandy Norman peasants Suppression of the rebellion [15]
1277–1280 Uprising of Ivaylo   Bulgarian nobility
  Byzantine Empire
  Golden Horde
  Peasants under Ivaylo Murder of Ivaylo [16]
1323–1328 Peasant revolt in Flanders   Kingdom of France Flemish peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1343–1345 St. George's Night Uprising   Teutonic Order
  Kingdom of Denmark
Estonian peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [17]
1351–1368 Red Turban Rebellion Yuan dynasty
Goryeo
Red Turban Armies of White Lotus members, Manichaeans and Chinese peasants Fall of Yuan dynasty and retreat of the Mongols into Mongolia as the Northern Yuan dynasty; ascendancy of rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang after infighting among rebel forces
1358 Jacquerie   Kingdom of France French peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1381 Peasants' Revolt   Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1382 Harelle   Kingdom of France French peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [18]
1401–1404, 1409 Samogitian uprisings   Teutonic Order
  Švitrigaila's followers
Samogitian peasants
  Grand Duchy of Lithuania
  Kingdom of Poland
Goal of the rebellion largely achieved, though disputes over Samogitia continue until 1422
1428 Shocho uprising   Ashikaga shogunate Japanese peasants Peasant debts cancelled.
1437 Transylvanian peasant revolt   Kingdom of Hungary Transylvanian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1438 Hallvard Graatops Revolt   Kalmar Union Norwegian peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1441 Kakitsu uprising   Ashikaga shogunate Do-ikki (leagues) of peasants and jizamurai Peasant debts cancelled, Ashikaga shogunate is severely weakened.   [19]
1441 Funen and Jutland Peasant rebellions   Kingdom of Denmark Danish peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1450 Jack Cade Revolt   Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [20]
1450–1451 John and William Merfold's Uprising   Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [21]
1453–1454 Morea revolt of 1453–54   Despotate of the Morea
  Ottoman Empire
Greek peasants under Manuel Kantakouzenos
Albanians under Peter Bua
  Latin loyalists under John Asen Zaccaria
Suppression of the rebellion [22]
1462–1472, 1485–1486 War of the Remences   Catalan constitutionalists and nobility (1462–1472)
  Crown of Aragon (1485–1486)
Catalan peasants
  Royalists under John II of Aragon (1462–1472)
Goal of the rebellion largely achieved, Sentència de Guadalupe signed   [23]
1467–1469 Galician Irmandiños Revolt Kingdom of Galicia (Crown of Castille) Galician peasants, led by Galician burgeoisie and part of the local lower nobility Suppression of the rebellion by feudal armies [24]
1478 Carinthian Peasant Revolt   Holy Roman Empire Carinthian peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [25]
1482–1511 Yamashiro-ikki uprisings   Ashikaga shogunate Yamashiro peasant leagues
Hatakeyama clan
  Hosokawa clan
  Ōuchi clan
Most ikki submit to the shogunate in 1493, though continue to retain autonomy until gradual dissolution of the movement [26]
1487–1488 Kaga Rebellion Togashi clan Ikkō-ikki
Motoori clan
Yamagawa clan
Decisive victory for the Ikkō-ikki.   [27]
1488–1582 Ikkō-ikki Uprisings Several major samurai clans (including Oda clan and Tokugawa clan)
Nichiren sect
Tendai sōhei
Jōdo-shū sōhei
Ikkō-shū peasant and ji-samurai leagues
Jōdo Shinshū sōhei
  Mōri clan
  Azai clan
  Asakura clan
Destruction of most militant Ikkō-shū leagues; Jōdo Shinshū sect and remaining Ikkō-ikki submit to Toyotomi Hideyoshi   [28]
1498–1878 Opryshky movement   Kingdom of Poland
  Holy Roman Empire
Ukrainian peasants Suppression of the movement  
1511 Friulian Revolt   Republic of Venice Friulian peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1514 Poor Conrad Rebellion   Duchy of Württemberg Württemberg peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [29]
1514 György Dózsa Rebellion   Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [30]
1515 Slovene Peasant Revolt   Holy Roman Empire Slovene peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [31]
1515–1523 Frisian peasant rebellion   Habsburg Netherlands   Arumer Zwarte Hoop
  Charles II, Duke of Guelders
Suppression of the rebellion  
1516–1521 Trần Cảo Rebellion Lê dynasty Vietnamese peasants under Trần Cảo and Trần Cung Suppression of the rebellion, though Lê dynasty is severely weakened [32]
1524–1525 German Peasants' War   Swabian League German peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1524–1533 Dalecarlian Rebellions   Sweden Dalarna peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1525 Palatine Peasants' War   Electoral Palatinate Palatine peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1534 Skipper Clement's Rebellion   Christian III
  Kingdom of Denmark
Danish Peasants under Skipper Clement
  Christian II
Suppression of the rebellion  
1540 Peasant's Rebellion in Telemark   Denmark–Norway Norwegian peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1542–1543 Dacke War   Sweden Småland peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [33]
1549 Kett's Rebellion   Kingdom of England English peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1573 Croatian–Slovene Peasant Revolt   Holy Roman Empire

Kingdom of Croatia

Slovene peasants
Croatian peasants
Suppression of the rebellion   [34]
1596–1597 Cudgel War   Sweden Finnish peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [35]
1606–1607 Bolotnikov Rebellion   Tsardom of Russia Russian peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1626–1636 Peasants' War in Upper Austria   Electorate of Bavaria Austrian peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [36]
1630–1645 Rebellion of Li Zicheng Ming dynasty (1630–1644)
  Qing Dynasty (1644–1645)
Peasants under Li Zicheng, Gao Guiying and other generals of the Shun dynasty Collapse of Ming dynasty, but suppression of the rebellion by Qing dynasty
1630–1647 Rebellion of Zhang Xianzhong Ming dynasty (1630–1644)
  Qing Dynasty (1644–1647)
Peasants and bandits under Zhang Xianzhong Collapse of Ming dynasty, but suppression of the rebellion by Qing dynasty [37]
1635 Second Slovene peasants' revolt   Holy Roman Empire Peasants under a scattered leadership of verious leaders Suppression of the rebellion
1637–1638 Shimabara Rebellion   Tokugawa shogunate
  Dutch Empire
Christian peasants and rōnin Suppression of the rebellion   [38]
1651 Kostka-Napierski Uprising   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [39]
1652 Guo Huaiyi Rebellion Dutch East India Company
Aboriginal Taiwanese
Chinese peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1653 Swiss peasant war of 1653   Republic of the Swiss Swiss peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [40]
1667–1671 Stepan Razin Rebellion   Tsardom of Russia Russian peasants
Don Cossacks
Suppression of the rebellion   [41]
1669–1670 Peasant Rebellion in Podhale   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [42]
1704 Kuridža's Rebellion   Republic of Venice Orthodox peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1705–1706 Bavarian People's Uprising   Habsburg Monarchy Bavarian peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1707–1708 Bulavin Rebellion   Tsardom of Russia Russian peasants
Don Cossacks
Suppression of the rebellion
1713 Slovene peasant revolt in Tolmin   Holy Roman Empire Peasants under a scattered leadership of verious leaders, including Ivan Miklavčič Suppression of the rebellion
1730–1769 Peasant revolts for the restoration of the Lê dynasty and land reforms Trịnh lords
Nguyễn lords
Vietnamese peasants
Lê dynasty
Suppression of the rebellions and eventual collapse of Lê dynasty, but start of Tây Sơn Revolt
1743 Dalecarlian rebellion   Sweden Swedish peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1765 Strilekrigen   Denmark-Norway Norwegian peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1768–1769 Koliyivshchyna   Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
  Russian Empire
Haidamaka movement Suppression of the rebellion  
1769–1788 Tây Sơn Revolt Nguyễn lords (until 1776)
Nguyễn Ánh's forces (since 1776)
Trịnh lords (until 1786)
  Siam (in 1785)
Lê dynasty (1786-1788)
  Qing Dynasty (1787-1788)
Tây Sơn dynasty Goal of the rebellion achieved; reunification of Vietnam and introduction of land reforms under Tây Sơn dynasty  
1773–1775 Pugachev's Rebellion   Russian Empire Russian peasants
Ural Cossacks
Bashkirs
Suppression of the rebellion   [43]
1784 Revolt of Horea, Cloșca and Crișan   Austrian Empire Romanian peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [44]
1786–1787 Lofthusreisingen   Denmark-Norway Norwegian peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1786–1787 Shays' Rebellion   United States American farmers Suppression of the rebellion  
1790 Saxon Peasants' Revolt   Saxony Saxon peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [45]
1791–1794 Whisky Rebellion   United States American farmers Suppression of the rebellion.
1793–1796 War in the Vendée   French Republic   Catholic and Royal Army
  Chouan rebels
  Émigrés
  Great Britain
Suppression of the rebellion  
1793–1804 Chouannerie   French Republic   Chouan rebels
  Catholic and Royal Army
  Émigrés
  Great Britain
Suppression of the rebellion  
1794 Kościuszko Uprising   Russian Empire
  Kingdom of Prussia
Polish loyalists
  Polish nationalist nobility
  Polish peasants
  Polish Jacobins
Suppression of the rebellion   [46]
1794–1804 White Lotus Rebellion   Qing Dynasty White Lotus rebels Suppression of the rebellion
1798 Peasants' War   French Republic   Low countries peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [47]
1800–1802 Lærdal Rebellion   Denmark-Norway Norwegian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [48]
1809 Tyrolean Rebellion   French Empire
  Bavaria
  Saxony
  Napoleonic Italy
  Tyrolean peasants
  Austria
Suppression of the rebellion  
1809 Gottscheer Rebellion   First French Empire   Gottschee German peasants
Slovene peasants
Suppression of the rebellion
1811 Klågerup riots   Sweden Swedish peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1826–1854 Peasant uprisings during the reign of Nicholas I of Russia   Russian Empire Russian peasants About 556 small-scale rural uprisings took place during Nicholas' reign. All were suppressed, but contributed to the Russian Emperor's reluctance to end the serfdom in Russia. [49]
1834–1835 Syrian Peasant Revolt (1834–35)   Egypt Eyalet Arab peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [50]
1839–1845 Anti-Rent War   United States American tenant farmers initially suppressed by the state militia, rebel anti-rent leaders arrested though they were either pardoned or not sentenced, anti-renters continued to rebel decades after the trials, the Antirenter party was formed and tenant rights were granted.  
1846 Galician slaughter   Austrian Empire Polish peasants De facto suppression of the rebellion, although it was sparked and extinguished by the Austrian authorities and eventually led to abolition of serfdom in Galicia and Lodomeria two years later.   [51]
1850–1864 Taiping Rebellion   Qing Dynasty Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Suppression of the rebellion  
1858 Mahtra War   Russian Empire Estonian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [52]
1861 Bezdna unrest   Russian Empire Russian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [53]
1862 Great Peasant Uprising of 1862   Joseon Dynasty Korean peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1884 Chichibu Incident   Japan Japanese peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1894–1895 Donghak Peasant Revolution   Japan
  Joseon Dynasty
Korean peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1896–1897 War of Canudos   First Brazilian Republic Canudos inhabitants Suppression of the rebellion  
1905–1908 Maji Maji Rebellion   German East Africa Matumbi people, Ngoni people, and other Tanganyikans Suppression of the rebellion   [54]
1907 1907 Romanian Peasants' Revolt   Kingdom of Romania Romanian peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1911 Peasant rebellion in eastern Henan   Qing dynasty Yellow Way Society Suppression of the rebellion [55][56]
1913 Peasant revolt in Northern Shaanxi   Republic of China Chinese poppy farmers and bandits under a sect leader Spread of the revolt; poppy plant eradication campaign stopped [57]
1914 Peasant Revolt in Albania   Principality of Albania
Catholic Militia
Muslim peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1916 Urkun   Russian Empire Kyrgyz and Kazakh peasants Suppression of the rebellion [58]
1917 October Revolution   Russia Russian peasants and workers Beginning of the Russian Civil War
1918 Arsk Uprising   Russian SFSR Tatar peasants Suppression of the rebellion
1919–1922 Rebellion of "Chu the Ninth" (Ming pretender)   Republic of China Yellow Way Society Suppression of the rebellion [59]
1920 Pitchfork uprising   Russian SFSR "Black Eagle" rebels Suppression of the rebellion
1920–1921 Tambov Rebellion   Russian SFSR   Green armies Suppression of the rebellion
1920–1926 Spirit Soldier rebellions of eastern Sichuan and western Hubei   Republic of China Spirit Soldier rebels, allied warlord forces Stalemate: Large Spirit Soldier armies are destroyed, but movement persists [60][61][62]
1921 Peasant Rebellion of Sorokino   Russian SFSR Russian peasants and White Army veterans Suppression of the rebellion
1921 Malabar rebellion   India Indian peasants Suppression of the rebellion   [63]
1924 Rebellion of "Wang the Sixth" (Ming pretender)   Republic of China Wang's followers Suppression of the rebellion [59]
1925 Rebellion of Chu Hung-teng (Ming pretender)   Republic of China Heavenly Gate Society Suppression of the rebellion [64]
1927 Autumn Harvest Uprising   Republic of China   Hunan Soviet Suppression of the rebellion
1928–1929 Red Spears' uprising in Shandong   Republic of China Red Spear Society Suppression of the rebellion [65]
1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre   El Salvador Salvadoran peasants Suppression of the rebellion  
1932 Lesko uprising   Poland Polish peasants Suppression of the rebellion [66]
1932 Peasant uprising against poppy-tax collection in Su County   Republic of China
  Kuomintang members and allied gentry
Chinese poppy farmers and gentry under Wang Xiaobai and Ma Fengshan Suppression of the rebellion [67]
1932 Peasant uprising against poppy-tax collection in Lingbi County   Republic of China Chinese poppy farmers under Tian Xuemin Goal of the rebellion achieved [68]
1936 Miyun District rebellion   East Hebei Autonomous Council
  Empire of Japan
Yellow Sand Society Suppression of the rebellion [69][70]
1944 Peasant revolt in Beichuan County   Republic of China Chinese poppy farmers of Xiaoyuan and Houyuan Goal of the rebellion achieved [71]
1946–1951 Tebhaga movement Bengal landlords Bengal peasants (All India Kisan Sabha)
  Communist Party of India
Goal of the rebellion partially achieved [72]
1946–1951 Telangana Rebellion   Razakars
Hyderabad landlords
  Hyderabad State
Hyderabad peasants (Andhra Mahasabha)
  Communist Party of India
Goal of the rebellion achieved   [73]
1947-1954 Hukbalahap Rebellion   Philippines Filipino peasants (Hukbalahap) Suppression of the rebellion [74]
1949 Nankar Rebellion   Pakistan
Various Bengali Zamindars
Communist Party and Peasants Association Goal of the rebellion achieved [75]
1950 Cazin rebellion   Yugoslavia Yugoslavian peasants Suppression of the rebellion [76]
1952–1960 Mau Mau Uprising   British Kenya Kikuyu farmhanders Suppression of the rebellion  
1958 Rebellion at Fuzhou, Jiangxi   China Dacheng sects Suppression of the rebellion [77]
1958 Rebellion at Yongjing County   China Rural rebels Suppression of the rebellion [78]
1959–1965 Escambray Rebellion   Cuba Cuban peasants
  Batista loyalists
  DRE
  United States
Suppression of the rebellion
1959 Peasant rebellion at Sizhuang, Henan   China "Regiment of Spirit Soldiers" Suppression of the rebellion [78]
1960 Rebellion at Yongnian County   China New Star Society Suppression of the rebellion [79]
1968–1969 Agbekoya   Nigeria Yoruba peasants Goal of the rebellion achieved
1969 Rebellion at Changchun   China Nine Palaces Way Suppression of the rebellion [80]
1969 Rebellion at Shuangyang County   China Mount Wutai sect Suppression of the rebellion [80]
1970s 1970s peasant revolts in Thailand   Thailand Thai peasants Peasant leaders assassinated  
1975–1991 Uprisings in Tigray and Eritrea; part of the Ethiopian Civil War   Ethiopia Tigrayan and Eritrean peasants Derg overthrown; Eritrean independence [81]
1994 Zapatista uprising   Mexico Mexican indigenous peasants Ceasefire  

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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SourcesEdit