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Panipat About this soundpronunciation , is a historic city in Haryana, India. It is 90 km north of Delhi and 169 km south of Chandigarh on NH-1. The three battles fought near the city in 1526, 1556 and 1761 were all turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of "City of Weavers" and "Textile City". It is also known as the "cast-off capital" due to being "the global centre for recycling textiles".[2]

Panipat
City
Panipat is located in Haryana
Panipat
Panipat
Location in Haryana, India
Panipat is located in India
Panipat
Panipat
Panipat (India)
Coordinates: 29°23′N 76°58′E / 29.39°N 76.97°E / 29.39; 76.97Coordinates: 29°23′N 76°58′E / 29.39°N 76.97°E / 29.39; 76.97
Country India
StateHaryana
DistrictPanipat
Area
 • Total64 km2 (25 sq mi)
Elevation
219 m (719 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total295,970
 • Density4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Language
 • OfficialHindi, Punjabi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
132103
Telephone code0180
ISO 3166 codeIN-HR
Vehicle registrationHR-06 (Private Vehicles) HR-67 (Commercial Vehicles)
Websitehttp://panipat.gov.in

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Statue of the Hindu Emperor of Delhi in 1556 Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, at Panipat, who lost his life in the Second Battle of Panipat

Panipat district was carved out from the erstwhile Karnal district on 1 November 1989. On 24 July 1991 it was again merged with Karnal district. On 1 January 1992, it again became a separate district. According to the legend, Panipat was one of the five cities (prasthas) founded by the Pandava brothers during the times of the Mahabharata; its historic name was Pandavaprastha (Sanskrit: पाण्डवप्रस्थ, lit. city of Pandavas) Panipat was the scene of three pivotal battles in Indian history. Panipat is first recorded in the Mahabharata as one of the five villages that the Pandavas demanded from Duryodhana. The five villages are the "panch pat":

  • Panaprastha (now known as Panipat)
  • Suvarnaprastha (now known as Sonipat)
  • Indraprastha (now known as Delhi)
  • Vyaghraprastha became Baghpath (now known as Baghpat)
  • Tilaprastha (now known as Tilpat)

GeographyEdit

Panipat is located at 29°23′N 76°58′E / 29.39°N 76.97°E / 29.39; 76.97.[3] It has an average elevation of 219 metres (718 feet).

DemographicsEdit

As per 2011 census, the city had a population of 294,292.[1] Panipat's urban agglomeration had a population of 295,970. The literacy rate was about 83%.[4]

LandmarksEdit

Hemu's Samadhi SthalEdit

The wounded Hemu (a Hindu hero also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya) was captured by Shah Quli Khan in the Second Battle of Panipat and carried to the Mughal camp at Shodapur on Jind Road at Panipat.[5] According to Badayuni,[6] Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of Ghazi. Akbar replied, "He is already dead, if he had any strength for a duel, I would have killed him." After Akbar's refusal Hemu's body was denied honour by the Mughal battle tradition and was unceremoniously beheaded by Bairam Khan. Hemu's head was sent to Kabul where it was hung outside the Delhi Darwaza while his body was placed in a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi to terrorise Indians.[7]

Ibrahim Lodhi's TombEdit

It was one of Sher Shah Suri’s dying regrets that he could never fulfill his intention of erecting a tomb to the fallen monarch Ibrahim Lodhi. Much later, in 1866, the British relocated the tomb which was just a simple grave during construction of the Grand Trunk Road and added a platform to it with an inscription highlighting Ibrahim Lodhi’s death in the Battle of Panipat.[8][9][10]

Babur's Kabuli Bagh MosqueEdit

The garden of Kabuli Bagh along with the Kabuli Bagh Mosque and a tank were built by Babur after the First Battle of Panipat to commemorate his victory over Ibrahim Lodhi. Some years later when Humayun defeated Sher Shah Suri near Panipat, he added a masonry Platform to it and called it ‘Chabutra" Fateh Mubarak, bearing the inscription 934 Hijri (1557 CE). These buildings and the garden still exist under the name of Kabuli Bagh called so after Babur’s wife – Mussammat Kabuli begum.

Kala AmbEdit

According to the tradition, the site 8 km from Panipat and 42 km from Karnal, where Sadashiv Rao Bhau commanded his Maratha forces during the third battle of Panipat was marked by a black Mango Tree (Kala Amb) which has since disappeared. The dark colour of its foliage was probably the origin of the name. The site has a brick Pillar with an iron rod and the structure is surrounded by an iron fence. The site is being developed and beautified by a society with the Governor of Haryana as its president. Ror Maratha community of Haryana organises a programme every year in memory of Maratha warriors on the day of 14 January at Kala Amb in which many people from Haryana and Maharashtra participate.

Panipat SyndromeEdit

The term Panipat Syndrome has entered the lexicon as the lack of decisive action, preparedness and strategic thinking by Indian leaders thus allowing an invading army to enter well inside their territory. It was coined by Air Commodore Jasjit Singh.[11][12][13][14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Panipat City Population Census 2011". www.census2011.co.in.
  2. ^ "Panipat, the global centre for recycling textiles, is fading". The Economist. 7 September 2017.
  3. ^ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Panipat, India". www.fallingrain.com.
  4. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  5. ^ Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals: Part I: Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526). Har-Anand Publications. pp. 91–93. ISBN 9788124110669. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
  6. ^ Abdul Quadir Badayuni, Muntkhib-ul-Tawarikh, Volume 1, page 6
  7. ^ George Bruce Malleson (2001). Akbar and the rise of the Mughal Empire. Genesis Publishing Pvt. Ltd. p. 71. ISBN 9788177551785.
  8. ^ "Tomb of Ibrahim Lodi". Archived from the original on 14 May 2008.
  9. ^ "Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb in Panipat India". www.india9.com.
  10. ^ The tale of the missing Lodi tomb The Hindu, Jul 04, 2005.
  11. ^ http://www.dnaindia.com/lifestyle/books-and-more-the-indian-army-and-the-panipat-syndrome-1157996
  12. ^ "Raja Mandala: Breaking the Panipat syndrome". 4 October 2016.
  13. ^ "Why India suffers from the Panipat Syndrome".
  14. ^ http://www.indiandefencereview.com/spotlights/indian-defence-philosophy-a-no-win-concept/

External linksEdit