New Democratic Party

  (Redirected from New Democratic Party of Canada)

The New Democratic Party (NDP; French: Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democratic[3] federal political party in Canada. The party was founded in 1961 by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) and the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC).[15] On the political spectrum, the party sits to the left of the Liberal Party.[12][13][16][17]

New Democratic Party
Nouveau Parti démocratique
AbbreviationNDP (English)
NPD (French)
LeaderJagmeet Singh
PresidentDhananjai Kohli
National directorAnne McGrath
Deputy leaderAlexandre Boulerice
House leaderPeter Julian
FoundedAugust 3, 1961 (60 years ago) (1961-08-03)[1]
Preceded by
HeadquartersOttawa, Ontario
Youth wingCanada's Young New Democrats
Membership (2017)Increase 124,620[2]
Ideology
Political positionCentre-left[8][9][10][11] to
left-wing[12][13]
International affiliationProgressive Alliance
(2018–present)[a][14]
Union affiliateCanadian Labour Congress
Colours  Orange
Senate
0 / 105
House of Commons
25 / 338
Website
www.ndp.ca Edit this at Wikidata

The federal and provincial (or territorial) level NDPs are more integrated than other political parties in Canada, and have shared membership (except for the New Democratic Party of Quebec).[18] The NDP has never won the largest share of seats at the federal level. From 2011 to 2015, it formed the Official Opposition, but it is typically the third or fourth-largest party in the House of Commons. However, the party has held considerable influence during periods of minority government. Sub-national branches of the NDP have formed the government in six provinces (Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia) and the territory of Yukon.

Since 2017, the NDP has been led by Jagmeet Singh, who is the first Indo-Canadian to lead a major federal party in Canada. Following the 2021 Canadian federal election, it is currently the fourth-largest party in the House of Commons with 25 seats.

HistoryEdit

20th centuryEdit

 
Tommy Douglas, Leader: 1961–71

Origins and early historyEdit

In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party (NCNP), was formed to create a "new" social democratic political party, with ten members from each group. The NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, and six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles, policies and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected as its first leader.[19]

David LewisEdit

At the 1971 leadership convention, an activist group called The Waffle tried to take control of the party, but were defeated by David Lewis with the help of the union members. The following year, most of The Waffle split from the NDP and formed their own party. The NDP itself supported the minority government formed by the Pierre Trudeau–led Liberals from 1972 to 1974, although the two parties never entered into a coalition. Together, they succeeded in passing several socially progressive initiatives into law such as pension indexing and the creation of the crown corporation Petro-Canada.[20]

In 1974, the NDP worked with the Progressive Conservatives to pass a motion of non-confidence, forcing an election. However, it backfired as Trudeau's Liberals regained a majority government, mostly at the expense of the NDP, which lost half its seats. Lewis lost his own riding and resigned as leader the following year.

Ed BroadbentEdit

Under Ed Broadbent (1975–1989) the NDP attempted to find a more populist image to contrast with the governing parties, focusing on more pocketbook issues than on ideological fervour. The party played a critical role during Joe Clark's minority government of 1979–1980, moving the non-confidence motion on John Crosbie's 1979 budget that brought down the Progressive Conservative government, and forced the 1980 election that brought the Liberal Party back to power.

In the 1984 election, which saw the Progressive Conservatives under Brian Mulroney win the most seats in Canadian history, the NDP won 30 seats, while the governing Liberals fell to 40 seats. Struggles within the governing Progressive Conservatives and opposition Liberals would see dramatic rise in the NDP's polling fortunes.

The NDP set a then-record of 43 Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the house in the election of 1988. The Liberals, however, had reaped most of the benefits of opposing the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement to emerge as the dominant alternative to the ruling PC government. In 1989, Broadbent stepped down after 14 years as federal leader of the NDP.[21]

Audrey McLaughlinEdit

At the party's leadership convention in 1989, former B.C. Premier Dave Barrett and Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin were the main contenders for the leadership. During the campaign, Barrett argued that the party should be concerned with western alienation, rather than focusing its attention on Quebec. The Quebec wing of the NDP strongly opposed Barrett's candidacy, with Phil Edmonston, the party's main spokesman in Quebec, threatening to resign from the party if Barrett won.[22] McLaughlin ran on a more traditional approach, and became the first woman to lead a major Federal political party in Canada.

Although enjoying strong support among organized labour and rural voters in the Prairies, McLaughlin tried to expand their support into Quebec without much success. Under McLaughlin, the party did manage to win an election in Quebec for the first time when Edmonston won a 1990 by-election.

McLaughlin and the NDP were routed in the 1993 election, where the party won only nine seats, three seats short of official party status in the House of Commons. This was, and remains, the NDP's lowest seat total in any election since the party's founding in 1961; the election also resulted in the lowest-ever total number of votes received by the NDP in a federal election. The loss was blamed on the unpopularity of NDP provincial governments under Bob Rae in Ontario and Mike Harcourt in British Columbia and the loss of a significant portion of the Western vote to the Reform Party, which promised a more decentralized and democratic federation along with right-wing economic reforms.

Alexa McDonoughEdit

McLaughlin resigned in 1995 and was succeeded by Alexa McDonough, the former leader of the Nova Scotia NDP. In contrast to traditional Canadian practice, where an MP for a safe seat stands down to allow a newly elected leader a chance to enter Parliament via a by-election, McDonough opted to wait until the next election to enter Parliament.

The party recovered somewhat in the 1997 election, electing 21 members. The NDP made a breakthrough in Atlantic Canada, a region where they had been practically nonexistent at the federal level. Before 1997, they had won only three seats in the Atlantic in their entire history. However, in 1997 they won eight seats in that region. The party was able to harness the discontent of voters in the Atlantic, who were upset over cuts to employment insurance and other social programs implemented by Jean Chrétien's Liberal majority government.

In the November 2000 election, the NDP campaigned primarily on the issue of Medicare but lost significant support. The governing Liberals ran an effective campaign on their economic record and managed to recapture some of the Atlantic ridings lost to the NDP in the 1997 election. The initial high electoral prospects of the Canadian Alliance under new leader Stockwell Day also hurt the NDP as many supporters strategically voted Liberal to keep the Alliance from winning. The NDP finished with 13 MPs—just barely over the threshold for official party status.

McDonough announced her resignation as party leader for family reasons in June 2002 (effective upon her successor's election).

21st centuryEdit

 
Jack Layton was the first leader of the NDP to become Leader of the Official Opposition.

Jack LaytonEdit

A Toronto city councillor and recent President of the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, Jack Layton was elected at the party's leadership election in Toronto on January 25, 2003.[23]

The 2004 election produced mixed results for the NDP. It increased its total vote by more than a million votes; however, despite Layton's optimistic predictions of reaching 40 seats, the NDP only gained five seats in the election, for a total of 19. The party was disappointed to see its two Saskatchewan incumbents defeated in close races by the new Conservative Party (created by merger of the Alliance and PC parties), perhaps because of the unpopularity of the NDP provincial government.

The Liberals were re-elected, though this time as a minority government. Combined, the Liberals and NDP had 154 seats – one short of the total needed for the balance of power. As has been the case with Liberal minorities in the past, the NDP were in a position to make gains on the party's priorities, such as fighting health care privatization, fulfilling Canada's obligation to the Kyoto Protocol, and electoral reform. The party used Prime Minister Paul Martin's politically precarious position caused by the sponsorship scandal to force investment in multiple federal programs, agreeing not to help topple the government provided that some major concessions in the federal budget were ceded to.

On November 9, 2005, after the findings of the Gomery Inquiry were released, Layton notified the Liberal government that continued NDP support would require a ban on private healthcare. When the Liberals refused, Layton announced that he would introduce a motion on November 24 that would ask Martin to call a federal election in February to allow for several pieces of legislation to be passed. The Liberals turned down this offer. On November 28, 2005, Conservative leader Stephen Harper's motion of no confidence was seconded by Layton and it was passed by all three opposition parties, forcing an election.

During the election the NDP won 29 seats, a significant increase of 10 seats from the 19 won in 2004. It was the fourth-best performance in party history, approaching the level of popular support enjoyed in the 1980s. The NDP kept all of the 18 seats it held at the dissolution of Parliament. While the party gained no seats in Atlantic Canada, Quebec, or the Prairie provinces, it gained five seats in British Columbia, five more in Ontario and the Western Arctic riding of the Northwest Territories.

The Conservatives won a minority government in the 2006 election, and initially the NDP was the only party that would not be able to pass legislation with the Conservatives. However, following a series of floor crossings, the NDP also came to hold the balance of power. The NDP voted against the government in all four confidence votes in the 39th parliament, the only party to do so. However, it worked with the Conservatives on other issues, including in passing the Federal Accountability Act and pushing for changes to the Clean Air Act.

Following that election the NDP caucus rose to 30 members with the victory of NDP candidate Thomas Mulcair in a by-election in Outremont. This marked the second time ever (and first time in seventeen years) that the NDP won a riding in Quebec. The party won 37 seats in the 2008 federal election, the best performance since the 1988 total of 43. This included a breakthrough in the riding of Edmonton-Strathcona, only the second time the NDP had managed to win a seat in Alberta in the party's history.

In the 2011 federal election the NDP won a record 103 seats, becoming the Official Opposition for the first time in the party's history. The party had a historic breakthrough in Quebec, where they won 59 out of 75 seats, dominating Montreal and sweeping Quebec City and the Outaouais. This meant that a majority of the party's MPs now came from a province where they had only ever had two candidates elected in the party's history. The NDP's success in Quebec was mirrored by the collapse of the Bloc Québécois, which lost all but four of its 47 seats, and the collapse of the Liberal Party nationally, which was cut down to just 34 seats, its worst-ever result. This also marked the first time in history where the Liberal Party was neither the government nor the Official Opposition, as the NDP had taken over the latter role. The NDP was now the second largest party in the House of Commons opposing a Conservative majority government.

In July 2011, Layton announced that he was suffering from a new cancer and would take a leave of absence, projected to last until the resumption of Parliament in September. He would retain his position of NDP Leader and Leader of the Opposition. The party confirmed his suggestion of Hull—Aylmer MP Nycole Turmel to carry out the functions of party leader in his absence. Layton died from his cancer on August 22, 2011.

Tom MulcairEdit

In his final letter, Layton called for a leadership election to be held in early 2012 to choose his successor,[24] which was held on March 24, 2012, and elected new leader Tom Mulcair.[25]

Despite early campaign polls which showed the NDP in first place, the party lost 59 seats in the 2015 election and fell back to third place in Parliament. By winning 44 seats, Mulcair was able to secure the second best showing in the party's history, winning one more seat than Ed Broadbent managed in the 1988 election, but with a smaller share of the popular vote.[26] NDP seat gains in Saskatchewan and British Columbia were offset by numerical losses in almost every other region, while in Alberta and Manitoba the party maintained its existing seat counts. The party was locked out of the Atlantic Region and the Territories, and lost over half of its seats in Ontario including all of its seats in Toronto. In Quebec, the NDP lost seats to all three of the other major parties, namely the Liberals, Conservatives, and Bloc Québécois, though it managed to place second in both vote share (25.4%) and seats (16) behind the Liberals in the province. The election resulted in a Liberal majority government.

Mulcair's leadership faced criticism following the election, culminating in him losing a leadership review vote held at the NDP's policy convention in Edmonton, Alberta on April 10, 2016. This marked the first time in Canadian federal politics that a leader was defeated in a confidence vote.[27] Consequently, his successor was to be chosen at a leadership election to be held no later than October 2017, with Mulcair agreeing to remain as leader until then.[28]

Jagmeet SinghEdit

On October 1, 2017, Jagmeet Singh, the first person of a visible minority group to lead a major Canadian federal political party on a permanent basis, won the leadership vote to head the NDP on the first ballot.[29]

In the 2019 federal election, the NDP won only 24 seats in its worst result since 2004, shedding 15 seats.[30] Alexandre Boulerice was the only NDP incumbent to retain his seat in Quebec,[31] while the party lost all of its Saskatchewan ridings to the Conservatives.[32] The party remained shut out of Toronto[33] and lost two of its MPs in the rest of Ontario,[34] while making small or no gains in the popular vote in Manitoba, Newfoundland, Alberta and Nunavut. In British Columbia, the NDP lost three seats but were largely able to hold on to their support in the province.[35]

Following the election, the NDP held the balance of power as the Liberals won a minority government, although it fell back to fourth place behind the resurgent Bloc Québécois.[36][37] During the COVID-19 pandemic, the NDP used its leverage to lobby the Liberals to be more generous in their financial aid to Canadians, including by extending of the Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) program, which was a key demand in order to provide confidence to the government in the autumn of 2020.[38]

In the snap 2021 federal election, the NDP made minor gains in both vote share and seat count, winning in 25 ridings. The party also won a second seat in Alberta for the first time by electing Blake Desjarlais in Edmonton Griesbach and picked up two more seats in British Columbia.[39] These gains were offset by loses to the Liberals in St. John's East and Hamilton Mountain, both constituencies where the incumbent NDP candidate did not stand for re-election.[40][41] Overall, the election resulted in no change to the balance of power in the House of Commons.[42]

Ideology and policiesEdit

The NDP evolved in 1961 from a merger of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). The CCF grew from populist, agrarian and socialist roots into a modern social democratic party. Although the CCF was part of the Christian left and the Social Gospel movement,[43] the NDP is secular and pluralistic. It has broadened to include concerns of the New Left, and advocates issues such as LGBT rights, international peace, and environmental stewardship.[44] The NDP is also outspoken on indigenous rights.

Ideological orientationEdit

The NDP's constitution states that both social democracy and democratic socialism are influences on the party. Specific inclusion of the party's history as the continuation of the more radical Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, and specific identification of the "democratic socialist" tradition as a continuing influence on the party are part of the language of the preamble to the party's constitution:

New Democrats are proud of our political and activist heritage, and our long record of visionary, practical, and successful governments. That heritage and that record have distinguished and inspired our party since the creation of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in 1933 and the founding of the New Democratic Party in 1961. New Democrats seek a future that brings together the best of the insights and objectives of Canadians who, within the social democratic and democratic socialist traditions, have worked through farmer, labour, co-operative, feminist, human rights and environmental movements, and with First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples, to build a more just, equal, and sustainable Canada within a global community dedicated to the same goals.[45]

Health careEdit

The NDP states that it is committed to public health care. The party states that it fights for "a national, universal, public pharmacare program to make sure that all Canadians can access the prescription medicine they need with their health card, not their credit card – saving money and improving health outcomes for everyone".[46] The party also states its support for expanding services covered under the national health care system to include dental care, mental health care, eye and hearing care, infertility procedures, and prescription drugs. Regarding dentistry, the NDP notes that "one in three Canadians has no dental insurance and over six million people don't visit the dentist every year because they can't afford to. Too many people are forced to go without the care they need until the pain is so severe that they are forced to seek relief in hospital emergency rooms".[47]

Electoral achievementsEdit

Since its formation, the party has had a presence in the House of Commons. It was the third largest political party from 1965 to 1993, when the party dropped to fourth and lost official party status. The NDP's peak period of policy influence in those periods was during the minority Liberal governments of Lester B. Pearson (1963–68) and Pierre Trudeau (1972–74). The NDP regained official status in 1997, and played a similar role in the Liberal and Conservative minority governments of 2004–2006 and 2006–2011, respectively. Following the 2011 election, the party became the second-largest party and formed the Official Opposition in the 41st Canadian Parliament.

Provincial New Democratic parties, which are organizationally sections of the federal party, have governed in six of the ten provinces and a territory. The NDP governs the province of British Columbia, forms the Official Opposition in Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Ontario, and have sitting members in every provincial legislature except those of Quebec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The NDP has previously formed the government in the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Nova Scotia and the Yukon Territory. The NDP has previously had at least one sitting member in every provincial legislature except that of Quebec.

While members of the party are active in municipal politics, the party does not organize at that level. For example, though former Toronto mayor David Miller was an NDP member during his successful 2003 and 2006 mayoral campaigns, his campaigns were not affiliated with the NDP.

Provincial and territorial wingsEdit

 
NDP leaders at the federal and provincial levels during a federal leaders summit on January 15, 2013

Unlike most other Canadian federal parties, the NDP is integrated with its provincial and territorial parties. Holding membership of a provincial or territorial section of the NDP includes automatic membership in the federal party, and this precludes a person from supporting different parties at the federal and provincial levels. Membership lists are maintained by the provinces and territories.

There have been three exceptions: Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and Quebec. In Nunavut and in the Northwest Territories, whose territorial legislatures have non-partisan consensus governments, the federal NDP is promoted by its riding associations, since each territory is composed of only one federal riding.

In Quebec, the historical New Democratic Party of Quebec was integrated with the federal party from 1963 until 1989, when the two agreed to sever their structural ties after the Quebec party adopted a sovereigntist platform. From then on, the federal NDP was represented in Quebec only by their Quebec Section,[48] whose activities in the province were limited to the federal level. However, following the party's breakthrough in the province in the 2011 federal election, the NDP announced their plans to recreate a provincial party in Quebec in time for the following Quebec general election.[49] The modern New Democratic Party of Quebec party was registered with the Chief Electoral Officer of Quebec on January 30, 2014,[50] but it failed to nominate any candidates in the 2014 election. The new NPDQ is not affiliated to the federal NDP due to more recent provincial laws in Quebec which disallow provincial parties from affiliating with federal parties.[51]

The NDP in Quebec has been in decline since 2016, struggling to attract local leaders and support.[52][53]

Current seat counts and leaders of provincial and territorial parties
Party Seats / Total Role in legislature Last election Leader
Alberta New Democratic Party
24 / 87
Official Opposition 2019 Rachel Notley
British Columbia New Democratic Party
57 / 87
Government (majority) 2020 John Horgan
New Democratic Party of Manitoba
18 / 57
Official Opposition 2019 Wab Kinew
New Brunswick New Democratic Party
0 / 55
Extra-parliamentary 2020 Mackenzie Thomason
New Democratic Party of
Newfoundland and Labrador
2 / 40
Third party 2021 Jim Dinn (interim)
Nova Scotia New Democratic Party
6 / 55
Third party 2021 Gary Burrill
Ontario New Democratic Party
40 / 124
Official Opposition 2018 Andrea Horwath
New Democratic Party of Quebec
0 / 125
Extra-parliamentary 2018 Raphaël Fortin
New Democratic Party of Prince Edward Island
0 / 27
Extra-parliamentary 2019 Vacant
Saskatchewan New Democratic Party
12 / 61
Official Opposition 2020 Ryan Meili
Yukon New Democratic Party
3 / 19
Third party 2021 Kate White

(Provincial/territorial wings of current NDP government are in bold)

The most successful provincial section of the party has been the Saskatchewan New Democratic Party, which first came to power in 1944 as the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Tommy Douglas and has won eleven of the province's elections since then. In Canada, Douglas is often cited as the "Father of Medicare" since, as Saskatchewan Premier, he introduced Canada's first publicly funded, universal healthcare system to the province. Despite the historic success of the Saskatchewan branch of the party, the NDP was shut out of Saskatchewan for the 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011 federal elections,[54] before winning three seats there in the 2015 federal election.[55] The NDP would once again be shut out of Saskatchewan as part of the Conservatives sweep of the province in the 2019 election.[32]

The New Democratic Party has also formed government in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Yukon.

Best historic seat counts for provincial and territorial parties
Province/Territory Seats / Total Role in legislature Year Concurrent party leader
Alberta
54 / 87
Majority government 2015 Rachel Notley (Premier 2015–2019)
British Columbia
57 / 87
Majority government 2020 John Horgan (Premier 2017–present)
Manitoba
37 / 57
Majority government 2011 Greg Selinger (Premier 2009–2016)
New Brunswick
2 / 58
Third party 1984
(by-election)
George Little
Newfoundland
and Labrador
5 / 48
Third party 2011 Lorraine Michael
Nova Scotia
31 / 52
Majority government 2009 Darrell Dexter (Premier 2009–2013)
Ontario
74 / 130
Majority government 1990 Bob Rae (Premier 1990–1995)
Prince Edward Island
1 / 27
Third party 1996 Herb Dickieson
Quebec
1 / 91
Fourth party 1944
(as CCF)
David Côté
Saskatchewan
55 / 66
Majority government 1991 Roy Romanow (Premier 1991–2001)
Yukon
11 / 17
Majority government 1996 Piers McDonald (Premier 1996–2000)

Current members of ParliamentEdit

44th ParliamentEdit

Federal leadersEdit

Note: the right-hand column does not allocate height proportional to time in office.

A list of leaders (including acting leaders) since 1961.

No. Leader
(birth–death)
Portrait Birthplace Riding Took office Left office Prime Minister (term)
Party
1 Tommy Douglas
(1904–1986)
    Falkirk, United Kingdom Weyburn
(Saskatchewan)[note 1]
Burnaby—Coquitlam
Nanaimo—Cowichan—The Islands
August 3, 1961 April 24, 1971 Diefenbaker (1957–1963)
PC
Pearson (1963–1968)
Liberal
P. Trudeau (1968–1979)
Liberal
2 David Lewis
(1909–1981)
    Svislach, Russian Empire York South April 24, 1971 July 7, 1975
3 Ed Broadbent
(b. 1936)
    Oshawa, Ontario Oshawa–Whitby
Oshawa
July 7, 1975 December 5, 1989
Clark (1979–1980)
PC
P. Trudeau (1980–1984)
Liberal
Turner (1984)
Liberal
Mulroney (1984–1993)
PC
4 Audrey McLaughlin
(b. 1936)
    Dutton, Ontario Yukon December 5, 1989 October 14, 1995
Campbell (1993)
PC
Chrétien (1993–2003)
Liberal
5 Alexa McDonough
(b. 1944)
    Ottawa, Ontario Halifax Fairview
(Nova Scotia)[note 2]
Halifax
October 14, 1995 January 25, 2003
6 Jack Layton
(1950–2011)
    Montreal, Quebec Toronto–Danforth January 25, 2003 August 22, 2011[note 3]
Martin (2003–2006)
Liberal
Harper (2006–2015)
Conservative
Interim Nycole Turmel
(b. 1942)
    Sainte-Marie, Quebec Hull—Aylmer July 28, 2011 March 24, 2012
7 Tom Mulcair
(b. 1954)
    Ottawa, Ontario Outremont March 24, 2012 October 1, 2017
J. Trudeau (2015–present)
Liberal
8 Jagmeet Singh
(b. 1979)
    Scarborough, Ontario Bramalea—Gore—Malton
(Ontario)[note 4]
Burnaby South
October 1, 2017 Incumbent
Notes
  1. ^ Sat as the Premier of Saskatchewan and head of the Saskatchewan CCF until November 7, 1961.
  2. ^ Sat as a Nova Scotia MLA until October 20, 1995.
  3. ^ On July 28, 2011, Layton took a leave of absence.
  4. ^ Sat as Ontario MPP until October 20, 2017.

Election resultsEdit

Election Leader Seats +/– Votes % Rank Position/Gov.
1962 Tommy Douglas
19 / 265
  11 1,044,754 13.57   4th Fourth party
1963
17 / 265
  2 1,044,701 13.22   4th Fourth party
1965
21 / 265
  4 1,381,658 17.91   3rd Third party
1968
22 / 264
  1 1,378,263 16.96   3rd Third party
1972 David Lewis
31 / 264
  9 1,725,719 17.83   3rd Third party
1974
16 / 264
  15 1,467,748 15.44   3rd Third party
1979 Ed Broadbent
26 / 282
  10 2,048,988 17.88   3rd Third party
1980
32 / 282
  6 2,165,087 19.77   3rd Third party
1984
30 / 282
  2 2,359,915 18.81   3rd Third party
1988
43 / 295
  13 2,685,263 20.38   3rd Third party
1993 Audrey McLaughlin
9 / 295
  34 939,575 6.88   4th No status
1997 Alexa McDonough
21 / 301
  12 1,434,509 11.05   4th Fourth party
2000
13 / 301
  8 1,093,748 8.51   4th Fourth party
2004 Jack Layton
19 / 308
  6 2,127,403 15.68   4th Fourth party
2006
29 / 308
  10 2,589,597 17.48   4th Fourth party
2008
37 / 308
  8 2,515,288 18.18   4th Fourth party
2011
103 / 308
  66 4,508,474 30.63   2nd Official Opposition
2015 Tom Mulcair
44 / 338
  59 3,441,409 19.71   3rd Third party
2019 Jagmeet Singh
24 / 338
  20 2,903,722 15.98   4th Fourth party
2021
25 / 338
  1 3,036,346 17.83   4th Fourth party

LogosEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The NDP was affiliated with the Socialist International (SI) from 1961 until 2018.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Neville, William (August 3, 1961). "Douglas Leads New Party, 'Democratic' Tag in Name". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver. UPI. p. 1. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
  2. ^ Éric Grenier (August 29, 2017). "NDP triples its membership to 124,000 in run-up to party's leadership vote". Cbc.ca. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
  3. ^ a b The party is widely described as social democratic:
  4. ^ William Cross (September 2012). "The Canadian New Democratic Party: A New Big Player in Canadian Politics?" (PDF). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  5. ^ Jessica Murphy (September 26, 2017). "Who will Canada's New Democrats pick to take on Trudeau?". BBC News. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  6. ^ Gerard Di Trolio (June 4, 2018). "The NDP Claws Its Way Back". Jacobin. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Laura Payton (April 14, 2013). "NDP votes to take 'socialism' out of party constitution". CBC News. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
  8. ^ David McGrane (2018). "Electoral competition in Canada among the centre-left parties: liberal versus social democrats". In Rob Manwaring; Paul Kennedy (eds.). Why the Left Loses: The Decline of the Centre-Left in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press. pp. 39–52. ISBN 978-1-4473-3266-4.
  9. ^ "Canada's New Democrats elect Jagmeet Singh as party leader". BBC News. October 2, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  10. ^ How Canada's politics are different to Australia's. ABC. Author - Annabelle Quince. Published 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  11. ^ Death of Jack Layton Weakens Canada's Political Opposition. The New York Times. Author - Ian Austen. Published August 22, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2019
  12. ^ a b Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant (2013). Gendered News: Media Coverage and Electoral Politics in Canada. UBC Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7748-2625-9.
  13. ^ a b Andrea Olive (2015). The Canadian Environment in Political Context. University of Toronto Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4426-0871-9.
  14. ^ "Parties & Organisations of the Progressive Alliance". progressive-alliance.info. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  15. ^ Pamela Behan (2012). Solving the Health Care Problem: How Other Nations Succeeded and Why the United States Has Not. SUNY Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-791-48135-6.
  16. ^ David Martin Thomas; David Biette (2014). Canada and the United States: Differences that Count, Fourth Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4426-0908-2.
  17. ^ Rodney P. Carlisle (2005). Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right. SAGE Publications. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-4522-6531-5.
  18. ^ Marc Guinjoan (2014). Parties, Elections and Electoral Contests: Competition and Contamination Effects. Ashgate. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-4724-3910-9.
  19. ^ "The evolution of CCF into NDP: 1961 and after". Archived from the original on February 5, 2009.
  20. ^ "David Lewis - Federal NDP Leader 1971-75 - Biography of David Lewis". Canadaonline.about.com. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
  21. ^ "CBC News Indepth: Ed Broadbent". Cbc.ca. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  22. ^ "Dave Barrett". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  23. ^ CBC News - Indepth Backgrounder: NDP Leadership Race Archived December 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Layton, Jack. "A letter to Canadians from the Honourable Jack Layton". New Democratic Party of Canada. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  25. ^ "NDP leadership convention: Thomas Mulcair holds on for victory". Vancouver Sun. March 24, 2012. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
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