The New Democratic Party (NDP; French: Nouveau Parti démocratique, NPD) is a social democratic federal political party in Canada. The party was founded in 1961 by the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) and the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC). On the political spectrum, the party sits to the left of the Liberal Party.
|National director||Anne McGrath|
|Deputy leader||Alexandre Boulerice|
|House leader||Peter Julian|
|Founded||August 3, 1961|
|Youth wing||Canada's Young New Democrats|
|Political position||Centre-left to |
|International affiliation||Progressive Alliance|
|Union affiliate||Canadian Labour Congress|
0 / 105
|House of Commons|
25 / 338
The federal and provincial (or territorial) level NDPs are more integrated than other political parties in Canada, and have shared membership (except for the New Democratic Party of Quebec). The NDP has never won the largest share of seats at the federal level. From 2011 to 2015, it formed the Official Opposition, but it is typically the third or fourth-largest party in the House of Commons. However, the party has held considerable influence during periods of minority government. Sub-national branches of the NDP have formed the government in six provinces (Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia) and the territory of Yukon.
Since 2017, the NDP has been led by Jagmeet Singh, who is the first Indo-Canadian to lead a major federal party in Canada. Following the 2021 Canadian federal election, it is currently the fourth-largest party in the House of Commons with 25 seats.
Origins and early historyEdit
In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party (NCNP), was formed to create a "new" social democratic political party, with ten members from each group. The NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, and six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles, policies and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected as its first leader.
At the 1971 leadership convention, an activist group called The Waffle tried to take control of the party, but were defeated by David Lewis with the help of the union members. The following year, most of The Waffle split from the NDP and formed their own party. The NDP itself supported the minority government formed by the Pierre Trudeau–led Liberals from 1972 to 1974, although the two parties never entered into a coalition. Together, they succeeded in passing several socially progressive initiatives into law such as pension indexing and the creation of the crown corporation Petro-Canada.
In 1974, the NDP worked with the Progressive Conservatives to pass a motion of non-confidence, forcing an election. However, it backfired as Trudeau's Liberals regained a majority government, mostly at the expense of the NDP, which lost half its seats. Lewis lost his own riding and resigned as leader the following year.
Under Ed Broadbent (1975–1989) the NDP attempted to find a more populist image to contrast with the governing parties, focusing on more pocketbook issues than on ideological fervour. The party played a critical role during Joe Clark's minority government of 1979–1980, moving the non-confidence motion on John Crosbie's 1979 budget that brought down the Progressive Conservative government, and forced the 1980 election that brought the Liberal Party back to power.
In the 1984 election, which saw the Progressive Conservatives under Brian Mulroney win the most seats in Canadian history, the NDP won 30 seats, while the governing Liberals fell to 40 seats. Struggles within the governing Progressive Conservatives and opposition Liberals would see dramatic rise in the NDP's polling fortunes.
The NDP set a then-record of 43 Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the house in the election of 1988. The Liberals, however, had reaped most of the benefits of opposing the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement to emerge as the dominant alternative to the ruling PC government. In 1989, Broadbent stepped down after 14 years as federal leader of the NDP.
At the party's leadership convention in 1989, former B.C. Premier Dave Barrett and Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin were the main contenders for the leadership. During the campaign, Barrett argued that the party should be concerned with western alienation, rather than focusing its attention on Quebec. The Quebec wing of the NDP strongly opposed Barrett's candidacy, with Phil Edmonston, the party's main spokesman in Quebec, threatening to resign from the party if Barrett won. McLaughlin ran on a more traditional approach, and became the first woman to lead a major Federal political party in Canada.
Although enjoying strong support among organized labour and rural voters in the Prairies, McLaughlin tried to expand their support into Quebec without much success. Under McLaughlin, the party did manage to win an election in Quebec for the first time when Edmonston won a 1990 by-election.
McLaughlin and the NDP were routed in the 1993 election, where the party won only nine seats, three seats short of official party status in the House of Commons. This was, and remains, the NDP's lowest seat total in any election since the party's founding in 1961; the election also resulted in the lowest-ever total number of votes received by the NDP in a federal election. The loss was blamed on the unpopularity of NDP provincial governments under Bob Rae in Ontario and Mike Harcourt in British Columbia and the loss of a significant portion of the Western vote to the Reform Party, which promised a more decentralized and democratic federation along with right-wing economic reforms.
McLaughlin resigned in 1995 and was succeeded by Alexa McDonough, the former leader of the Nova Scotia NDP. In contrast to traditional Canadian practice, where an MP for a safe seat stands down to allow a newly elected leader a chance to enter Parliament via a by-election, McDonough opted to wait until the next election to enter Parliament.
The party recovered somewhat in the 1997 election, electing 21 members. The NDP made a breakthrough in Atlantic Canada, a region where they had been practically nonexistent at the federal level. Before 1997, they had won only three seats in the Atlantic in their entire history. However, in 1997 they won eight seats in that region. The party was able to harness the discontent of voters in the Atlantic, who were upset over cuts to employment insurance and other social programs implemented by Jean Chrétien's Liberal majority government.
In the November 2000 election, the NDP campaigned primarily on the issue of Medicare but lost significant support. The governing Liberals ran an effective campaign on their economic record and managed to recapture some of the Atlantic ridings lost to the NDP in the 1997 election. The initial high electoral prospects of the Canadian Alliance under new leader Stockwell Day also hurt the NDP as many supporters strategically voted Liberal to keep the Alliance from winning. The NDP finished with 13 MPs—just barely over the threshold for official party status.
McDonough announced her resignation as party leader for family reasons in June 2002 (effective upon her successor's election).
The 2004 election produced mixed results for the NDP. It increased its total vote by more than a million votes; however, despite Layton's optimistic predictions of reaching 40 seats, the NDP only gained five seats in the election, for a total of 19. The party was disappointed to see its two Saskatchewan incumbents defeated in close races by the new Conservative Party (created by merger of the Alliance and PC parties), perhaps because of the unpopularity of the NDP provincial government.
The Liberals were re-elected, though this time as a minority government. Combined, the Liberals and NDP had 154 seats – one short of the total needed for the balance of power. As has been the case with Liberal minorities in the past, the NDP were in a position to make gains on the party's priorities, such as fighting health care privatization, fulfilling Canada's obligation to the Kyoto Protocol, and electoral reform. The party used Prime Minister Paul Martin's politically precarious position caused by the sponsorship scandal to force investment in multiple federal programs, agreeing not to help topple the government provided that some major concessions in the federal budget were ceded to.
On November 9, 2005, after the findings of the Gomery Inquiry were released, Layton notified the Liberal government that continued NDP support would require a ban on private healthcare. When the Liberals refused, Layton announced that he would introduce a motion on November 24 that would ask Martin to call a federal election in February to allow for several pieces of legislation to be passed. The Liberals turned down this offer. On November 28, 2005, Conservative leader Stephen Harper's motion of no confidence was seconded by Layton and it was passed by all three opposition parties, forcing an election.
During the election the NDP won 29 seats, a significant increase of 10 seats from the 19 won in 2004. It was the fourth-best performance in party history, approaching the level of popular support enjoyed in the 1980s. The NDP kept all of the 18 seats it held at the dissolution of Parliament. While the party gained no seats in Atlantic Canada, Quebec, or the Prairie provinces, it gained five seats in British Columbia, five more in Ontario and the Western Arctic riding of the Northwest Territories.
The Conservatives won a minority government in the 2006 election, and initially the NDP was the only party that would not be able to pass legislation with the Conservatives. However, following a series of floor crossings, the NDP also came to hold the balance of power. The NDP voted against the government in all four confidence votes in the 39th parliament, the only party to do so. However, it worked with the Conservatives on other issues, including in passing the Federal Accountability Act and pushing for changes to the Clean Air Act.
Following that election the NDP caucus rose to 30 members with the victory of NDP candidate Thomas Mulcair in a by-election in Outremont. This marked the second time ever (and first time in seventeen years) that the NDP won a riding in Quebec. The party won 37 seats in the 2008 federal election, the best performance since the 1988 total of 43. This included a breakthrough in the riding of Edmonton-Strathcona, only the second time the NDP had managed to win a seat in Alberta in the party's history.
In the 2011 federal election the NDP won a record 103 seats, becoming the Official Opposition for the first time in the party's history. The party had a historic breakthrough in Quebec, where they won 59 out of 75 seats, dominating Montreal and sweeping Quebec City and the Outaouais. This meant that a majority of the party's MPs now came from a province where they had only ever had two candidates elected in the party's history. The NDP's success in Quebec was mirrored by the collapse of the Bloc Québécois, which lost all but four of its 47 seats, and the collapse of the Liberal Party nationally, which was cut down to just 34 seats, its worst-ever result. This also marked the first time in history where the Liberal Party was neither the government nor the Official Opposition, as the NDP had taken over the latter role. The NDP was now the second largest party in the House of Commons opposing a Conservative majority government.
In July 2011, Layton announced that he was suffering from a new cancer and would take a leave of absence, projected to last until the resumption of Parliament in September. He would retain his position of NDP Leader and Leader of the Opposition. The party confirmed his suggestion of Hull—Aylmer MP Nycole Turmel to carry out the functions of party leader in his absence. Layton died from his cancer on August 22, 2011.
Despite early campaign polls which showed the NDP in first place, the party lost 59 seats in the 2015 election and fell back to third place in Parliament. By winning 44 seats, Mulcair was able to secure the second best showing in the party's history, winning one more seat than Ed Broadbent managed in the 1988 election, but with a smaller share of the popular vote. NDP seat gains in Saskatchewan and British Columbia were offset by numerical losses in almost every other region, while in Alberta and Manitoba the party maintained its existing seat counts. The party was locked out of the Atlantic Region and the Territories, and lost over half of its seats in Ontario including all of its seats in Toronto. In Quebec, the NDP lost seats to all three of the other major parties, namely the Liberals, Conservatives, and Bloc Québécois, though it managed to place second in both vote share (25.4%) and seats (16) behind the Liberals in the province. The election resulted in a Liberal majority government.
Mulcair's leadership faced criticism following the election, culminating in him losing a leadership review vote held at the NDP's policy convention in Edmonton, Alberta on April 10, 2016. This marked the first time in Canadian federal politics that a leader was defeated in a confidence vote. Consequently, his successor was to be chosen at a leadership election to be held no later than October 2017, with Mulcair agreeing to remain as leader until then.
On October 1, 2017, Jagmeet Singh, the first person of a visible minority group to lead a major Canadian federal political party on a permanent basis, won the leadership vote to head the NDP on the first ballot.
In the 2019 federal election, the NDP won only 24 seats in its worst result since 2004, shedding 15 seats. Alexandre Boulerice was the only NDP incumbent to retain his seat in Quebec, while the party lost all of its Saskatchewan ridings to the Conservatives. The party remained shut out of Toronto and lost two of its MPs in the rest of Ontario, while making small or no gains in the popular vote in Manitoba, Newfoundland, Alberta and Nunavut. In British Columbia, the NDP lost three seats but were largely able to hold on to their support in the province.
Following the election, the NDP held the balance of power as the Liberals won a minority government, although it fell back to fourth place behind the resurgent Bloc Québécois. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the NDP used its leverage to lobby the Liberals to be more generous in their financial aid to Canadians, including by extending of the Canada Emergency Response Benefit (CERB) program, which was a key demand in order to provide confidence to the government in the autumn of 2020.
In the snap 2021 federal election, the NDP made minor gains in both vote share and seat count, winning in 25 ridings. The party also won a second seat in Alberta for the first time by electing Blake Desjarlais in Edmonton Griesbach and picked up two more seats in British Columbia. These gains were offset by loses to the Liberals in St. John's East and Hamilton Mountain, both constituencies where the incumbent NDP candidate did not stand for re-election. Overall, the election resulted in no change to the balance of power in the House of Commons.
Ideology and policiesEdit
The NDP evolved in 1961 from a merger of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF). The CCF grew from populist, agrarian and socialist roots into a modern social democratic party. Although the CCF was part of the Christian left and the Social Gospel movement, the NDP is secular and pluralistic. It has broadened to include concerns of the New Left, and advocates issues such as LGBT rights, international peace, and environmental stewardship. The NDP is also outspoken on indigenous rights.
The NDP's constitution states that both social democracy and democratic socialism are influences on the party. Specific inclusion of the party's history as the continuation of the more radical Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, and specific identification of the "democratic socialist" tradition as a continuing influence on the party are part of the language of the preamble to the party's constitution:
New Democrats are proud of our political and activist heritage, and our long record of visionary, practical, and successful governments. That heritage and that record have distinguished and inspired our party since the creation of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in 1933 and the founding of the New Democratic Party in 1961. New Democrats seek a future that brings together the best of the insights and objectives of Canadians who, within the social democratic and democratic socialist traditions, have worked through farmer, labour, co-operative, feminist, human rights and environmental movements, and with First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples, to build a more just, equal, and sustainable Canada within a global community dedicated to the same goals.
The NDP states that it is committed to public health care. The party states that it fights for "a national, universal, public pharmacare program to make sure that all Canadians can access the prescription medicine they need with their health card, not their credit card – saving money and improving health outcomes for everyone". The party also states its support for expanding services covered under the national health care system to include dental care, mental health care, eye and hearing care, infertility procedures, and prescription drugs. Regarding dentistry, the NDP notes that "one in three Canadians has no dental insurance and over six million people don't visit the dentist every year because they can't afford to. Too many people are forced to go without the care they need until the pain is so severe that they are forced to seek relief in hospital emergency rooms".
Since its formation, the party has had a presence in the House of Commons. It was the third largest political party from 1965 to 1993, when the party dropped to fourth and lost official party status. The NDP's peak period of policy influence in those periods was during the minority Liberal governments of Lester B. Pearson (1963–68) and Pierre Trudeau (1972–74). The NDP regained official status in 1997, and played a similar role in the Liberal and Conservative minority governments of 2004–2006 and 2006–2011, respectively. Following the 2011 election, the party became the second-largest party and formed the Official Opposition in the 41st Canadian Parliament.
Provincial New Democratic parties, which are organizationally sections of the federal party, have governed in six of the ten provinces and a territory. The NDP governs the province of British Columbia, forms the Official Opposition in Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Ontario, and have sitting members in every provincial legislature except those of Quebec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The NDP has previously formed the government in the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Nova Scotia and the Yukon Territory. The NDP has previously had at least one sitting member in every provincial legislature except that of Quebec.
While members of the party are active in municipal politics, the party does not organize at that level. For example, though former Toronto mayor David Miller was an NDP member during his successful 2003 and 2006 mayoral campaigns, his campaigns were not affiliated with the NDP.
Provincial and territorial wingsEdit
Unlike most other Canadian federal parties, the NDP is integrated with its provincial and territorial parties. Holding membership of a provincial or territorial section of the NDP includes automatic membership in the federal party, and this precludes a person from supporting different parties at the federal and provincial levels. Membership lists are maintained by the provinces and territories.
There have been three exceptions: Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and Quebec. In Nunavut and in the Northwest Territories, whose territorial legislatures have non-partisan consensus governments, the federal NDP is promoted by its riding associations, since each territory is composed of only one federal riding.
In Quebec, the historical New Democratic Party of Quebec was integrated with the federal party from 1963 until 1989, when the two agreed to sever their structural ties after the Quebec party adopted a sovereigntist platform. From then on, the federal NDP was represented in Quebec only by their Quebec Section, whose activities in the province were limited to the federal level. However, following the party's breakthrough in the province in the 2011 federal election, the NDP announced their plans to recreate a provincial party in Quebec in time for the following Quebec general election. The modern New Democratic Party of Quebec party was registered with the Chief Electoral Officer of Quebec on January 30, 2014, but it failed to nominate any candidates in the 2014 election. The new NPDQ is not affiliated to the federal NDP due to more recent provincial laws in Quebec which disallow provincial parties from affiliating with federal parties.
|Party||Seats / Total||Role in legislature||Last election||Leader|
|Alberta New Democratic Party||
24 / 87
|Official Opposition||2019||Rachel Notley|
|British Columbia New Democratic Party||
57 / 87
|Government (majority)||2020||John Horgan|
|New Democratic Party of Manitoba||
18 / 57
|Official Opposition||2019||Wab Kinew|
|New Brunswick New Democratic Party||
0 / 55
|New Democratic Party of
Newfoundland and Labrador
2 / 40
|Third party||2021||Jim Dinn (interim)|
|Nova Scotia New Democratic Party||
6 / 55
|Third party||2021||Gary Burrill|
|Ontario New Democratic Party||
40 / 124
|Official Opposition||2018||Andrea Horwath|
|New Democratic Party of Quebec||
0 / 125
|New Democratic Party of Prince Edward Island||
0 / 27
|Saskatchewan New Democratic Party||
12 / 61
|Official Opposition||2020||Ryan Meili|
|Yukon New Democratic Party||
3 / 19
|Third party||2021||Kate White|
(Provincial/territorial wings of current NDP government are in bold)
The most successful provincial section of the party has been the Saskatchewan New Democratic Party, which first came to power in 1944 as the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Tommy Douglas and has won eleven of the province's elections since then. In Canada, Douglas is often cited as the "Father of Medicare" since, as Saskatchewan Premier, he introduced Canada's first publicly funded, universal healthcare system to the province. Despite the historic success of the Saskatchewan branch of the party, the NDP was shut out of Saskatchewan for the 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011 federal elections, before winning three seats there in the 2015 federal election. The NDP would once again be shut out of Saskatchewan as part of the Conservatives sweep of the province in the 2019 election.
The New Democratic Party has also formed government in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Yukon.
|Province/Territory||Seats / Total||Role in legislature||Year||Concurrent party leader|
54 / 87
|Majority government||2015||Rachel Notley (Premier 2015–2019)|
57 / 87
|Majority government||2020||John Horgan (Premier 2017–present)|
37 / 57
|Majority government||2011||Greg Selinger (Premier 2009–2016)|
2 / 58
5 / 48
|Third party||2011||Lorraine Michael|
31 / 52
|Majority government||2009||Darrell Dexter (Premier 2009–2013)|
74 / 130
|Majority government||1990||Bob Rae (Premier 1990–1995)|
|Prince Edward Island||
1 / 27
|Third party||1996||Herb Dickieson|
1 / 91
55 / 66
|Majority government||1991||Roy Romanow (Premier 1991–2001)|
11 / 17
|Majority government||1996||Piers McDonald (Premier 1996–2000)|
Current members of ParliamentEdit
- Charlie Angus, Timmins—James Bay (ON) Critic for Official Languages, Ethics, Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario, Indigenous Youth, Income Inequality and Affordability, Deputy Critic for Labour
- Niki Ashton, Churchill—Keewatinook Aski (MB) Critic for Public Ownership and Transport, Deputy Critic for Women and Gender Equality
- Taylor Bachrach, Skeena—Bulkley Valley (BC) Critic for Infrastructure and Communities
- Lisa Marie Barron, Nanaimo—Ladysmith (BC)
- Daniel Blaikie, Elmwood—Transcona (MB) Critic for Democratic Reform, Employment, Workforce Development and Disability Inclusion, Export Promotion and International Trade, Western Economic Diversification, Deputy Critic for Finance
- Rachel Blaney, North Island—Powell River (BC) Caucus Whip, Critic for Veterans Affairs
- Alexandre Boulerice, Rosemont—La Petite-Patrie (QC) Deputy Leader, Critic for Canadian Economic Development for Quebec Regions, Canadian Heritage, Deputy Critic for Environment and Climate Change
- Richard Cannings, South Okanagan—West Kootenay (BC) Critic for Natural Resources, Deputy Critic for Transport
- Laurel Collins, Victoria (BC) Critic for Environment and Climate Change, Deputy Critic for Infrastructure and Communities
- Don Davies, Vancouver Kingsway (BC) Critic for Health, Deputy Critic for Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness
- Blake Desjarlais, Edmonton Griesbach (AB) Deputy Caucus Chair
- Randall Garrison, Esquimalt—Saanich—Sooke (BC) Critic for National Defence, Justice, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
- Leah Gazan, Winnipeg Centre (MB) Critic for Families, Children and Social Development, Deputy Critic for Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship
- Matthew Green, Hamilton Centre (ON) Critic for National Revenue, Public Services and Procurement, Treasury Board, Deputy Critic for Ethics
- Carol Hughes, Algoma—Manitoulin—Kapuskasing (ON) Asst. Deputy Speaker
- Lori Idlout, Nunavut (NU)
- Gord Johns, Courtenay—Alberni (BC) Critic for Economic Development, Fisheries, Oceans, and the Canadian Coast Guard, Small Business, Tourism, Deputy Critic for Crown-Indigenous Relations and Indigenous Services
- Peter Julian, New Westminster—Burnaby (BC) House Leader, Critic for Finance, Deputy Critic for Canadian Heritage
- Jenny Kwan, Vancouver East (BC) Caucus Chair, Critic for Housing, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship, Deputy Critic for Health
- Alistair MacGregor, Cowichan—Malahat—Langford (BC) Critic for Agriculture, Rural Economic Development, Deputy Critic for Justice
- Heather McPherson, Edmonton—Strathcona (AB) Deputy Caucus Whip, Critic for International Development, Deputy Critic for Foreign Affairs
- Brian Masse, Windsor West (ON) Critic for Digital Government, Great Lakes, Innovation, Science and Industry, Telecommunications
- Lindsay Mathyssen, London—Fanshawe (ON) Deputy House Leader, Critic for Diversity and Inclusion and Youth, Women and Gender Equality, Deputy Critic for Export Promotion and International Trade, Small Business
- Jagmeet Singh, Burnaby South (BC) Leader, Critic for Crown-Indigenous Relations, Indigenous Services, Intergovernmental Affairs
- Bonita Zarrillo, Port Moody—Coquitlam (BC)
- Note: the right-hand column does not allocate height proportional to time in office.
A list of leaders (including acting leaders) since 1961.
- Sat as the Premier of Saskatchewan and head of the Saskatchewan CCF until November 7, 1961.
- Sat as a Nova Scotia MLA until October 20, 1995.
- On July 28, 2011, Layton took a leave of absence.
- Sat as Ontario MPP until October 20, 2017.
19 / 265
17 / 265
21 / 265
22 / 264
31 / 264
16 / 264
26 / 282
32 / 282
30 / 282
43 / 295
9 / 295
21 / 301
13 / 301
19 / 308
29 / 308
37 / 308
103 / 308
44 / 338
24 / 338
25 / 338
- The NDP was affiliated with the Socialist International (SI) from 1961 until 2018.
- Neville, William (August 3, 1961). "Douglas Leads New Party, 'Democratic' Tag in Name". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver. UPI. p. 1. Retrieved August 22, 2011.
- Éric Grenier (August 29, 2017). "NDP triples its membership to 124,000 in run-up to party's leadership vote". Cbc.ca. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- The party is widely described as social democratic:
- Bryan Evans; Ingo Schmidt (2012). Social Democracy After the Cold War. Athabasca University Press. ISBN 978-1-926836-87-4.
- Melody Hessing; Michael Howlett; Tracy Summerville (2005). Canadian Natural Resource And Environmental Policy: Political Economy And Public Policy. UBC Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-7748-1181-1.
- Rand Dyck (2011). Canadian Politics. Cengage Learning. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-17-650343-7.
- Norman Penner (1992). From Protest to Power: Social Democracy in Canada 1900-Present. James Lorimer & Company. ISBN 978-1-55028-384-6.
- John M. Herrick; Paul H. Stuart (2004). Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America. SAGE. p. 337. ISBN 978-0-7619-2584-2.
- John Herd Thompson; Stephen J. Randall (2002). Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies. University of Georgia Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-8203-2403-6.
- Ian McLeod (1994). Under Siege: The Federal Ndp in the Nineties. James Lorimer & Company. ISBN 978-1-55028-454-6.
- Keith Archer (1990). Political Choices and Electoral Consequences: A Study of Organized Labour and the New Democratic Party. McGill-Queens. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7735-0744-9.
- Richard Collin; Pamela L. Martin (2012). An Introduction to World Politics: Conflict and Consensus on a Small Planet. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-4422-1803-1. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- William Cross (September 2012). "The Canadian New Democratic Party: A New Big Player in Canadian Politics?" (PDF). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- Jessica Murphy (September 26, 2017). "Who will Canada's New Democrats pick to take on Trudeau?". BBC News. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- Gerard Di Trolio (June 4, 2018). "The NDP Claws Its Way Back". Jacobin. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- Laura Payton (April 14, 2013). "NDP votes to take 'socialism' out of party constitution". CBC News. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- David McGrane (2018). "Electoral competition in Canada among the centre-left parties: liberal versus social democrats". In Rob Manwaring; Paul Kennedy (eds.). Why the Left Loses: The Decline of the Centre-Left in Comparative Perspective. Policy Press. pp. 39–52. ISBN 978-1-4473-3266-4.
- "Canada's New Democrats elect Jagmeet Singh as party leader". BBC News. October 2, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- How Canada's politics are different to Australia's. ABC. Author - Annabelle Quince. Published 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- Death of Jack Layton Weakens Canada's Political Opposition. The New York Times. Author - Ian Austen. Published August 22, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2019
- Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant (2013). Gendered News: Media Coverage and Electoral Politics in Canada. UBC Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7748-2625-9.
- Andrea Olive (2015). The Canadian Environment in Political Context. University of Toronto Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4426-0871-9.
- "Parties & Organisations of the Progressive Alliance". progressive-alliance.info. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
- Pamela Behan (2012). Solving the Health Care Problem: How Other Nations Succeeded and Why the United States Has Not. SUNY Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-791-48135-6.
- David Martin Thomas; David Biette (2014). Canada and the United States: Differences that Count, Fourth Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4426-0908-2.
- Rodney P. Carlisle (2005). Encyclopedia of Politics: The Left and the Right. SAGE Publications. p. 274. ISBN 978-1-4522-6531-5.
- Marc Guinjoan (2014). Parties, Elections and Electoral Contests: Competition and Contamination Effects. Ashgate. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-4724-3910-9.
- "The evolution of CCF into NDP: 1961 and after". Archived from the original on February 5, 2009.
- "David Lewis - Federal NDP Leader 1971-75 - Biography of David Lewis". Canadaonline.about.com. Retrieved March 28, 2011.
- "CBC News Indepth: Ed Broadbent". Cbc.ca. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
- "Dave Barrett". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
- CBC News - Indepth Backgrounder: NDP Leadership Race Archived December 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Layton, Jack. "A letter to Canadians from the Honourable Jack Layton". New Democratic Party of Canada. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "NDP leadership convention: Thomas Mulcair holds on for victory". Vancouver Sun. March 24, 2012. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
- Elizabeth McSheffrey (October 21, 2015). "Better luck next time, Mr. Mulcair". National Observer. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
- "A history of dramatic leadership reviews in Canadian politics". Maclean's. April 10, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Mulcair 'a lame duck,' says political scientist on NDP convention results, CBC News, April 10, 2016
- "Jagmeet Singh wins leadership of federal NDP on first ballot". Cbc.ca. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- Singh fails to capitalize on late-campaign momentum as NDP loses seats, CBC News, October 22, 2019
- NDP all but disappears in Quebec as Liberals form minority government, Global News, October 22, 2019
- Andrew Scheer's Conservatives sweep over the Prairies in the 2019 federal election results, National Post, October 22, 2019
- Jagmeet Singh can't explain how the NDP failed to win any seats in Toronto in election 2019, Toronto Star, October 22, 2019
- Ontario proves crucial to propelling Liberals to second term, CBC News, October 22, 2019
- B.C. election results full of surprises with Tory gains, NDP losses and Greens staying put, Global News, October 22, 2019
- Liberals, Bloc Quebecois split Quebec vote as NDP nearly wiped out, BNN Bloomberg, October 22, 2019
- What the NDP's drop in seats means for the party, Global News, October 22, 2019
- Can the NDP take credit for improving pandemic benefits? CTV News, August 18, 2021
- NDP projected to make minor gains in Jagmeet Singh's 2nd election as party leader, CBC News, September 21. 2021
- NDPer Malcolm Allen concedes, Liberal Lisa Hepfner becomes new Hamilton Mountain MP, CBC News, September 22, 2021
- Liberals flip St. John's East, as Conservatives look to claim Coast of Bays-Central-Notre Dame, CBC News, September 21, 2021
- Meet the new parliament, same as the old parliament, Global News, September 21, 2021
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to New Democratic Party.|
- Official website
- New Democratic Party - Canadian Political Parties and Political Interest Groups - Web Archive created by the University of Toronto Libraries
- Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and New Democratic Party fonds at Library and Archives Canada