Murder on the Orient Express

Murder on the Orient Express is a work of detective fiction by English writer Agatha Christie featuring the Belgian detective Hercule Poirot. It was first published in the United Kingdom by the Collins Crime Club on 1 January 1934. In the United States, it was published on 28 February 1934,[1][2] under the title of Murder in the Calais Coach, by Dodd, Mead and Company.[3][4] The UK edition retailed at seven shillings and sixpence (7/6)[5] and the US edition at $2.[4]

Murder on the Orient Express
Murder on the Orient Express First Edition Cover 1934.jpg
Dust-jacket illustration of the first UK edition
AuthorAgatha Christie
Cover artistUnknown
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreCrime novel
PublisherCollins Crime Club
Publication date
1 January 1934
Media typePrint (hardback & paperback)
Pages256 (first edition, hardcover)
Preceded byThe Hound of Death 
Followed byUnfinished Portrait 

The elegant train of the 1930s, the Orient Express, is stopped by heavy snowfall. A murder is discovered, and Poirot's trip home to London from the Middle East is interrupted to solve the case.

The US title of Murder in the Calais Coach was used to avoid confusion with the 1932 Graham Greene novel Stamboul Train, which had been published in the United States as Orient Express.[6]

PlotEdit

Wagon Constantinople Calaisa
Dining Car

 Corridor
 
4. Masterman
5. Foscarelli
6. MacQueen
7.
8. Schmidt
9.
10. Ohlsson
11. Debenham
1. Poirot
2. Ratchett
3. Hubbard
12. H. Andrenyi
13. R. Andrenyi
14. Dragomiroff
15. Arbuthnot
16. Hardman
Michel
Pullman Coach
  •   First class compartments (1 person)
  •   Second class compartments (2 people)
  •   Compartment with dead body (1 person)
 
The railway station passenger terminal in Vinkovci, Croatia

After taking the Taurus Express from Aleppo to Istanbul, private detective Hercule Poirot arrives at the Tokatlian Hotel, where he receives a telegram prompting him to return to London. He instructs the concierge to book him a first-class compartment on the Simplon-route Orient Express service leaving that night. Although the train is fully booked, Poirot obtains a second-class berth through the intervention of friend, fellow Belgian, and passenger Monsieur Bouc, director of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits railway. Other passengers include opinionated American matron Caroline Hubbard; Russian Princess Natalia Dragomiroff and her German maid Hildegarde Schmidt; Swedish missionary Greta Ohlsson; vulgar American businessman Samuel Ratchett, with his secretary/translator Hector McQueen, and his English butler Edward Henry Masterman; Hungarian Count Rudolph Andrenyi and his wife Elena; talkative Italian-American car salesman Antonio Foscarelli; English Colonel John Arbuthnot; American salesman Cyrus B. Hardman; English governess Mary Debenham; and Greek medical doctor Stavros Constantine.

Ratchett recognizes Poirot and asks for his protection as the former has been receiving death threats. Poirot, repulsed by Ratchett, refuses the case. Bouc has taken the last first-class cabin, but arranges to be moved to a separate coach and gives Poirot his space. The first night, Poirot observes some strange occurrences. Early in the morning, he is awakened by a cry from Ratchett's compartment next door. Pierre Michel, the train's conductor, knocks on Ratchett's door, but a voice from inside responds, "Ce n'est rien. Je me suis trompé" (It is nothing. I was mistaken). Mrs. Hubbard rings her bell and tells Michel a man passed through her room. When Poirot rings his bell for water, Michel informs him that the train is stuck in a snowbank between Vinkovci and Brod before he hears a loud thump next door. He observes a woman in a red kimono going towards the washroom, then goes to sleep.

The next morning, with the train still stopped, Bouc informs Poirot that Ratchett has been murdered and the murderer is still aboard, having no way to escape in the snow. As there are no police onboard, Poirot takes up the case. With help from Dr. Constantine, who was in the same coach as Bouc and not a suspect, Poirot examines Ratchett's body and compartment, discovering the following: the body has 12 stab wounds, the window had been left open, a handkerchief with the initial "H", a pipe cleaner, a flat match different from the ones Ratchett used, and a charred piece of paper with the name "Armstrong" on it.

The piece of paper helps Poirot work out the murderer's motive. Many years earlier, American gangster Lanfranco Cassetti kidnapped three-year-old Daisy Armstrong. Cassetti collected a significant ransom from the wealthy Armstrong family weeks later, then revealed he had killed the child within one hour of kidnapping her. Sonia Armstrong, Daisy's mother, who was pregnant with her second child upon hearing the news, went into premature labor and died, as did the baby. Her grieving husband, Colonel Armstrong, shot himself, and Daisy's French Nursemaid, Susanne, was accused of aiding Cassetti and committed suicide, only to be found innocent afterwards. Cassetti escaped justice through corruption and legal technicalities and fled the country. Poirot concludes that "Ratchett" was actually Cassetti. The voice in Cassetti's compartment could not have been the American's since the gangster did not speak any other languages.

Poirot begins interviewing everyone on the train and discovers McQueen is directly involved as he knows about the Armstrong note and believed it was destroyed, and that Mrs. Hubbard believes the murderer was in her cabin. While the passengers all provide suitable alibis for each other, Poirot notes that some of them observed the woman in the red kimono walking down the hallway on the night of the murder. However, no one admits to owning a red kimono. Mrs. Hubbard had Ohlsson lock the communicating door between her compartment and Cassetti's, which invalidates her story of the man in her compartment, and Schmidt bumped into a stranger wearing a Wagons-Lits uniform. Miss Debenham inadvertently reveals she has been in America, contrary to her earlier statements, and Miss Ohlsson shows much emotion when the subject of Daisy is brought up, causing further suspicion. Arbuthnot remarks that Cassetti should have been found guilty in a second trial instead of murdered, and Hardman admits he is actually a MacNeil Agency detective who was asked to watch out for an assassin that was stalking Cassetti.

While inspecting the passengers' luggage, Poirot is surprised to find the label on Countess Andrenyi's luggage is wet and that her passport is damaged, Schmidt's bag contains the uniform in question, and Poirot's own luggage contains the red kimono, recently hidden there. Mrs. Hubbard herself finds the murder weapon hidden in her sponge bag. Poirot meets with Dr. Constantine and Bouc to review the case and develop a list of questions. With these and the evidence in mind, Poirot thinks about the case, going into a trance-like state. When he surfaces from it, he deduces the solution.

He calls in the suspects and reveals their true identities and that they were all connected to the Armstrong tragedy in some way, gathering them in the dining car for the second solution. Countess Andrenyi (nee Goldenberg) is Helena, Daisy's aunt, who was a child herself at the time of the tragedy. Rudolph, her loving husband, smudged her luggage label and obscured her name to conceal her identity. Debenham was Helena and Daisy's governess; Foscarelli was the Armstrongs' chauffeur, at one time also a suspect in the kidnapping; Masterman was Col. Armstrong's valet; Michel is Susanne's father and the person who procured the false second uniform; Mrs. Hubbard is actually famous actress Linda Goldenberg (stage name Arden), Daisy's grandmother and Sonia and Helena's mother; Schmidt was the Armstrongs' cook; and Ohlsson was Daisy's nurse. Princess Dragomiroff, in reality Sonia's godmother, claims the monogrammed handkerchief, saying that her forename is Natalia and the "H" is actually a Cyrillic letter "N". Arbuthnot is there on Debenham's behalf and his own, as he was a personal friend of Colonel Armstrong. Hardman admits he was in love with Susanne, and McQueen, who had feelings for Sonia, was the son of the lawyer who represented the Armstrongs.

Poirot propounds two possible solutions. The first is that a stranger boarded the train when it stopped at Vinkovci, killed Cassetti, and disembarked at great risk through the snow. The second is that all the clues except the handkerchief and pipe cleaner were planted and that Michel and all the passengers in the coach except Helena stabbed Cassetti, acting as their own jury. Arden admits that the second solution is correct, but offers to take responsibility as she was the mastermind. In response, Bouc and Dr. Constantine accept the first solution and relay this to the police to protect the passengers and Michel and avert scandal as Poirot retires from the case.

CharactersEdit

  • Hercule Poirot – World-famous sleuth from Belgium.
  • Bouc – Poirot's friend and a director of the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits.
  • Dr. Stavros Constantine - a Greek physician, who after the murder, determines Ratchett's time of death.
  • Mrs. Caroline Hubbard - Grandmother of Daisy Armstrong who is later revealed to be actress Linda Arden.
  • Mary Debenham – A governess returning from Baghdad who was formerly Daisy Armstrong's governess.
  • Colonel John Arbuthnot – Colonel Armstrong's best friend who is in love with Mary Debenham.
  • Princess Natalia Dragomiroff – a Russian princess who is ultimately revealed to be Sonia Armstrong's godmother.
  • Hector McQueen – Ratchett's personal secretary and translator, whose father was the lawyer for the Armstrong family.
  • Samuel Ratchett – AKA Cassetti, kidnapper and murderer of three-year-old Daisy Armstrong.
  • Countess Elena Andrenyi – the sister of Sonia Armstrong, notable as the only one of the 12 passengers who did not take part in the murder.[note 1]
  • Count Rudolph Andrenyi – husband of Countess Andrenyi, who took his wife's place as the twelfth murderer.
  • Cyrus Hardman – an American who was in love with Daisy's French nurse, who committed suicide after Daisy was killed.
  • Antonio Foscarelli – the Armstrongs' former chauffeur who had loved little Daisy.
  • Greta Ohlsson – Daisy Armstrong's former nurse.
  • Hildegarde Schmidt – Princess Dragomiroff's maid, formerly the Armstrongs' cook
  • Edward Henry Masterman – Ratchett's valet, a remote and haughty man, who was Col. Armstrong's batman in the war and valet in New York.
  • Pierre Michel – the train conductor and the father of Daisy Armstrong's nursery maid, who committed suicide after the murder.

ReceptionEdit

The Times Literary Supplement of 11 January 1934 outlined the plot and concluded that "The little grey cells solve once more the seemingly insoluble. Mrs Christie makes an improbable tale very real, and keeps her readers enthralled and guessing to the end."[7]

In The New York Times Book Review of 4 March 1934, Isaac Anderson wrote, "The great Belgian detective's guesses are more than shrewd; they are positively miraculous. Although both the murder plot and the solution verge upon the impossible, Agatha Christie has contrived to make them appear quite convincing for the time being, and what more than that can a mystery addict desire?"[8]

The reviewer in The Guardian of 12 January 1934 noted that the murder would have been "perfect" (i.e. a perfect crime) had Poirot not been on the train and also overheard a conversation between Miss Debenham and Colonel Arbuthnot before he boarded; however, "The 'little grey cells' worked admirably, and the solution surprised their owner as much as it may well surprise the reader, for the secret is well kept and the manner of the telling is in Mrs Christie's usual admirable manner."[9]

Robert Barnard said that this novel was "The best of the railway stories. The Orient Express, snowed up in Yugoslavia, provides the ideal 'closed' set-up for a classic-style exercise in detection, as well as an excuse for an international cast-list. Contains my favourite line in all Christie: 'Poor creature, she's a Swede.' Impeccably clued, with a clever use of the Cyrillic script (cf. The Double Clue). The solution raised the ire of Raymond Chandler, but won't bother anyone who doesn't insist his detective fiction mirror real-life crime."[10] The reference is to Chandler's criticism of Christie in his essay The Simple Art of Murder. In 1995 the novel was included in Mystery Writers of America's The Top 100 Mystery Novels of All Time list. In December 2014, the novel was included in Entertainment Weekly's list of the Nine Great Christie Novels.[11]

References and allusionsEdit

The kidnapping and murder of Charles Lindbergh's son in 1932 inspired that element in Christie's novel two years later. The novel used many elements of the real life case: a young child, firstborn of the family, was kidnapped for ransom directly from the crib, the parents were famous, the father was a well known pilot and the mother pregnant, and the ransom was paid but the child found dead soon after. An innocent, but perhaps loose-lipped, maid employed by Lindbergh's parents was suspected of involvement in the crime. After being harshly interrogated by police, she committed suicide.[12]

Two less notable events helped inspire her novel: Agatha Christie's first journey on the Orient Express in late 1928, and a blizzard near Cherkeskoy, Turkey, that marooned an Orient Express for six days just a few months later, in February 1929.[12]

Flooding from rainfall that washed sections of track away in December 1931 halted Christie's return from her husband's archaeological dig at Nineveh aboard an Orient Express for 24 hours. Her authorised biography details that event in a complete quotation of a letter to her husband, which describes several passengers on her train who inspired both the plot and the characters in her novel, including an American, Mrs. Hilton, who inspired Mrs. Hubbard.[13]

AdaptationsEdit

RadioEdit

John Moffatt starred as Poirot in a five-part BBC Radio 4 adaptation by Michael Bakewell, directed by Enyd Williams, and originally broadcast from 28 December 1992 – 1 January 1993. André Maranne appeared as Bouc, Joss Ackland as Ratchett/Cassetti, Sylvia Syms as Mrs Hubbard, Siân Phillips as Princess Dragomiroff, Francesca Annis as Mary Debenham, and Peter Polycarpou as Dr Constantine.

In 2017, the streaming service Audible released another radio adaptation that featured Tom Conti as the voice of Poirot. The voice cast also featured Sophie Okonedo as Mary Debenham, Eddie Marsan as Ratchett/Cassetti, and narration from Art Malik.[14]

The Soviet radio play was released in 1966. The voice cast featured Vsevolod Yakut as Poirot, Rostislav Plyatt as Colonel Arbuthnot, Maria Babanova as Hubbard, Oleg Yefremov as Hector McQueen, Leonid Kanevsky as Antonio Foscarelli, Angelina Stepanova as Princess Dragomiroff and Alexander Lazarev as Hardman.[15]

FilmEdit

Murder on the Orient Express (1974)

The book was made into a 1974 movie directed by Sidney Lumet and produced by John Brabourne and Richard B. Goodwin; it was a critical and commercial hit. The film starred Albert Finney as Poirot, Martin Balsam as Signor Bianchi, George Coulouris as Dr Constantine, and Richard Widmark as Ratchett/Cassetti, with the remaining cast of suspects including Sean Connery (Arbuthnot), Lauren Bacall (Mrs Hubbard), Anthony Perkins (McQueen), John Gielgud (Beddoes), Michael York (Count Andrenyi), Jean-Pierre Cassel (Pierre Michel), Jacqueline Bisset (Countess Andrenyi), Wendy Hiller (Princess Dragomiroff), Vanessa Redgrave (Mary Debenham), Rachel Roberts (Hildegarde Schmidt), Colin Blakely (Hardman), Denis Quilley (Foscarelli), and Ingrid Bergman, who won the 1974 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Greta Ohlsson. Only minor changes were made for the film: Masterman was renamed Beddoes, the dead maid was named Paulette instead of Susanne, Helena Goldenberg became Helena Grünwald (which is German for "Greenwood"), Antonio Foscarelli became Gino Foscarelli, Caroline Martha Hubbard became Harriet Belinda Hubbard, and the train line's Belgian/Flemish director, Monsieur Bouc, became instead an Italian director, Signor Bianchi.

Murder on the Orient Express (2017)

On 16 June 2015, 20th Century Fox hired Kenneth Branagh to direct & star as Poirot in another film adaptation of the story,[16] which was released on 3 November 2017.[17] On 29 September 2016, the studio issued a press release announcing much of the cast, including Johnny Depp as Ratchett, Michelle Pfeiffer as Mrs Hubbard, Penélope Cruz as Pilar Estravados (a Spanish version of Greta Ohlsson, the name coming from a character in Hercule Poirot's Christmas),[18] Judi Dench as Princess Dragomiroff, Derek Jacobi as Masterman, Leslie Odom Jr. as Dr Arbuthnot, Daisy Ridley as Mary Debenham, Lucy Boynton as Countess Andrenyi, Tom Bateman as Monsieur Bouc,[19] Manuel Garcia-Rulfo as Biniamino Marquez (a Cuban version of Antonio Foscarelli),[20] Josh Gad as Hector MacQueen,[21] Marwan Kenzari as Pierre Michel,[22] Sergei Polunin as Count Andrenyi,[23][24] Willem Dafoe as Gerhard Hardman,[25] and Olivia Colman as Hildegarde Schmidt.[26] The character of Col. Arbuthnot is combined with Dr. Constantine to create Dr Arbuthnot, a sniper who served under Col. Armstrong in the war & had his medical school paid for by Armstrong; & Monsieur Bouc is changed from the director of the line to the director's nephew. Added was a direct link for Poirot to the Armstrong kidnapping—before Sonia's death, John Armstrong wrote to Poirot for help. Also unlike the book, the kidnapping didn't take place in Long Island but in New Jersey, where the Lindbergh Kidnapping took place. Susanne Michel is switched from Pierre Michel's daughter to his sister. Cyrus Hardman poses as an Austrian scientist for part of the film. The last scene also sets up Death on the Nile as a sequel.

TelevisionEdit

German adaptation (1955)Edit

The novel was first adapted as a 1955 episode of the West German television series Die Galerie der großen Detektive. Heini Göbel [de] played the role of Poirot.

Murder on the Orient Express (2001)Edit

A thoroughly modernized and poorly received made-for-TV version starring Alfred Molina as Poirot was presented by CBS in 2001. This version co-starred Meredith Baxter as Mrs Hubbard and Leslie Caron as the Princess Dragomiroff (renamed Señora Alvarado and portrayed as the widow of a South American dictator). Poirot is portrayed as significantly younger and less eccentric than Christie's detective, and is given a subplot involving a romantic relationship with Vera Rosakoff, who is loosely based on an infrequently recurring character of the same name. The story is updated to a contemporary setting, and four of the suspects (Hildegarde Schmidt, Cyrus Hardman, Edward Masterman and Greta Ohlssohn) are deleted, as is Dr Constantine.[27]

Agatha Christie's Poirot: "Murder on the Orient Express" (2010)Edit

David Suchet reprised the role of Hercule Poirot in "Murder on the Orient Express" (2010), a 90-minute movie-length episode of the television series Agatha Christie's Poirot co-produced by ITV Studios and WGBH-TV, adapted for the screen by Stewart Harcourt. The original air date was 11 July 2010 in the United States, and it was aired on Christmas Day 2010 in the UK. The cast includes Dame Eileen Atkins as Princess Dragomiroff, Hugh Bonneville as Masterman, Jessica Chastain as Mary Debenham, Barbara Hershey as Mrs Hubbard, Toby Jones as Ratchett, and David Morrissey as Colonel Arbuthnot. The character Cyrus Hardman (the former American police officer turned private detective) has been largely amalgamated with the chauffeur Foscarelli (in as much as regards being the lover of the dead maid) and Dr Constantine (who in the novel is unrelated to the murders) becomes a co-conspirator. The main difference from the novel is the additional element of Poirot's Catholicism being brought to the forefront, and his personal and religious struggle with whether to expose the murderers or let them off the hook, as well as a much darker atmosphere of the film, in comparison with the novel.

The interior of the Orient Express was reproduced at Pinewood Studios in London, while other locations include the Freemason Hall, Nene Valley Railway, and a street in Malta (shot to represent Istanbul).[28]

Japanese TV adaptation (2015)Edit

A Japanese adaptation was broadcast over two nights in January 2015 on Fuji Television,[29] titled Orient Kyuukou Satsujin Jiken [ja], and it featured several famous actors, including Ninomiya Kazunari, Matsushima Nanako, Tamaki Hiroshi, Kichise Michiko, Nishida Toshiyuki, and Sawamura Ikki. The main character, Suguro Takeru, modeled on Hercule Poirot, was played by actor Nomura Mansai.

The first night featured a storyline true to the original text, but set in Japan in 1933. In this version, the train Orient Kyuukou ran from the western city of Shimonoseki to Tokyo, with the train stopped by a small avalanche near Sekigahara, Gifu.

The second night was an original story.

StageEdit

American playwright Ken Ludwig adapted the novel into a play, which premiered at the McCarter Theatre in Princeton, New Jersey on March 14, 2017. The production was directed by Emily Mann, and starred Allan Corduner in the role of Hercule Poirot.[30]

GamesEdit

A board game based on the novel named Orient Express was released in 1985. The point and click computer game Agatha Christie: Murder on the Orient Express was released in November 2006 for Windows and expanded on Agatha Christie's original story with a new playable central character as Hercule Poirot (voiced by David Suchet) is ill and recovering in his train compartment.

Publication historyEdit

  • 1934, Collins Crime Club (London), 1 January 1934, Hardcover, 256 pp.
  • 1934, Dodd Mead and Company (New York), 1934, Hardcover, 302 pp.
  • c.1934, Lawrence E. Spivak, Abridged edition, 126 pp.
  • 1940, Pocket Books (New York), Paperback, (Pocket number 79), 246 pp.
  • 1948, Penguin Books, Paperback, (Penguin number 689), 222 pp.
  • 1959, Fontana Books (Imprint of HarperCollins), Paperback, 192 pp.
  • 1965, Ulverscroft Large-print Edition, Hardcover, 253 pp. ISBN 0-7089-0188-3
  • 1968, Greenway edition of collected works (William Collins), Hardcover, 254 pp.
  • 1968, Greenway edition of collected works (Dodd Mead), Hardcover, 254 pp.
  • 1974, Pocket Books (New York) (with cover illustration of the cast of Sidney Lumet's movie by Allan Mardon [misspelled "Marden"]) November 1974, 34th printing, Paperback, viii, 198 p.
  • 1978, Pocket Books (New York), Paperback
  • 2006, Poirot Facsimile Edition (Facsimile of 1934 UK first edition), 4 September 2006, Hardcover, 256 pp. ISBN 0-00-723440-6
  • 2011, William Morrow (HarperCollins), Paperback, 265 pp.

The story's first true publication was the US serialisation in six instalments in the Saturday Evening Post from 30 September to 4 November 1933 (Volume 206, Numbers 14 to 19). The title was Murder in the Calais Coach, and it was illustrated by William C. Hoople.[31]

The UK serialisation appeared after book publication, appearing in three instalments in the Grand Magazine, in March, April, and May 1934 (Issues 349 to 351). This version was abridged from the book version (losing some 25% of the text), was without chapter divisions, and named the Russian princess as Dragiloff instead of Dragomiroff. Advertisements in the back pages of the UK first editions of The Listerdale Mystery, Why Didn't They Ask Evans, and Parker Pyne Investigates claimed that Murder on the Orient Express had proven to be Christie's best-selling book to date and the best-selling book published in the Collins Crime Club series.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ excluding those who were not suspects, namely Poirot, Bouc, and Dr. Constantine

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ United States, Department of the Treasury (1935). Catalog of Copyright Entries. New Series: 1934, Part 1, Volume 31. New Series. Washington D C: Copyright Office. p. 213. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  2. ^ Coignard, Jerome (28 February 1934). "Books – and Their Makers". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, New York: Everything Brooklyn Media. p. 20. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  3. ^ Cooper, John; Pyke, B A, eds. (1994). Detective Fiction – the collector's guide (2 ed.). London, England: Scolar Press. pp. 82, 86. ISBN 0-85967-991-8.
  4. ^ a b Marcum, Steve (May 2007). "American Tribute to Agatha Christie: The Classic Years 1930 - 1934". Retrieved 2 September 2018.
  5. ^ Peers, Chris; Spurrier, Ralph; Sturgeon, Jamie (March 1999). Collins Crime Club – A checklist of First Editions (2 ed.). North Lincolnshire, England: Dragonby Press. p. 14.
  6. ^ Wagstaff, Vanessa; Poole, Stephen, eds. (2004). Agatha Christie: A Readers Companion. London, England: Aurum Press Ltd. p. 88. ISBN 1-84513-015-4.
  7. ^ "Murder on the Orient Express (review)". The Times Literary Supplement. London, England: News UK. 11 January 1934. p. 29.
  8. ^ Anderson, Isaac (4 March 1934). "Murder on the Orient Express (review)". The New York Times Book Review. New York City: New York Times Company. p. 11.
  9. ^ "Murder on the Orient Express (review)". The Guardian. London, England: Guardian Media Group. 12 January 1934. p. 5.
  10. ^ Barnard, Robert (1990). A Talent to Deceive – an appreciation of Agatha Christie. New York City: Fontana Books. pp. 199–200. ISBN 0-00-637474-3.
  11. ^ "Binge! Agatha Christie: Nine Great Christie Novels". Entertainment Weekly (1343–44). New York City: Meredith Corporation. 26 December 2014. pp. 32–33.
  12. ^ a b Sanders, Dennis; Lovallo, Len (1984). The Agatha Christie Companion. New York City: Delacorte Press. pp. 105–08. ISBN 978-0425118450.
  13. ^ Morgan, Janet (1984). Agatha Christie, A Biography. New York City: HarperCollins. pp. 201–04. ISBN 0-00-216330-6.
  14. ^ "Agatha Christie's Poirot: Tom Conti, Sophie Okonedo, Paterson Joseph, Rula Lenska & Art Malik star in a new adaption of Murder on the Orient Express". An Audible Original Drama. 21 October 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2018 – via Seen It.
  15. ^ Убийство в Восточном экспрессе
  16. ^ Geier, Thom (16 June 2015). "Kenneth Branagh in Talks to Direct Agatha Christie's 'Murder on the Orient Express' (Exclusive)". TheWrap. Los Angeles, California: The Wrap News Inc. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  17. ^ "The Full 'Murder on the Orient Express' Cast Includes Johnny Depp, Daisy Ridley, Michelle Pfeiffer, More (UPDATE)". Moviefone. 29 September 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  18. ^ Busch, Anita; Fleming, Mike Jr (11 November 2016). "Penelope Cruz Joins 'Murder On The Orient Express'". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  19. ^ Fleming, Jr, Mike (29 September 2016). "Johnny Depp To Star in 'Murder On The Orient Express' At Fox'". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  20. ^ N'Duka, Amanda (25 January 2017). "Manuel Garcia-Rulfo Boards 'Murder On The Orient Express'; Vivica A Fox Joins 'The Mafia Aint Dead'". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  21. ^ Hipes, Patrick (20 October 2016). "Josh Gad Boards Fox's 'Murder On The Orient Express'". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  22. ^ Kit, Borys (27 October 2016). "'Mummy' Actor Marwan Kenzari Joins Johnny Depp in 'Murder on the Orient Express' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  23. ^ Ritman, Alex (5 December 2016). "Ballet Star Sergei Polunin Lands Roles in 'Murder on the Orient Express,' 'Red Sparrow' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  24. ^ "Willem Dafoe is latest addition to 'Murder on the Orient Express' all-star cast". AFP Relax. 6 January 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  25. ^ Busch, Anita (5 January 2017). "Willem Dafoe Joins Ensemble Cast Of Fox's 'Murder On The Orient Express'". Deadline Hollywood. Los Angeles, California: Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Olivia Colman 'gutted' to miss Globes ceremony". BBC News. 9 January 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  27. ^ IMDb profile, imdb.com; accessed 31 January 2015.
  28. ^ "Murder on the Orient Express". AgathaChristie.com. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  29. ^ "オリエント急行殺人事件 – フジテレビ" [Orient Express Murder Case - Fuji Television]. フジテレビ. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  30. ^ Gans, Andrew (15 March 2017). "Max Von Essen, Julie Halston, and More Star in Murder on the Orient Express". Playbill.com. Brightspot. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  31. ^ "Murder in the Calais Coach". EBSCOhost. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2012.

External linksEdit