Oleg Nikolayevich Yefremov (Russian: Оле́г Никола́евич Ефре́мов, 1 October 1927, Moscow, Soviet Union – 24 May 2000, Moscow, Russia) was a Soviet/Russian actor and Moscow Art Theatre producer. He was a People's Artist of the USSR (1976) and a Hero of Socialist Labour (1987).
Oleg Nikolayevich Yefremov
1 October 1927 
|Died||24 May 2000 (aged 72)|
|Resting place||Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow|
|Alma mater||Moscow Art Theater School |
|Occupation||Actor, theater director, teacher|
|Spouse(s)||Alla Pokrovskaya |
Oleg Yefremov debuted as a film actor in the melodrama The First Echelon in 1955. Since then he was regularly acting in films, and his every appearance on screen turned to be a real event for millions of spectators. Some of his most notable roles were in the films The Alive and the Dead (1964), melodrama Three Poplars in Plyushcikha (1967), Shine, Shine, My Star (1969), comedies Aybolit-66 (1966), and Beware of the Car (1966).
In 1956, having gathered around himself students and graduates of the School-Studio, both his coevals and pupils, Oleg Yefremov organized the Studio of Young Actors (subsequently — the Moscow famous Sovremennik Theater and became its first director. Since 1970 he was an actor and a Chief Producer of the Moscow Art Theatre named after Maxim Gorky. In 1976 the actor became a Professor of Moscow Art Theatre School-Studio.
He grew up in a large communal apartment on the Arbat Street. His father served as an accountant in the Gulag system, and the future actor spent a part of his adolescence in the Vorkutlag camps, where he became closely acquainted with the criminal world.
In childhood Yefremov attended a drama club at the House of Pioneers.
From 1949 to 1956, Yefremov worked at the Central Children's Theater, where he played more than 20 roles, including Ivan ("Humpbacked Horse"), Coviel ("The Philistine in the Nobility"), Kostya Poletayev ("Pages of Life"), Alexey ( "In a good time!"). There he also made his debut as a director of the production of vaudeville "Dimka the Invisible" (1955).
In 1956, Oleg Yefremov organized the "Young Actors Studio" (later - the Moscow Theater "Sovremennik") and became the artistic director of the theater. On the stage of "Contemporary" he played in the performances "Forever Living" (Boris), "Destination" (Lyamin), "Nobody" (Vincenzo De Pretore). Among his directorial works are Five Evenings by Alexander Volodin, Eduard Rostan's Cyrano de Bergerac, Leonid Zorin's Decembrists trilogy, Alexander Svobin's Narodovoltsy, Mikhail Shatrov's Bolsheviks, Victor Rozov's Traditional Collection, Chekhov.
In 1970, Yefremov became the chief director of the Moscow Art Theater. After the division of the troupe in 1987 - the main stage director of the Moscow Art Theatre. For thirty years in the Art Theater, he has staged more than 40 performances and himself played in 14 of them. Among his works - "Dulcinea Tobosskaya" (the role of Don Luis), "Copper Grandmother" (Pushkin's role), "Duck hunting" (Zilov's role), "Party Committee Meeting" (Potapov's role), "Boris Godunov" (the title role). He staged Anton Chekhov's plays: "Ivanov" (1976), "The Seagull" (1980), "Uncle Vanya" (1985), "The Cherry Orchard" (1989), "The Three Sisters" (1997). His last, unfinished, directorial work was "Cyrano de Bergerac".
Oleg Yefremov played about 70 roles in feature and television films, the most famous of which are: The First Echelon by Mikhail Kalatozov, The Soldiers were Advancing by Leonid Trauberg, The Alive and the Dead by Alexander Stolper, Someone Is Ringing, Open the Door by Alexander Mitta, Beware of the Car by Eldar Ryazanov, Three Poplars in Plyushcikha by Tatyana Lioznova, Battalions ask for Fire by Vladimir Chebotarev and Alexander Bogolyubov.
Since 1949, Oleg Yefremov taught acting in the Moscow Art Theater School-Studio, produced several acting and director's courses, was a professor and head of the acting department.
He was one of the founders and the first secretary of the board of the Union of Theatre Workers of the Russian Federation.
Oleg Yefremov died on 24 May 2000 in Moscow. He was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery.
In popular cultureEdit
- 1955: The First Echelon (Первый эшелон) - Alexey Uzorov
- 1960: Probation (Испытательный срок)
- 1961: Mission (Командировка)
- 1964: The Alive and the Dead (Живые и мёртвые) - Captain Ivanov
- 1965: War and Peace (Война и мир) - Dolokhov
- 1965: Someone Is Ringing, Open the Door (The Girl and the Bugler) (Звонят, откройте дверь) - Dresvyannikov
- 1966: Beware of the Car (Берегись автомобиля) - Maxim Podberezovikov
- 1967: Straight Line (Прямая линия) - Colonel
- 1967: Three Poplars in Plyushcikha (Три тополя на Плющихе) - Sasha
- 1966: Aybolit-66 (Айболит-66) - doctor Aybolit
- 1968: Once More About Love (Ещё раз про любовь) - Kartsev
- 1969: King the Deer (Il re cervo) (Король-олень) - Durandarte
- 1970: Shine, Shine, My Star
- 1970: The Flight (Бег) - Colonel
- 1970: The Polynin Case (Случай с Полыниным) - Polynin
- 1971: All The King's Men (Вся королевская рать) - Adam Stanton
- 1972: Hello and Goodbye (Здравствуй и прощай) - Burov
- 1974: Moscow, My Love (Москва, любовь моя) - Doctor
- 1976: Rudin (Рудин) - Rudin
- 1976: Surgeon Mishkin's Days (Дни хирурга Мишкина, TV mini series) - Mishkin
- 1977: Open Book (Открытая книга) - Marlin
- 1977: Rudin (Рудин)
- 1978: When I Will Become a Giant (Когда я стану великаном) - school inspector
- 1979: Poem of Wings (Поэма о крыльях) - Sergey Rakhmaninov
- 1980: The Imaginary Invalid (Мнимый больной) - Argan
- 1980: Once Upon a Time Twenty Years Later (Однажды двадцать лет спустя) - Painter
- 1984: Another Man's Wife and a Husband under the Bed (Чужая жена и муж под кроватью) - Alexander Demyanovich
- 1985: Battalions Ask for Fire (Батальоны просят огня) - Colonel Gulyayev
- 1995: Shirli-Myrli (Ширли-мырли) - neighbor
Honours and awardsEdit
- USSR State Prize, three times;
- Honoured Artist of the RSFSR (1967)
- People's Artist of the RSFSR (1969)
- People's Artist of the USSR (1976)
- "Golden Mask" - prize-looking actors of the Moscow theatres (1976)
- Union TV Festival Jury Prize in Leningrad (Days of the surgeon Mishkin, 1976)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labour (30 September 1977)
- Order of Lenin (1987)
- Order of Friendship of Peoples (1993) 
- Hero of Socialist Labour (1987)
- Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 3rd class (1997)
- Prize Crystal Turandot (1997) - for valiant service to the theatre
- Russian Federation State Prize, twice
- 1997 - to maintain and develop the traditions of Russian psychological theatre in the play Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov
- 2003 (posthumous)
- Luspekaev prize for Lady Luck at the film festival Kinoshock in Anapa (1997)
- Golden Aries award (1997) - for his contribution to cinema
- Special Jury Prize of the National Theatre Award Golden Mask (1998) - for the play Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov
- Moscow Mayor's Award for a unique contribution to culture (1999)
- Олег Ефремов
- Выпускники: 1950-1959 Archived 2012-10-16 at WebCite
- Михаил Ефремов в Воронеже признался в любви к Андрею Платонову
- "Биография Олега Ефремова". RIA Novosti.
- "Олег Ефремов - биография, информация, личная жизнь". Shtuki Dryuki.
- Олег Николаевич Ефремов
- УКАЗ Президента РФ от 10.11.1993 N 1887 "О НАГРАЖДЕНИИ ОРДЕНОМ ДРУЖБЫ НАРОДОВ ЕФРЕМОВА О. Н." Archived 2015-07-04 at the Wayback Machine